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Lancaster: Recreation

Lancaster: Recreation

Sightseeing

Lancaster and its environs maintain many buildings of historic interest. Among them are the 1852 Fulton Opera House, which has been restored and houses a wooden statue of Robert Fulton; the 1889 Central Market, which is the oldest publicly-owned continually operating farmers market in the country; Rock Ford Plantation, a Georgian mansion built in 1792 for General Edward Hand; Wheatland, the 1828 country estate of President James Buchanan; and 1719 Hans Herr House, the oldest house built by European settlers in the county and the Western Hemisphere's oldest Mennonite meeting house.

The Heritage Center Museums of Lancaster County, including the Lancaster Cultural History Museum and the Lancaster Quilt and Textile Museum, provide information about the cultural history of Lancaster County and have attractive displays of decorative and fine arts produced by generations of local artists and craftspeople. Lancaster Newspapers' Newseum explores the history of newspapers. At the Charles Demuth House and Garden, visitors can tour the eighteenth century home, studio, and gardens of world-famous artist Charles Demuth; the Demuth Tobacco Shop, located next door, was founded in 1770 and is the oldest tobacco shop in the U.S. The city also offers the Historic Lancaster Walking Tour, which concentrates on Revolutionary War era sites; the Pennsylvania Railroad Museum, which displays more than 100 locomotives and cars; the Ephrata Cloisters, one of the country's earliest and most influential religious communities; and the Robert Fulton Birthplace.

The countryside surrounding Lancaster is a favorite destination of visitors, who have made Lancaster County one of the top ten tourist attractions in the country. By car, bicycle, bus, buggy, or steam train, passing through covered bridges, one can tour re-created Amish farms and visit farmers' markets and Pennsylvania Dutch restaurants. Visitors interested in learning more about Pennsylvania Dutch Country can do so through a multimedia attraction at the Amish Experience Theater, located at Plain & Fancy Farm on Route 340. The production combines special effects with the traditional story of the Amish people and their centuries-old culture. The theater presents an original and critically acclaimed screenplay called "Jacob's Choice," which chronicles the saga of an Amish family from its flight from religious persecution in sixteenth century Europe to modern-day Lancaster County.

For those looking to explore nearby communities, a number of attractions in and near Hershey are worth a visit. Hersheypark offers amusement rides, shopping, food, and other forms of family fun. Hershey's Chocolate World serves as Hershey Food Corporation's official visitors center, and offers chocolate-making tours. For nature enthusiasts, Indian Echo Caverns gives guided tours of underground caves. And in nearby Kennett Square, Longwood Gardens allows visitors to tour one of America's most famous horticultural showplaces.

Arts and Culture

Lancaster Symphony Orchestra makes its home at the beautifully restored 1852 Fulton Opera House, a national historic landmark. There the orchestra performs 20 yearly subscription concerts in addition to a special New Year's Eve celebration and an outdoor patriotic concert at Long's Park. Also performing at the Fulton is Opera Lancaster, one of just a few non-profit, all-volunteer opera companies in the U.S. They boast an active performing membership of more than 100. The Fulton is a focal point for theatrical productions of all kinds, presented by groups sponsored by high schools and colleges as well as by touring professionals and community-based enterprises. These groups include the Actors Company at the Fulton, Youtheatre, and the Theatre for Young Audiences.

Outdoor concerts at Long's Park Amphitheater and other locales are presented during the summer months by Lancaster Symphony Orchestra and other groups under the auspices of the Long's Park Free Summer Entertainment Series. Both women and men participate in local barbershop choruses that perform from time to time throughout the area, as does Wheatland Chorale, a group of 36 singers specializing in close ensemble a capella singing.

Co-Motion, Hole-In-The-Wall Puppet Theatre, and First Stage Theatre provide family entertainment. Lancaster's Theater of the Seventh Sister has been in operation for more than 15 years, and offers a range of performances from new dramatic works, to plays of the old masters, to live musical performances. Dutch Apple Dinner Theater presents professional musicals and comedies accompanied by a large buffet dinner; Broadway comedies and hearty dinners are the bill of fare at Rainbow Dinner Theatre. Sight & Sound Theatres, one of the largest theatres in the U.S., has been offering musicals with a religious theme for more than 25 years. Philadelphia, with its rich array of cultural offerings, is 65 miles from Lancaster.

Landis Valley Museum is considered one of the most important living history museum complexes in the country. The complex's numerous exhibit areas, interpreting Pennsylvania rural life, include original structures such as the 1800s Landis Farmstead and the 1856 Landis Valley House Hotel, and other historically significant structures that were either moved to the site or are period reconstructions. The North Museum of Natural History and Science, on the campus of Franklin and Marshall College, is filled with hands-on displays and one of the largest planetariums in the state.

