Kaczyński, Lech Aleksander
Lech Aleksander Kaczyński (lĕkh ä´lĕksän´dĕr kächĬn´skē), 1949–2010, Polish politician, grad. Warsaw Univ. (1971), Gdańsk Univ. (Ph.D., 1979). He and his identical twin, Jarosław Aleksander Kaczyński (yärô´släf), 1949–, Ph.D. Warsaw Univ., first gained public attention as child movie actors. Both were active in the prodemocracy movement of the 1970s, were members of Solidarity, and served as advisers to Lech Wałęsa. Lech Kaczyński served in the Polish senate (1989–91) and Sejm (lower house of parliament; 1991–93). Subsequently, he was head of the supreme auditing board (1992–95), justice minister (2000–2001), and mayor of Warsaw (2002–5). A founder (2001), with his brother, of the conservative Law and Justice party and its first chairman (2001–3), he was elected president of Poland in 2005, campaigning on a socially conservative platform. He was killed in a plane crash in Smolensk, Russia. Jarosław served (1991–93, 1997–2005) in the Sejm and was minister of state (1990–92) during Wałęsa's presidency. In 2003 he succeeded his brother as chairman of the Law and Justice party, and served as prime minister from 2006–7. After his brother's death, he was an unsuccessful candidate to succeed him.
"Kaczyński, Lech Aleksander." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 23, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/kaczynski-lech-aleksander
"Kaczyński, Lech Aleksander." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/kaczynski-lech-aleksander
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.