Lucius III, d. 1185, pope (1181–85), a native of Lucca named Ubaldo Allucingoli; successor of Alexander III. He was a Cistercian with St. Bernard and was created a cardinal in 1141 by Innocent II. He was a successful diplomat under Alexander, notably in the peace negotiations (1177) with Roman Emperor Frederick I. During his reign his relations with Frederick were cool; Lucius refused to crown Henry VI, Frederick's son, and there was the perennial question of the lands of Matilda, countess of Tuscany. The pope and the emperor had a long conference at Verona in 1184 and there issued a joint decree (Ad abolendam) on the extirpation of heresies. The decree had a new stringency and detail, but death was not yet invoked as a penalty. The Waldensians were condemned at the same meeting. Lucius was succeeded by Urban III.
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