Chang Hsüeh-liang or Zhang Xueliang (jäng´ shüĕ´-lyäng´), 1898–2001, Chinese warlord, son of Chang Tso-lin. On the death (1928) of his father, he succeeded as military governor of Manchuria. He was then known as Chang Hsiao-liang but later changed his name. Chang supported Chiang Kai-shek against a rebellious northern army in 1929–30 and was made vice commander in chief of all Chinese forces and a member of the central political council. Ousted (1931) by the Japanese from Manchuria, he suffered a loss of prestige. In 1936, with the help of Chinese Communists, he had Chiang kidnapped at Xi'an, to compel cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communists and to force a declaration of war against Japan. Chiang Kai-shek was released unconditionally a few weeks later. Chang, who then surrendered to Chiang, was tried and sentenced for his part in the affair; he was pardoned but kept in custody until 1962. He was taken to Taiwan when the Nationalist regime fled there in 1949.
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