Skip to main content

Estrada, Joseph Marcelo Ejercito

Joseph Marcelo Ejercito Estrada, 1937–, Filipino actor and politician, b. Jose Marcelo Ejercito. Under the name Erap Estrada, he became a popular action-film star whose roles often cast him as a hero of the common people and defender of the downtrodden. In all, he acted in more than 100 films and produced about 75. Estrada entered politics in 1968, winning the mayorality of his hometown of San Juan, a Manila suburb, an office he held for 16 years. In 1992, as a member of the National People's Coalition, he was elected vice president of the Philippines. A populist with a large following among the poor, he ran for the presidency in 1998 and won by the largest margin in Filipino history. By 2000, however, he was facing charges of corruption for allegedly accepting millions of dollars in illegal payoffs from gambling syndicates. Estrada was impeached, but his trial in the senate was suspended (Jan., 2001), provoking a national crisis and demonstrations demanding his resignation. Estrada was stripped of his office by the supreme court; Vice President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo succeeded him. Placed under house arrest in 2001, Estrada was convicted of plunder in Sept., 2007, and received a life sentence, but the following month he was pardoned by the president. In 2010 he ran again for the presidency but lost to Benigno Aquino 3d; he was elected mayor of Manila in 2013.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Estrada, Joseph Marcelo Ejercito." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Estrada, Joseph Marcelo Ejercito." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/estrada-joseph-marcelo-ejercito

"Estrada, Joseph Marcelo Ejercito." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/estrada-joseph-marcelo-ejercito

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.