Stefan Wyszynski (stĕ´fän vĬzĬn´skē), 1901–81, Polish prelate, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Ordained in 1924, he received (1929) a doctorate in sociology and canon law from the Catholic Univ. of Lublin. He was active in the resistance during World War II. In 1946 he was consecrated bishop of Lublin. Pope Pius XII made Wyszynski archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw and primate of Poland in 1949 and then a cardinal in 1953. A fierce opponent of the Polish Stalinist government's efforts to limit church influence, he was arrested and imprisoned (1953–56). In 1956, Wyszynski was restored to his functions by the new anti-Stalinist first secretary of the Communist party, Władysław Gomułka. A church-state agreement restoring religious education in state schools followed. Despite periodic setbacks, he subsequently enjoyed a considerable amount of personal and pastoral liberty. In 1962 he served as president of the Second Vatican Council.
"Wyszynski, Stefan." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 19, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/wyszynski-stefan
"Wyszynski, Stefan." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 19, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/wyszynski-stefan
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.