The Heritage Center Museums of Lancaster County are located in two historic buildings on Penn Square: the Lancaster Quilt and Textile Museum exhibits folk and decorative arts and crafts; the Lancaster Cultural History Museum collects items important to the area's history. Folk art and crafts are also on display at the Kauffman Museum of Pennsylvania Folk Arts and Crafts, located on the grounds of Rock Ford Plantation. Sheldon's Gallery in nearby Ephrata features original paintings, prints, photographs, and sculptures, while Garthoeffner Gallery specializes in painted furniture, folk art, and vintage toys. A number of art galleries in downtown Lancaster present permanent and changing exhibits; offered are works of local craftspeople, including Amish quilts, as well as national and international art.

Festivals and Holidays

Throughout the year, the Downtown Investment District coordinates many downtown Lancaster events, including Art in the Park, a Puerto Rican Festival, LancasterFest, a Classic Car and Auto Show, a Jazz and Blues Festival, and New Year's Eve's Count Down Lancaster. Winter visitors to the Lancaster area enjoy maple sugaring beginning in February. The Quilters' Heritage Celebration, held in early spring, is one of the largest quilting conventions in the world; the event showcases hundreds of quilts entered in a juried and judged contest. A Rhubarb Festival is held in Intercourse in mid-May, paying homage to a crop that grows abundantly in Pennsylvania Dutch country. Early June brings the Lancaster Spring Show of Arts and Crafts, displaying the works of artisans from around the country in a juried exhibition. The Kutztown Pennsylvania German Festival, held in Kutztown in late June and early July, celebrates the Pennsylvania Dutch way of life; arts, crafts, and quilts are displayed and sold, and regional and ethnic food is available in abundance.

The Pennsylvania Renaissance Faire, held at Mount Hope Estate and Winery 15 miles north of Lancaster, is a re-creation of a sixteenth-century English country fair. Costumed entertainers, jousting, Shakespearean presentations, crafts, and more appear each weekend from early July through mid-October. In late July and early August, Franklin and Marshall College hosts the Pennsylvania State Craft Show and Sale. Arts and crafts are also the focus of Long's Park Art & Craft Festival held in Lancaster on Labor Day Weekend. The Christmas season is celebrated in downtown Lancaster during Downtown Holiday Weekends, featuring food, tree lightings, music, gingerbread displays, and carriage rides. The season is celebrated throughout the region with special holiday tours at Rock Ford Plantation, Hans Herr House, and the Ephrata Cloister in Ephrata; Victorian Christmas Week at Wheatland; and Christmas at Landis Valley.

Sports for the Spectator

One of two spring highlights in downtown Lancaster is the Wachovia Cycling Series, which brings more than 200 of the world's top professional cyclists through the town's downtown on their way to Philadelphia. It is billed as the longest running and richest single-day cycling race in the U.S. The springtime five-mile Red Rose Run also draws hundreds of spectators, and has been an area event for more than 25 years. Lancastrians are also avid supporters of Philadelphia and Baltimore professional teams.

Sports for the Participant

Lancaster maintains nearly 300 acres of land in the form of community parks. The Lancaster Recreation Commission operates an active year-round schedule of adult and child-oriented sports and recreation programs. Park and recreation facilities include athletic fields, a street hockey rink, tennis courts, basketball courts, children's play equipment, and picnic areas. Dozens of state ski areas are accessible from Lancaster.

Shopping and Dining

Downtown Lancaster is a thriving and architecturally interesting district supporting hundreds of businesses that offer distinctive jewelry, home decorations, apparel, books, antiques, music, crafts, and gifts. A favorite among tourists and locals is Central Market, where baked goods, crafts, flowers, fresh produce, and Pennsylvania Dutch food and other ethnic delicacies are abundant. Park City Center, located in the city, is one of the largest malls in the state with 1.4 million square feet of space and about 170 stores. The northern end of the county is known for its weekend flea markets and antiques mall. With almost 1,000 Amish "micro enterprises" in existence, it's possible to locate everything from traditional handcrafted quilts to rolltop desks and Adirondack chairsall within a few miles of each other in the surrounding countryside. Some shops are in family homes; other businesses have showrooms filled with beautiful handcrafts.

With the dozens of restaurants located in Lancaster's downtown area, diners can choose from a casual pub experience to elegant dining, as well as enjoy Thai, Chinese, Jamaican, Italian, and other ethnic cuisines. Pennsylvania Dutch specialties such as chicken pot pie, schnitz and knepp (dried apples with ham and dumplings), apple butter, and shoofly pie (actually a molasses sponge cake baked in a crust) are served in restaurants located throughout the nearby countryside; some of these restaurants are housed in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century inns that lined the country's first paved road.

