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Bast

BAST

Inviolable sanctuaries in Iran used to seek protection from political or religious persecution.

Bast means sanctuary or asylum. Mosques, holy shrines, and foreign embassy compounds have most frequently been used as bast. Although the period of the Constitutional Revolution (19051911) is when the most famous bast were taken, instances existed in early Islamic Iran. In April 1905, proconstitutionalist merchants, bankers, and retailers took bast at the Shah Abd al-Azim shrine in Rayy. The most celebrated bast in Iranian history took place in July 1906, when between twelve thousand and sixteen thousand Tehrani demonstrators took bast at the British legation in Tehran, while about one thousand clergymen left the capital in protest for Qom. The bast at the British compound was instrumental in the granting of a constitution, and the creation of a national assembly by the monarch, Mozaffar al-Din Qajar. In turn, the anticonstitutionalist cleric Shaykh Fazlollah Nuri took bast at the Shah Abd al-Azim shrine with some followers for ninety days, to protest the granting of the constitution. At times, the inviolability of bast was breached, when for instance Sayyid Jamal al-Din Asadabadi was expelled from the Shah Abd al-Azim shrine during the reign of Naser al-Din Shah. After the constitutionalist period, the majles (national assembly) was also considered a bast. Mohammad Mossadegh took refuge there in 1953.

see also constitutional revolution; mossadegh, mohammad; mozaffar al-din qajar; naser al-din shah; nuri, fazlollah.


Bibliography

Algar, Hamid. Religion and State in Iran, 17851906: The Role of the Ulama in the Qajar Period. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

Browne, Edward G. The Persian Revolution of 19051909. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1910.

Neguin Yavari

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"Bast." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Apr. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Bast." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 27, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bast

"Bast." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved April 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bast

Bast (in Egyptian religion)

Bast (băst), ancient Egyptian cat goddess. At first a goddess of the home, she later became known as a goddess of war. The center of her cult was at Bubastis. Her name also appears as Ubast.

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"Bast (in Egyptian religion)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Apr. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Bast (in Egyptian religion)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bast-egyptian-religion

bast

bast / bast/ • n. (also bast fiber) fibrous material from the phloem of a plant, used as fiber in matting, cord, etc.

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"bast." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Apr. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"bast." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 27, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bast-0

"bast." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved April 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bast-0

Bast

Bast (Arab., ‘expand’, cf. Qur'ān 2. 245). In Sūfī Islam, a technical term describing a state of exalted joy.

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"Bast." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Apr. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Bast." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved April 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bast

bast

bast inner bark of the lime. OE. bæst, corr. to (M)Du., (O)HG., ON. bast :- Gmc. *bastaz,-am, of unkn. orig.

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"bast." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Apr. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"bast." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 27, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bast-1

"bast." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved April 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bast-1

bast

bast An old name for phloem.

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"bast." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Apr. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"bast." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 27, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bast-0

"bast." A Dictionary of Biology. . Retrieved April 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bast-0

bast (in botany)

bast: see bark.

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"bast (in botany)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Apr. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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bast

bast See RAFFIA.

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"bast." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Apr. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"bast." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 27, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bast

"bast." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved April 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bast

bast

bast •bast • cineaste • encomiast •symposiast • enthusiast • bombast •oblast • chloroplast • iconoclast •gymnast • pederast • fantast

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"bast." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Apr. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"bast." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 27, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bast

"bast." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved April 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bast