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graft

graft1 / graft/ • n. 1. Horticulture a shoot or scion inserted into a slit of stock, from which it receives sap. ∎  an instance of inserting a shoot or scion in this way. 2. Med. a piece of living tissue that is transplanted surgically. ∎  a surgical operation in which tissue is transplanted. • v. [tr.] 1. Horticulture insert (a scion) as a graft: it was common to graft different varieties onto a single tree trunk. ∎  insert a graft on (a stock). 2. Med. transplant (living tissue) as a graft: they can graft a new hand onto the arm. ∎ fig. insert or fix (something) permanently to something else, typically in a way considered inappropriate: western-style government could not easily be grafted onto a profoundly different country. graft2 • n. practices, esp. bribery, used to secure illicit gains in politics or business; corruption: sweeping measures to curb official graft. ∎  such gains: government officials grow fat off bribes and graft. • v. [intr.] make money by shady or dishonest means. DERIVATIVES: graft·er n. graft3 Brit., inf. • n. hard work: turning those dreams into reality was sheer hard graft. • v. [intr.] work hard: I need people prepared to go out and graft. DERIVATIVES: graft·er n.

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"graft." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"graft." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 27, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/graft-0

"graft." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved June 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/graft-0

grafting

grafting, horticultural practice of uniting parts of two plants so that they grow as one. The scion, or cion, the part grafted onto the stock or rooted part, may be a single bud, as in budding, or a cutting that has several buds. The stock may be a whole mature plant, such as an apple tree, or it may be a root (usually of a seedling). The most important reason for grafting is to propagate hybrid plants that do not bear seeds, or plants that do not grow true from seed. It is also used in dwarfing and in tree surgery, to increase the productivity of fruit trees by adding to the number of buds, to adapt a plant to an unfamiliar soil or climate by using the roots of another plant which thrives in that environment, and to combat diseases and pests (e.g., the phylloxera) by using a resistant stock. Grafting does not produce new varieties, since both stock and scion retain their characteristics. Grafting, which was employed in Roman times, is used extensively by nurserymen and other horticulturists. In general, only closely related plants can be grafted successfully. As a rule, the process is begun when the scion is dormant and the stock is just resuming growth. There are many methods of grafting, all of which depend on the closest possible uniting of the cambium layers of both scion and stock.

See R. J. Garner, The Grafter's Handbook (3d ed. 1968).

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"grafting." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"grafting." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 27, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/grafting

"grafting." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/grafting

graft

graft An isolated portion of living tissue that is joined to another tissue, either in the same or a different organism, the consequent growth resulting in fusion of the tissues. (The word is also used for the process of joining the tissues.)

Grafting of plant tissues is a horticultural practice used to propagate plants, especially certain bushes and fruit trees, artificially. A shoot or bud of the desired variety (the scion) is grafted onto a rootstock of either a common or a wild related species (the stock). The scion retains its desirable characteristics (e.g. flower form or fruit yield) and supplies the stock with food made by photosynthesis. The stock supplies the scion with water and mineral salts and affects only the size and vigour of the scion.

Animal and human grafts are used to replace faulty or damaged parts of the body. An autograft is taken from one part of the body and transferred to another part of the same individual, e.g. a skin graft used for severe burns. An allograft (homograft) is taken from one individual (the donor) and implanted in another of the same species (the recipient), the process being known as transplantation, e.g. a heart or kidney transplant. In such cases the graft may be regarded by the body as foreign (a state of incompatibility): an immune response follows and the graft is rejected (see also histocompatibility).

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"graft." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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graft

graft
1. (noun) A small piece of tissue implanted into an intact organism.

2. (verb) To transfer a part of an organism from its normal position to another position on the same organism (autograft), or to a different organism of the same species (homograft), or an organism of a different species (heterograft). The source of the part that is grafted is called the donor (in animals) or the scion (in plants) and the organism to which it is united is called the host or recipient (in animals) or the stock (in plants). A graft hybrid is an organism made up of two genetically distinct tissues, owing to the fusion of host or scion and donor or stock after grafting. In cultivation a stem from one plant (the scion) is fused with a rooted portion of another (the stock) to form a single plant. Most fruit trees are produced by grafting, the type of fruit being determined by the scion, but the size of the tree by the stock.

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"graft." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"graft." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 27, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/graft

"graft." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved June 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/graft

graft

graft
1. (noun) A small piece of tissue implanted into an intact organism.

