Giovanni Gronchi (jōvän´nē grôn´kē), 1887–1978, Italian political leader. He entered parliament in 1919 as a member of the new Popular party. When Benito Mussolini seized power in 1922 and formed a coalition ministry, Gronchi became undersecretary for industry and commerce. He joined the opposition a few months later and was soon forced to retire from political life. After Mussolini's downfall, he helped to found the Christian Democratic party and served (1944–46) as minister for commerce, industry, and labor. He was later (1948–55) speaker of the chamber of deputies and served as president of Italy from 1955 to 1962.
See his autobiography (1962).
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