Manh, Nong Duc
Nong Duc Manh (nông dōōk mī), 1940–, Vietnamese political leader. A member of the Tai minority and a forestry worker, Manh joined the Communist party in 1963 and studied forestry in Hanoi (1958–61) and Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg, 1966–71). In the early 1970s he headed the Bac Kan prov. forestry service and concurrently began his rise in the party, studying in its school (1974–76) and holding provincial party offices (1976–89). He became a member of the national party's central committee in 1989 and chairman of Vietnam's National Assembly in 1992. In 2001 he became general secretary of the Vietnamese Communist party. Relatively moderate, Manh advocated doi moi, the process of reform leading to economic growth, and pledged to fight corruption and speed economic liberalization. Corruption, however, continued to be a problem. He also was an unswerving party loyalist adamantly opposed to political dissent. He stepped down as party leader in 2011.
"Manh, Nong Duc." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 23, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/manh-nong-duc
"Manh, Nong Duc." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/manh-nong-duc
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.