Skip to main content

Santos Calderón, Juan Manuel

Juan Manuel Santos Calderón, 1951–, Colombian government official and political leader. From a politically influential family, he studied at the Univ. of Kansas, London School of Economics, Harvard, and Tufts, and worked for Colombia's coffee growers federation and at his family's newspaper. In the 1990s Santos served as foreign trade minister under President César Gaviria, held UN and Latin American trade and economic posts, and was involved in negotiations with leftist rebels. Under President Andrés Pastrana, he served as treasury minister (2000–2002). Subsquently a supporter of President Álvaro Uribe, he became Uribe's defense minister (2006–9), where he was a principle strategist against the leftist rebels and oversaw a number of successful military operations that also aggravated relations with Venezuela and Ecuador. In 2010, after Uribe failed to win the right to run for a third term, Santos was the Party of the U presidential candidate and was easily elected after a runoff. In office he agreed (2012) to negotiate with the rebels, a move that was denounced by Uribe. He was reelected in 2014 after a runoff.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Santos Calderón, Juan Manuel." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Santos Calderón, Juan Manuel." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/santos-calderon-juan-manuel

"Santos Calderón, Juan Manuel." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/santos-calderon-juan-manuel

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.