Visitor Information: Pennsylvania Dutch Convention and Visitors Bureau, 501 Greenfield Rd., Lancaster, PA 17601; telephone (800)PADUTCH; email info@padutchcountry.com.

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Lancaster: Economy

Lancaster: Economy

Major Industries and Commercial Activity

Lancaster County has a widely diversified economy; industries range from manufacturing to agriculture, tourism to health care, and retail trade to wholesale distribution. Many firms in the county have existed there for at least 50 and some for more than 100 years, including the oldest tobacco store in the country.

Lancaster County is known for the incredible diversity of its agriculture. The county's 4,500 farms make it one of the top farming counties in the United States. Together, these farms raise 45 million broiler chickens, 10 million laying hens, 95,000 dairy cows, 250,000 beef cattle, and 335,000 hogs annually. The county also leads all Pennsylvania counties in the value of its livestock, dairy products, wheat, corn, hay, tobacco, eggs, and milk, earning $725 million a year in agricultural revenue. Farmland preservation is a top priority for Lancaster County planners, who are struggling to preserve farmland even as the population grows and development continues. In 1999, Lancaster County had more than 30,000 acres of preserved farmland and 375 preserved farms, more preserved farms than any other county in the nation. The state of Pennsylvania has allocated millions of dollars to the farm preservation effort, which offers farmers economic incentives when they sign over development rights to the state so that the farmland can never be sold for development.

Lancaster County's industrial base is supported by hundreds of manufacturers and distributors. Service industries account for millions of dollars in revenue. More than 11,000 businesses employ more than 250,000 local residents.

Millions of tourists visit Lancaster County every year to tour its historical communities, view its rich architectural heritage, and witness life in its picturesque and culturally distinct farming communities. This influx of visitors provides jobs and income for thousands of local workers and businesses.

Items and goods produced: television tubes and electronic equipment, textiles, watches, farm machinery, building materials, linoleum, steel containers, ball bearings, locks, aluminum products, pharmaceuticals, toys, furniture, candy and food products

Incentive ProgramsNew and Existing Companies

Through economic development organizations like the Economic Development Company of Lancaster County and other community organizations, a wide array of public financing programs are available to local businesses. Resources include funding for start-up and business development projects, technical assistance, business counseling and training, and access to local, state, and federal funding programs.

Local programs

Lancaster's Economic Company Finance Corporations administers a number of funding programs for area businesses. The Pennsylvania Small Business First Fund provides low-interest financing to manufacturing and industrial businesses with less than 100 employees; companies can borrow up to $200,000 for land acquisition, construction, machinery, and working capital. The Community First Fund offers fixed-rate loans up to $50,000 and business counseling to small businesses, nonprofit organizations, and housing development agencies for use in real estate, machinery and equipment, and leasehold improvements. The Penn Southeast Mezzanine Fund is for firms with high growth and earnings potential; it extends loans of up to $750,000 for acquisitions, equipment purchase, working capital, and real estate.

State programs

Pennsylvania's Department of Community and Economic Development is the main source of funding and other economic growth programs for state businesses. Funding programs offered by the state include bond financing, grants, loans and loan guarantees, tax credits and abatements, and technical assistance. The state's tools include the Job Creation Tax Credit Program, which provides a $1,000-per-job tax credit for businesses that create new jobs; 25 percent of the tax credits allocated each year must go to businesses with less than 100 employees. The Opportunity Grant Program provides funds needed to create or preserve Pennsylvania jobs to businesses involved in manufacturing, exporting, agriculture, and research and development. The First Industries Fund is a grant and loan program aimed at strengthening Pennsylvania's agriculture and tourism industries. Loans up to $200,000 can be used for land acquisition and construction, machinery purchase, and working capital. The state also runs a number of technology investment programs, which are designed to help create and bolster new and existing technology companies within the state. Program areas include funding, assistance programs, industry initiatives, and research and development.

Job training programs

The Lancaster County Career and Technology Center offers a wide range of trade and skill-development opportunities to students in Lancaster County. The center has been renovated and its facilities offer modern, state-of-the-art laboratories and training programs geared to today's labor market needs. The Career and Technology Center's Work Keys program helps employers with job applicant selection and provides businesses with assessment services to determine where additional training would help increase employee performance.

Development Projects

The city of Lancaster has been involved in numerous development projects. Many of them include renovations and additions to Lancaster's cultural and recreational venues, including the city's multi-purpose baseball stadium, the Academy of Music, the Quilt Museum, and the Franklin and Marshall Life Sciences Building. Transportation improvements include work on the Red Rose Transit Center, the Amtrak Station, and the Fruitville Pike Bridge. Recent expansion and renovation also took place at the Lancaster General Hospital and the premises of the Susquehanna Association for the Blind.

