Four-H or 4-H, organization for boys and girls, generally from 8 to 18 years of age; some states offer programs for younger children, and there are also collegiate programs. 4-H teaches young people leadership, citizenship, and life skills through practical educational programs in animal and plant sciences, family and consumer sciences, computers and technology, environment and earth sciences, communications, community service, and other areas. 4-H programs are offered through clubs, camps, afterschool groups, and other venues. Local groups are guided by Extension agents and volunteer leaders. Each club elects its officers and plans its activities and programs. The 4-H motto is
"To make the best better"
; its pledge is
"My Head to clearer thinking, my Heart to greater loyalty, my Hands to larger service, and my Health to better living, for my club, my community, my country, and my world."
A national 4-H congress is held annually, and other national and state conferences and events are also held.
Developed between 1902 and 1919 to enable rural youth to "learn by doing," the American 4-H program is run by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, with the aid of state land-grant colleges and universities and the nonprofit National 4-H Council. Since World War II, 4-H has expanded its programs to include young people living in the nation's cities and suburbs, as well as military bases worldwide, and a third of all members now in live cities and suburbs with populations greater than 50,000. The 4-H movement also has grown to include cross-cultural exchange and training programs with similar groups in more than 80 countries. There are more than 6.5 million members in the United States.
"Four-H." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 23, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/four-h
"Four-H." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/four-h
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.