William the Lion
William the Lion, 1143–1214, king of Scotland (1165–1214), brother and successor of Malcolm IV. Determined to recover Northumbria (lost to England in 1157), he supported the rebellion (1173–74) of the sons of Henry II of England. The result was that he was captured by Henry, who forced him to sign the Treaty of Falaise (1174), making Scotland a feudal possession of England. Released in 1175, he immediately asked the pope to declare the Scottish church free of English domination. A quarrel with the pope delayed the decision, but, in 1188, Pope Clement III declared the church in Scotland subject only to Rome. In 1189, William was able to buy annulment of the Treaty of Falaise from Richard I of England for 10,000 marks. After the succession (1199) of King John in England, William once more demanded the restoration of Northumbria but was finally forced (1209) by show of arms to abandon the claim. William put down several revolts within Scotland and furthered somewhat the process of feudalization in the kingdom. His alliance (1168) with Louis VII of France began a long friendship between France and Scotland, later to be known as the Auld Alliance. He was succeeded by his son, Alexander II.
"William the Lion." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/william-lion
"William the Lion." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved November 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/william-lion
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.