Economic Development Information: Economic Development Company of Lancaster County, Southern Market Center, 100 S. Queen St., PO Box 1558, Lancaster, PA 17608; telephone (717)397-4046. City of Lancaster Economic Development Department; telephone (717)291-4760

Commercial Shipping

Air transportation facilities are provided by Lancaster Airport; air cargo lines include American, Continental, Delta, Northwest, United, Airborne Express, FedEx, and UPS. Norfolk Southern Rail serves as the area's primary freight railroad; daily service is available. Small freight and air cargo service is also available. The Philadelphia Regional Port Authority, 68 miles east of Lancaster County, handles more than 5 million tons of cargo each year.

Labor Force and Employment Outlook

Lancaster's widely diversified economy is expected to continue to stand the city in good stead. The city lays claim to a skilled labor force with a Pennsylvania Dutch work ethic. More than 11,000 companies employ a workforce of more than 250,000 people, in sectors including manufacturing, services, retail, tourism, and agriculture. Lancaster's non-agricultural labor force has diminished over the last decade, while jobs in the construction and tourism industries have increased significantly.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Lancaster metropolitan area labor force, 2004 annual averages.

Size of nonagricultural labor force: 232,100

Number of workers employed in . . .

construction and mining: 16,400

manufacturing: 45,700

trade, transportation and utilities: 50,800

information: 4,000

financial activities: 10,100

professional and business services: 21,400

educational and health services: 32,400

leisure and hospitality: 20,200

other services: 10,400

government: 20,800

Average hourly earnings of production workers employed in manufacturing: $15.35

Unemployment rate: 3.5% (May 2005)

Largest employers (2003) Number of employees
Lancaster General Hospital (no employee figures available)
R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co.
Mutual Assistance Group
Armstrong World Industries, Inc.
Lancaster County
Manheims PA Auction Services Inc.
Ephrata Community Hospital
Federal Government
School District of Lancaster
Weis Markets, Inc.
QVC, Inc.
Masonic Homes
Dart Container Corporation
Tyson Poultry, Inc.
Lancaster Lebanon Intermediate Unit

Cost of Living

According to the Economic Development Company of Lancaster County, the median rent within the county was $572 in 2000. The 2000 median housing value for the county was $119,300. Pennsylvania also has the lowest maximum income tax rate, 3.07%, of any state that imposes a personal income tax.

The following is a summary of data regarding several key cost of living factors for the Lancaster area.

2004 ACCRA Average House Price: Not reported

2004 ACCRA Cost of Living Index: Not reported

State income tax rate: 3.07% includes earned income plus interest

State sales tax rate: 6.0%

Local income tax rate: Lancaster County assesses an earned income and an occupational assessment tax that vary from municipality to municipality. It is based on one's occupation (therefore, an accountant would pay a different tax from a farmer, for example)

Local sales tax rate: None

Property tax rate: 2.96 mills based on 100% of fair market value (2005)

Economic Information: Lancaster Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Southern Market Center, 100 S. Queen St., PO Box 1558, Lancaster, PA 17608; telephone (717)397-3531; fax (717)293-3159

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Lancaster: Education and Research

Lancaster: Education and Research

Elementary and Secondary Schools

The School District of Lancaster, established in 1836, is the second oldest school district in the state, and enrolls approximately 1,400 staff members. The district services a diverse student population which is approximately 50 percent Hispanic, 23 percent African American, and 22 percent Caucasian. Thirteen percent of the district's students are enrolled in its English as a second language program. The average school district attendance rate in 2003 was 92 percent, and high school students had a graduation rate of 71.1 percent in 2003. Over 67 percent of high school graduates intended to go on for post-secondary education.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Lancaster public schools as of the 20042005 school year.

Total enrollment: 11,300

Number of facilities elementary schools: 13

junior high/middle schools: 4

high schools: 1

other: 1 alternative school

Student/teacher ratio: 14.4:1 (2002)

Teacher salaries average: $50,599 (2001-02 statewide average)

Funding per pupil: $9,653 (2002-2003)

Lancaster offers a diverse selection of private, parochial, and specialized schools, including Dayspring Christian Academy, Lancaster Catholic High School, Lancaster Christian School, Lancaster Country Day School, Linden Hall School for Girls, Lancaster Mennonite School, Montessori Academy of Lancaster, New School of Lancaster, and Pennsylvania Academy of Music, which offers instruction in orchestral instruments, voice, and piano.

