Grace Hartigan, 1922–2008, American painter, b. Newark, N.J. Hartigan moved to Manhattan in 1945 and began painting semiabstract canvases after her introduction to the works of the abstract expressionists (see abstract expressionism) in 1949. She integrated recognizably representational images including those from the history of art and from pop culture into her abstract compositions. Hartigan's works are characterized by intense colors, broad shapes executed with loose brushwork, and a strong, heavy line. She moved to Baltimore in the 1960s and taught painting at the Maryland Institute College of Art until 2007.
See R. S. Mattison, Grace Hartigan: A Painter's World (1990); W. T. La Moy and J. P. MacCaffrey, ed., The Journals of Grace Hartigan, 1951–1955 (2009).
"Hartigan, Grace." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hartigan-grace
"Hartigan, Grace." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hartigan-grace
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.