Jean-Pierre Raffarin (zhäN-pyĕr räfärăN´), 1948–, French politician. From a political family, he began his career in business and served as a spokesman for a labor minister in the late 1970s before returning to the private sector. A conservative, Raffarin turned permanently to politics in 1988 when he became president of the Poitou-Charentes regional council; shortly thereafter he was elected to the European Parliament. From 1995 to 1997 he was the minister for small business, also becoming an adviser to President Jacques Chirac. The low-key, self-effacing Raffarin was appointed interim premier after the president's reelection in May, 2002, replacing Lionel Jospin. Six weeks later, after Chirac's coalition won a landslide parliamentary victory, Raffarin became premier. He worked for government decentralization, lower taxes, limited public deficits, and aid to children and schools, and framed changes in France's pension laws (2003) that were designed to preserve the financial health of the French pension system. When voters rejected a new EU constitution in 2005, however, he resigned as premier and was succeeded by Dominique de Villepin.
"Raffarin, Jean-Pierre." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/raffarin-jean-pierre
"Raffarin, Jean-Pierre." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/raffarin-jean-pierre
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.