Public Schools Information: School District of Lancaster, 251 S. Prince St., 3rd Fl., Lancaster, PA 17603; telephone (717)291-6148; email communications@lancaster.k12.pa.us

Colleges and Universities

Franklin and Marshall College, founded in 1787, is a selective liberal arts institution that grants degrees in more than 30 disciplines. The school has a student/teacher ratio of 11 to 1, and was cited as offering one of the 100 best values in private college education in the U.S. by Kiplinger's magazine in 2004. The Pennsylvania College of Art and Design offers bachelor of fine art programs in graphic design, fine art, illustration, and photography; they also offer professional programs in digital design, mural painting, and folk art studies. Institutions with a religious focus are the Lancaster Theological Seminary and the Lancaster Bible College and Graduate School.

The Penn State Lancaster Campus, with more than 2,000 students, offers continuing education programs for adults, business, and industry. Graduate courses in education and business management are also available. Spread out amongst four campuses, Lancaster's Harrisburg Area Community College offers a number degree, certificate, and diploma programs in liberal arts and business concentrations. Among the three vocational-technical schools in the region is Thad-deus Stevens College of Technology, which offers two-year associates degrees in 17 programs. Enrollment averages 500 students per year.

Libraries and Research Centers

The Lancaster County Library, headquarters for the Library System of Lancaster County, opened in 1759. The County Library maintains 17 public libraries in the area, including the Duke Street main facility and the libraries in Leola, Mountville, and Manheim Township. Its collection numbers about 300,000 fiction and nonfiction books, more than 300 periodicals and newspapers, and hundreds of videocassettes, films, and records. Special facilities and programs at the main library include a summer reading program, a Spanish language section, the Cooperating Collections program, family activities, literacy programs, and a Library Center for Youth. Special collections include books on the preservation of historic architecture, local and regional history resources in the Gerald S. Lestz Reading Room, and a Business Information Center.

The Lancaster County Historical Society is an internationally recognized historical and genealogical research facility; its library contains more than 15,000 volumes, including maps, family files, microfilm, and CDs. The Lancaster Mennonite Historical Society also maintains a genealogical research library. Among the several libraries at Franklin and Marshall College is the Shadek-Fackenthal Library, containing 450,000 volumes and 400,000 government documents, with special emphasis on topics such as the theater, Lincoln, and Napoleon.

Public Library Information: Lancaster County Library, 125 N. Duke St., Lancaster, PA 17602; telephone (717)394-2651

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Lancaster: History

Lancaster: History

Rich Farm Land Attracts Religious Refugees

The Susquehanna, Shawnee, and Iroquois tribes inhabited the area around Lancaster when William Penn and his Quaker followers took up residence in nearby Philadelphia in 1682. The second influx of immigrants to Philadelphia was comprised of Germans, some of them Mennonites (German-speaking religious refugees). Around 1710, a number of these Germans moved beyond Philadelphia to take advantage of the rich farm land stretching along the Susquehanna River to the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. The Germans were followed by a group of Amish (orthodox Anabaptists) from Switzerland and Bohemian Moravians (Protestants) from Czechoslovakia. The descendants of the Germans, known as the Pennsylvania Dutch (a corruption of Deutsch, meaning German) and the Amish are still there, many living on the farms which have made the area one of the top five agricultural counties in the country in terms of value per acre.

The first European settler of record in Lancaster was George Gibson, who in 1721 opened a tavern in the area of town now known as Penn Square. In his honor the town was called Gibson's Pasture until 1741, when it was renamed Lancaster after a town in England. Frontiersmen bought farm tools and the famous Kentucky rifle, actually a Lancaster product, as they passed through the city on their way west. The city became known as "the arsenal of the colonies" during the American Revolution of the 1770s for the guns it produced. Lancaster was the capital of the American colonies for one day in 1777, when the Continental Congress interrupted its flight from the British out of Philadelphia on its way to (New) York. From 1799 to 1812, Lancaster was the capital of Pennsylvania.

Economy Thrives, Diversifies

In addition to farming, other ventures carried out in Lancaster city and county were iron mining and furnace operations as well as quarrying. By 1789 Lancaster supported saddlers, shoemakers, furriers, forges, rolling mills, slitting mills, sawmills, brass foundries, rope makers, brush makers, silversmiths, steelwrights, printers, and other artisans and manufacturers, laying the foundation for the diverse economy for which the city is still known. By 1840, the population was 8,417; by 1860, that figure had more than doubled.

Traffic between Lancaster and Philadelphia became so heavy that a road was built between the two cities, using a technique of crushed stone paving developed by James McAdam (hence the word macadam). The turnpike, the first major paved road in the country, opened in 1794, having taken four years and $450,000 to complete.

Today, Lancaster County is famous for the high quality of the agricultural products supplied by the many family farms located throughout the county and for the diversity and quality of its manufactured goods. As the hub of the county the city is a center of government, arts and culture, education, professional and financial services, business, manufacturing, and health services. Combining sophistication with a reverence for its historic past, Lancaster is considered one of the Northeast's best cities for growing a business. In addition, Lancaster continues to be one of the most popular tourist destinations in the country, bringing in thousands of visitors each year to experience the county's cultural uniqueness; as a result, tourism continues to be a major economic factor to the financial success of Lancaster.

