Ningbo or Ningpo (ning´bô´), city (1994 est. pop. 612,000), NE Zhejiang prov., SE China, at the confluence of the Yong (or Ningbo) and Yao rivers. Situated at the terminus of the E Zhejiang RR, it is an industrial center and one of China's leading seaports. It was designated an
city in 1984 in order to stimulate foreign trade and investment. Ningbo has a variety of heavy and light industries, including shipbuilding, food processing, textile mills, and the manufacture of machinery. The city's ports and economic and technological development zone are at Beilun. Ningbo is a transportation center with canal, road, and rail links, and steamer services to places such as Shanghai; a 22-mi (36-km) bridge across Hangzhou Bay N of Ningbo links the city with Jiaxing and Shanghai. Long a center of culture and religion, Ningbo has many temples and Buddhist monasteries.
The present site of Ningbo has been occupied since at least the 8th cent. AD, and tombs dating to the Three Kingdoms period (AD 220–265) have been found in the city. During the Ming dynasty Ningbo was known as Qingyuan. From 1433 to 1549 it served as the port of entry for Japanese missions to the Chinese court. The Portuguese, who had established a trading settlement there in the 16th cent., called the city Liampo. In the Opium War (1841), British forces occupied the city. The Treaty of Nanjing (1842), which ended hostilities, made Ningbo a treaty port. The city was known as Ninghsien (pinyin, Ningxian) from 1911 to 1949.
"Ningbo." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ningbo
"Ningbo." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved November 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ningbo
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.