Viktor Orbán (vĬk´ôr ôr´bän), 1963–, Hungarian political leader. A lawyer, Orbán was (1988) one of the founders of Fidesz, a liberal democratic youth group that under his leadership (1993–2000) became a strongly conservative and nationalist anticommunist political party. Orbán was elected to the Hungarian parliament in 1990. In 1998 Fidesz won a parliamentary plurality and formed a center-right coalition government; Orbán became prime minister. He moved Hungary further toward a market-driven economy and helped facilitate its entry (1999) into NATO, but he also won a reputation as a divisive figure and strained relations with neighboring countries by passing legislation extending rights and benefits to ethnic Hungarians living there. His coalition lost power after the 2002 elections. In 2009, Orbán was again elected head of Fidesz, and he became (2010) prime minister a second time when Fidesz won a landslide victory in the parliamentary elections. His subsequent use of his majority to enshrine his party's doctrines in the constitution and entrench his supporters in the government resulted in international criticism. He avoided adopting austerity measures during recession in part by levying higher taxes on sectors of the economy dominated by foreign companies. In 2014 Orbán again led Fidesz to a landslide victory in the parliamentary elections.
"Orbán, Viktor." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 16, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/orban-viktor
"Orbán, Viktor." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/orban-viktor
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.