Famous Lancastrians include F. W. Woolworth, who opened his first store in Lancaster around 1879, pricing every item at five cents; Robert Fulton, co-inventor of the steamboat; Pennsylvania's only president of the United States, James Buchanan; and Susanna Wright, raiser of silkworms and maker of the first pair of silk stockings in Pennsylvania.

Historical Information: Lancaster County Historical Society, 230 N. President Ave., Lancaster, PA 17603; telephone (717)392-4633. Lancaster Mennonite Historical Society, 2215 Millstream Rd., Lancaster, PA 17602; telephone (717)393-9745. Historic Preservation Trust of Lancaster County, 123 N. Prince St., Lancaster, PA 17603; (717)291-5861

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Lancaster (cities, United States)

Lancaster:1 Uninc. city (1990 pop. 97,291), Los Angeles co., S Calif., in Antelope Valley and in the Mojave Desert; laid out 1894. It developed as a trade center for an irrigated farming area and has since become an important site for electronic, aerospace, aircraft, and defense industries. Local borax mining and the nearby Edwards Air Force Base, a major military installation, add to Lancaster's economy. The city is the seat of Antelope Valley College and has a Native American museum with prehistoric artifacts.

2 Village (1990 pop. 11,940), Erie co., W N.Y.; inc. 1849. Its industries include lumber mills, dairy farms, and stone quarries.

3 City (1990 pop. 34,507), seat of Fairfield co., S central Ohio, on the Hocking River, in a livestock and dairy area; founded 1800 by Ebenezer Zane, inc. as a village 1831. Its manufactures include glassware, shoes, heating equipment, and automotive parts. The birthplace of the brothers Gen. William T. Sherman and Senator John Sherman has been preserved. In the area are many covered bridges and a Native American mound in the form of a cross. The city contains a campus of Ohio Univ.

4 City (1990 pop. 55,551), seat of Lancaster co., SE Pa., on the Conestoga River, in the heart of the Pennsylvania Dutch country; inc. as a city 1818. It is the commercial center for a productive agricultural county. Chief products are livestock, poultry, grain, potatoes, soybeans, alfalfa, apples, and dairy items. Manufacturing includes electrical, concrete, and aluminum products; security and medical equipment; automotive parts; and food products. There is also commercial printing. Lancaster is the seat of Franklin and Marshall College and a theological seminary, and it is noted for its large Amish and Mennonite communities. The area was settled by German Mennonites c.1709 and was a starting point for westward-bound pioneers. The famous Conestoga wagon was developed there. The borough of Lancaster was laid out in 1730 and was one of the first inland cities in the country. A munitions center during the Revolution, it was briefly (1777) a meeting place of the Continental Congress and served as capital of the state for more than 10 years before 1812. Robert Fulton was born nearby. Points of interest include Wheatland, the home of President James Buchanan (built in 1828), and the Fulton Opera House (1854).

5 City (1990 pop. 22,117), Dallas co., in NE Tex.; settled 1846, inc. 1886. It is a processing and shipping center for a fruit, vegetable, and cotton region. Chemicals, transportation equipment, bricks, brass valves, and metal products are manufactured.

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Lancaster: Communications

Lancaster: Communications

Newspapers and Magazines

Lancaster Newspapers, Inc., provides citizens with the Intelligencer Journal in the mornings Sunday through Friday, the Lancaster New Era in the afternoons Monday through Saturday, and the Sunday News. Although all three newspapers are owned by the same corporation, they have completely separate staffs and the publications actively compete with each other. La Voz Hispana, a bimonthly, tabloid-sized newspaper, caters to Lancaster's Hispanic and Latino communities with local, national, and international news and events written in both Spanish and English.

Television and Radio

Two AM and seven FM radio stations are based in Lancaster, with reception from Philadelphia and other cities in the state. One radio station is college-owned, and one presents Hispanic programs. Two television stations, Channel 15 and Channel 8, broadcast from Lancaster as well.

Media Information: Lancaster Newspapers, Inc., P.O. Box 1328, Lancaster, PA 17608; telephone (717)291-8622

Lancaster Online

City of Lancaster. Available www.cityoflancasterpa.com

Economic Development Company of Lancaster County. Available www.edclancaster.com

Lancaster Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Available www.lcci.com

Lancaster County Library. Available www.lancaster.lib.pa.us

Lancaster Newspapers, Inc. Available www.lancasteronline.com

Lancaster Pennsylvania Dutch Convention and Visitors Bureau. Available www.padutchcountry.com

The Pennsylvania Manual online. Available www.dgs.state.pa.us/PAManual

School District of Lancaster. Available www.lancaster.k12.pa.us

Selected Bibliography

Hostetler, John Andrew, Amish Children: Education in the Family, School, and Community (Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991, 2nd ed.)

