Czartoryski (chärtôrĬs´kē), Polish princely family. Although of ancient lineage, it rose to prominence only in the 17th cent., and in the 18th cent. during the reign of the Saxon kings of Poland it virtually ruled the country. Prince Michael Czartoryski, 1697–1773, was grand chancellor of Lithuania. His brother, Prince Augustus Czartoryski, d. 1782, was palatine of Polish Russia. Failing in their efforts to reform the Polish constitution, the brothers fell out with King Augustus III and, securing the support of Catherine II of Russia, succeeded in elevating their nephew, Stanislaus Poniatowski, to the Polish throne as Stanislaus II after Augustus's death. Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, 1770–1861, grandson of Michael, was a hostage at the Russian court after the failure of the Polish insurrection in 1794. There he befriended the future czar, Alexander I, who after his accession appointed Czartoryski (1803) foreign minister. He resigned in 1806 but remained a close adviser of Alexander, whom he accompanied to the Congress of Vienna and from whom he obtained the Polish constitution of 1815 after Alexander was recognized as king of Poland by the congress. Opposing the later Polish policy of Alexander and Nicholas I, Czartoryski took part in the insurrection of 1830 and headed (1830–31) the provisional government. When it fell, he emigrated to Paris, where until his death he was the leader of the Polish aristocratic party. He was (1803–23) curator of the university at Vilnius and greatly improved the Polish school system.
"Czartoryski." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/czartoryski
"Czartoryski." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/czartoryski
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.