2. (verb) To transfer a part of an organism from its normal position to another position on the same organism (autograft), or to a different organism of the same species (homograft), or an organism of a different species (heterograft). The source of the part that is grafted is called the scion and the organism to which it is united is called the stock. A graft hybrid is an organism made up of two genetically distinct tissues resulting from the fusion of scion and stock after grafting. In cultivation, a stem from the plant (the scion) is fused with a rooted portion of another (the stock) to form a single plant. Most fruit trees are produced by grafting, the type of fruit being determined by the scion, but the size of the tree by the stock.

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"graft." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"graft." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 27, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/graft-0

"graft." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved June 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/graft-0

Graft

GRAFT

A colloquial term referring to the unlawful acquisition of public money through questionable and improper transactions with public officials.

Graft is the personal gain or advantage earned by an individual at the expense of others as a result of the exploitation of the singular status of, or an influential relationship with, another who has a position of public trust or confidence. The advantage or gain is accrued without any exchange of legitimate compensatory services.

Behavior that leads to graft includes bribery and dishonest dealings in the performance of public or official acts. Graft usually implies the existence of theft, corruption, fraud, and the lack of integrity that is expected in any transaction involving a public official.

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"Graft." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Graft." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 27, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/graft

"Graft." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Retrieved June 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/graft

graft

graft
1. (noun) A small piece of tissue that is implanted into an intact organism.

2. (verb) To transfer a part of an organism from its normal position to another position on the same organism (autograft), or to a different organism of the same species (homograft), or an organism of a different species (heterograft). The source of the part that is grafted is called the donor (in animals) and the organism to which it is united is called the host or recipient. A graft hybrid is an organism made up of two genetically distinct tissues due to fusion of host and donor after grafting.

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"graft." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"graft." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 27, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/graft-1

"graft." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Retrieved June 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/graft-1

graft

graft (grahft)
1. n. any organ, tissue, or object used for transplantation to replace a faulty part of the body. bone g. bone or a bonelike synthetic substance used to fill a defect in a bone or to augment bone formation. corneal g. see keratoplasty. See also coronary artery bypass graft, skin (graft), transplantation.

2. vb. to transplant an organ or tissue.

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"graft." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"graft." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 27, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/graft

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graft

graft1 shoot inserted in another stock. XV. alt. of †graff (XIV) — OF. grafe, grefe, (also mod.) greffe — L. graphium — Gr. graphíon, grapheîon stylus, f. gráphein write; the transf. of meaning was suggested by the similarity of shape.
Hence graft vb. XV. alt. of †graff (XIV).

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"graft." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"graft." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 27, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/graft-1

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grafting

grafting In horticulture, method of plant propagation. A twig of one variety (the scion) is established on the roots of a related variety (the stock). Most fruit trees are propagated by a similar process called budding, in which the scion is a single bud.

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"grafting." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"grafting." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 27, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/grafting

"grafting." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved June 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/grafting

graft

graft2 (orig. U.S.) means of making illicit profit; dishonest gains; (political) bribery. XIX. of unkn. orig.

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"graft." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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graft

graft, in surgery: see transplantation, medical.

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"graft." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"graft." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 27, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/graft

"graft." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/graft

Graft

Graft

of tree surgeonsLipton, 1970.

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"Graft." Dictionary of Collective Nouns and Group Terms. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Graft." Dictionary of Collective Nouns and Group Terms. . Retrieved June 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/graft

graft

graft •Taft •abaft, aft, craft, daft, draft, draught, engraft, graft, haft, kraft, raft, shaft, understaffed, unstaffed, waft •backdraft • handcraft • aircraft •stagecraft • spacecraft • statecraft •needlecraft • priestcraft • witchcraft •kingcraft • handicraft • woodcraft •Wollstonecraft • bushcraft •watercraft • hovercraft • crankshaft •camshaft • layshaft • driveshaft •turboshaft • countershaft •bereft, cleft, deft, eft, heft, klepht, left, reft, theft, weft •adrift, drift, gift, grift, lift, rift, shift, shrift, sift, squiffed, swift, thrift, uplift •airlift, chairlift, stairlift •facelift • skilift • shoplift • Festschrift •spendthrift • spindrift • snowdrift •makeshift • downshift • upshift •aloft, croft, loft, oft, soft, toft •hayloft • Ashcroft • Cockcroft •undercroft • Lowestoft •tuft, unstuffed •Delft

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"graft." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"graft." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved June 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/graft