Kaiser, Grace H., Dr. Frau: A Woman Doctor Among the Amish (Intercourse, Pa: Good Books, 1986)

Kraybill, Donald B., and Steven M. Nolt, Amish Enterprise: From Plows to Profits (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004, 2nd ed.)

Lestz, Gerald S., To Lancaster With Love (Lancaster: Stemgas Publishing, 1992)

Reninger, Marion Wallace, Orange Street (Lancaster: Stemgas Publishing, 1954)

Rupp, I. Daniel, History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania: To Which Is Prefixed a Brief Sketch of the Early History of Pennsylvania (Spartanburg, S.C.: Heritage Books, 1990)

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Lancaster: Population Profile

Lancaster: Population Profile

Metropolitan Area Residents

1980: 362,000

1990: 422,822

2000: 470,658

Percent change, 19902000: 11.3%

U.S. rank in 1980: 91st

U.S. rank in 1990: 85th

U.S. rank in 2000: 88th

City Residents

1980: 54,725

1990: 55,551

2000: 56,348

2003 estimate: 55,351

Percent change, 19902000: 1.1%

U.S. rank in 1980: 384th

U.S. rank in 1990: 429th (State rank: 8th)

U.S. rank in 2000: 597th (State rank: 11th)

Density: 7,614.6 people per square mile (2000)

Racial and ethnic characteristics (2000)

White: 36,347

Black or African American: 9,195

American Indian and Alaska Native: 549

Asian: 1,602

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 114

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 17,331

Other: 10,908

Percent of residents born in state: 63.8% (2000)

Age characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 4,445

Population 5 to 9 years old: 4,488

Population 10 to 14 years old: 4,258

Population 15 to 19 years old: 4,602

Population 20 to 24 years old: 5,502

Population 25 to 34 years old: 8,795

Population 35 to 44 years old: 8,366

Population 45 to 54 years old: 6,193

Population 55 to 59 years old: 2,115

Population 60 to 64 years old: 1,651

Population 65 to 74 years old: 2,994

Population 75 to 84 years old: 2,216

Population 85 years and over: 723

Median age: 30.4 years

Births (2002, Lancaster County)

Total number: 6,749

Deaths (2003, Lancaster County)

Total number: 4,337 (of which, 61 were children under the age of 4 years)

Money income (1999)

Per capita income: $13,955

Median household income: $29,770

Total households: 20,928

Number of households with income of . . .

less than $10,000: 2,926

$10,000 to $14,999: 1,948

$15,000 to $24,999: 3,842

$25,000 to $34,999: 3,364

$35,000 to $49,999: 4,090

$50,000 to $74,999: 3,069

$75,000 to $99,999: 1,026

$100,000 to $149,999: 447

$150,000 to $199,999: 91

$200,000 or more: 125

Percent of families below poverty level: 17.9% (54.9% of which were female householder families with related children under 5 years)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 2,785

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Lancaster: Convention Facilities

Lancaster: Convention Facilities

Meetings are a tradition among the Amish, and convention personnel in Lancaster County/City promise a traditional commitment to hospitality for the millions of visitors the area receives annually. Within the city of Lancaster, the Hotel Brunswick, located downtown, offers excellent facilities within close proximity to historic sites, specialty shops, and the oldest continuously operating farmer's market in the United States; its facilities cover 28,000 square feet of meeting space and 20 different meeting rooms. The county's largest meeting facility, the Lancaster Host Resort and Conference Center, occupies 225 acres and offers an 18-hole golf course, tennis, basketball, volleyball, swimming pools, and a fitness trail. Meeting and exhibit space of more than 80,000 square feet includes 25 flexible function rooms, a grand ballroom for 1,000 guests, and a 23,000 square foot expo center. Sleeping rooms total 330 with many overflow properties within close proximity.

The Best Western Eden Resort Inn & Conference Center offers 25,000 square feet of first-class flexible meeting space and thirteen distinctive banquet rooms. Residential suites for important clients, two pools, wireless internet access, and a total of 276 deluxe guest rooms are available. The Netherlands Inn and Spa, a 102-room retreat location nestled amidst farmland, offers more than 7,000 square feet of meeting space for a unique and peaceful experience. The Willow Valley Resort & Conference Center can accommodate groups of 15 to 1,000 people in a 342-room resort with 16 meeting rooms totaling more than 20,000 square feet. This resort also has amenities such as golf, indoor and outdoor swimming pools, a fitness facility, tennis, family activities, and outstanding cuisine.

