Ken Livingstone, 1945–, British politician. Elected to the Greater London Council (GLC) in 1973 as a Labour member, he became GLC leader in 1981. His use of the local office to promote leftist policies earned him the nickname "Red Ken" and was a major factor in Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's successful campaign to abolish the GLC in 1986. He was elected to Parliament as a Labour member in 1987 and became a candidate for mayor of London in 1999 after a new, Labour-controlled Parliament established an elected London mayoralty. When he was denied the Labour party nomination, Livingstone declared himself an independent candidate for the office and subsequently won the election, becoming the city's first popularly elected mayor. He was suspended (2000–2004) from the Labour party because of his maverick mayoral campaign. He was reelected in 2004, but lost his bids for a third term to Boris Johnson in 2008 and 2012. Livingstone has written If Voting Changed Anything They'd Abolish It (1987) and Livingstone's Labour (1989).
"Livingstone, Ken." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/livingstone-ken
"Livingstone, Ken." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/livingstone-ken
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.