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vertebra

vertebra In the axial skeleton of vertebrates, one of a series of bony segments formed at the skeletagenous septum and myoseptum junction which replace the notochord, forming the vertebral column (or spinal column or backbone), which encases and so protects the spinal cord. Vertebrae differentiate into five types from anterior to posterior: cervical; thoracic; lumbar; sacral; and caudal. Cervical vertebrae facilitate the mobility of the head. The first two vertebrae of the vertebral column, the atlas and axis, are highly specialized cervical vertebrae, the former articulating with the occipital region of the cranium. The thoracic vertebrae articulate with ribs that fuse with the sternum. Lumbar vertebrae are generally larger, with abbreviated ribs fused to the centrum and supporting the posterior coelomic musculature. Sacral vertebrae fuse with the pelvis, allowing the transfer of force to the appendicular skeleton. Caudal vertebrae are smaller and less specialized, forming the tail of the organism. Six anatomical features are usually recognizable in vertebrae: the centrum is a solid cylinder which surrounds and often replaces the notochord, forming the central body of the vertebra; the neural arch forms a dorsal ring surrounding the spinal cord; a hemal arch grows ventrally on post-anal vertebrae, enclosing blood vessels; neural and hemal spines are anterior/posterior-oriented blades of bone that project dorsally and ventrally respectively; apophyses are bilaterally paired projections to which musculature is usually attached, including prezygapophyses and postzygapophyses, which occur on the anterior and posterior ends of a vertebra respectively and articulate with zygapophyses of adjacent vertebrae; transverse processes are bilaterally paired lateral projections at each side of the neural arch with which the rib articulates.

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"vertebra." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"vertebra." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/vertebra-0

"vertebra." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/vertebra-0

vertebra

vertebra In the axial skeleton of vertebrates, one of a series of bony segments which replace the notochord, forming the vertebral column (or spinal column or backbone), which encases and so protects the spinal cord. Vertebrae differentiate into five types from anterior to posterior: cervical; thoracic; lumbar; sacral; and caudal. Cervical vertebrae facilitate the mobility of the head. The first two vertebrae of the vertebral column, the atlas and axis, are highly specialized cervical vertebrae, the former articulating with the occipital region of the cranium. The thoracic vertebrae articulate with the ribs that fuse with the sternum. Lumbar vertebrae are generally larger, with abbreviated ribs fused to the centrum and supporting the posterior coelomic musculature. Sacral vertebrae fuse with the pelvis, allowing the transfer of force to the appendicular skeleton. Caudal vertebrae are smaller and less specialized, forming the tail of the organism. Six anatomical features are usually recognizable in vertebrae: the centrum is a solid cylinder which surrounds and often replaces the notochord, forming the central body of the vertebra; the neural arch forms a dorsal ring surrounding the spinal cord; a hemal arch grows ventrally on post-anal vertebrae, enclosing blood vessels; neural and hemal spines are anterior-posterior-oriented blades of bone that project dorsally and ventrally respectively; apophyses are bilaterally paired projections to which musculature is usually attached, including prezygapophyses and postzygapophyses, which occur on the anterior and posterior ends of a vertebra respectively and articulate with zygapophyses of adjacent vertebrae; transverse processes are bilaterally paired lateral projections at each side of the neural arch with which the rib articulates.

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"vertebra." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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vertebra

vertebra Any of the bones that make up the vertebral column. In mammals each vertebra typically consists of a main body, or centrum, from which arises a neural arch through which the spinal cord passes, and transverse processes projecting from the side. There are five groups of vertebrae, specialized for various functions and varying in number with the species. In humans, for example, there are 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, 5 fused sacral vertebrae, and 5 fused caudal vertebrae (forming the coccyx).

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"vertebra." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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vertebra

vertebra One of the bones making up the spine (backbone), or vertebral column. Each vertebra consists of a large solid body from the top of which wing-like processes project to either side. It has a hollow centre through which the spinal cord passes. The human backbone consists of 26 vertebrae (the five sacral and four vertebrae of the coccyx fuse together to form two solid bones), which are held together by ligaments and intervertebral discs.

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"vertebra." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"vertebra." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vertebra

"vertebra." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vertebra

vertebra

vertebra (ver-tib-ră) n. (pl. vertebrae) one of the 33 bones of which the backbone is composed. Each vertebra typically consists of a body, from the back of which arises an arch of bone (the vertebral or neural arch) enclosing a cavity through which the spinal cord passes. Individual vertebrae are bound together by ligaments and intervertebral discs.
vertebral (ver-tib-răl) adj.

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"vertebra." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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vertebra

ver·te·bra / ˈvərtəbrə/ • n. (pl. -brae / -ˌbrē; -ˌbrā/ ) each of the series of small bones forming the backbone, having several projections for articulation and muscle attachment, and a hole through which the spinal cord passes. DERIVATIVES: ver·te·bral / -brəl; vərˈtē-/ adj.

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"vertebra." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"vertebra." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/vertebra-0

"vertebra." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/vertebra-0

vertebra

vertebra, pl. -ae joint of the spinal column. XVII. — L. vertebra, f. vertere turn; prop. pivot of bone.
So vertebrate (-ATE2) XIX. — L.

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"vertebra." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"vertebra." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/vertebra-1

vertebra

vertebraairer, bearer, carer, Clara, darer, declarer, Demerara, Éire, habanera, Halmahera, parer, Perak, primavera, repairer, Rivera, Riviera, Sarah, scarer, sharer, snarer, sparer, squarer, starer, swearer, tearer, wearer •cause célèbre • torch-bearer •swordbearer • pallbearer • wayfarer •seafarer • capoeira • Phaedra •sacra, simulacra •Libra, vers libre •ex cathedra •chypre, Yprespalaestra (US palestra) • urethra •joie de vivre •mirror, sirrah •Coimbra • Middlesbrough • Indra •Sintra •aspidistra, sistra •algebra • orchestra • vertebra •Beira, Fujairah, Hegira, Lyra, Myra, naira, palmyra, spirogyra •Hydra • Lycra •begorra, Gomorrah, horror •double entendre • genre • amour propre • Le Nôtre • contra •Cosa Nostra, rostra

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"vertebra." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"vertebra." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/vertebra