Iuliu Maniu (yōō´lyōō mänyōō´), 1873–1951, Romanian politician, head of the Romanian National Peasants' party. Born in Transylvania, he helped to organize the Romanian national movement there before and during World War I. In 1918 he headed the Romanian provisional government. As premier (with one slight interruption) from 1928 to 1930, he enacted liberal reforms, which were soon abrogated by King Carol II. He was briefly premier again in 1932–33. Maniu opposed Carol and the dictatorship of Ion Antonescu. Denounced as a reactionary by the Communists, in 1947 he was convicted of treason and given a life sentence. He was unofficially reported to have died in prison.
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