Convention Information: Pennsylvania Dutch Convention and Visitors Bureau, 501 Greenfield Rd., Lancaster, PA 17601; toll-free (800)PADUTCH; email info@padutchcountry.com

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Lancaster: Health Care

Lancaster: Health Care

Three main hospitals cater to the health care needs of Lancastrians. City health care facilities include Lancaster General Hospital, with more than 550 beds and 470 physicians; the hospital's emergency room treats more than 68,000 patients each year, and the hospital's Lancaster General Heart Center performs more than 600 open heart surgeries annually. For more than 60 years, Ephrata Community Hospital has been providing preventative services, primary care, diagnostic services, and rehabilitation services to area residents. Other available services include an active wellness program, a pain management center, and a women's health services center. Lancaster Regional Medical Center, a 268-bed acute-care community hospital, offers care in 32 specialties, including dermatology, orthopedics, gynecology, psychiatry, and urology. Lancaster Cleft Palate Clinic, affiliated with Lancaster General Hospital, conducts research on children with cranio-facial anomalies, and provides medical, dental, speech, and hearing services.

Lancaster's health care facilities are booming with new projects. In 2005, Lancaster General Hospital opened its Lancaster General-Norlanco facility in order to service residents of northwestern Lancaster County. The facility offers radiology, laboratory, and rehabilitation services. Ephrata Community Hospital recently renovated its CardioVascular Laboratory, including the purchase of the Siemens Axion Artis, a piece of diagnostic equipment that produces high-quality images through very low radiation doses.

Health Care Information: Lancaster General Hospital, 555 N. Duke St., Lancaster PA; telephone (717)544-5511. Ephrata Community Hospital, 169 Martin Ave., PO Box 1002, Ephrata, PA 17522; telephone (717)733-0311

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Lancaster

Lancaster

Lancaster: Introduction
Lancaster: Geography and Climate
Lancaster: History
Lancaster: Population Profile
Lancaster: Municipal Government
Lancaster: Economy
Lancaster: Education and Research
Lancaster: Health Care
Lancaster: Recreation
Lancaster: Convention Facilities
Lancaster: Transportation
Lancaster: Communications

The City in Brief

Founded: 1718 (incorporated 1818)

Head Official: Mayor Charlie Smithgall (R) (since 1998)

City Population

1980: 54,725

1990: 55,551

2000: 56,348

2003 estimate: 55,351

Percent change, 19902000: 1.1%

U.S. rank in 1980: 384th

U.S. rank in 1990: 429th (State rank: 8th)

U.S. rank in 2000: 597th (State rank: 11th)

Metropolitan Area Population

1980: 362,000

1990: 422,822

2000: 470,658

Percent change, 19902000: 11.3%

U.S. rank in 1980: 91st

U.S. rank in 1990: 85th

U.S. rank in 2000: 88th

Area: 7 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 368 feet above sea level

Average Annual Temperature: 52.2° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 43 inches of rain; 31 inches of snow

Major Economic Sectors: Manufacturing, services, retail trade

Unemployment Rate: 3.5% (May 2005)

Per Capita Income: $13,955 (1999)

2004 ACCRA Average House Price: Not reported

2004 ACCRA Cost of Living Index: Not reported

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 2,785

Major Colleges and Universities: Franklin and Marshall College; Pennsylvania School of Art and Design; Harrisburg Area Community College-Lancaster

Daily Newspaper: Intelligencer Journal; Lancaster New Era

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Lancaster: Transportation

Lancaster: Transportation

Approaching the City

Airline service into Lancaster Airport is provided by USAir Express, from Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, and from surrounding airports in Harrisburg, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., and Philadelphia. Limousine and taxi service, as well as free long and short term parking are available. Baltimore/Washington International Airport and Philadelphia International Airport are both less than two hours away. Three Amtrak stations are located in Lancaster countyin the city of Lancaster, and in the boroughs of Mount Joy and Elizabethtown; Amtrak's Chicago to New York City service passes through Lancaster. Greyhound and Capitol Trailways offer service to points across the country. All of the state's major highways converge in the city with the exception of the Pennsylvania Turnpike, which encompasses interchanges at U.S. 222, PA 72, and PA 23, 15 miles north of the city. The convenience of these highways make Lancaster a three-hour drive from New York City, a 90-minute drive from Philadelphia, and a two and a half hour drive from Washington, D.C.

Traveling in the City

Walking is a popular pastime in Lancaster, and Historic Lancaster Walking Tours, led by guides in colonial costumes, are offered daily from April through October. Red Rose Transit Authority services 2.5 million passengers with city and county buses on 16 routes.

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Lancaster: Geography and Climate

Lancaster: Geography and Climate

Lancaster is part of the middle Susquehanna River Basin in the southeastern section of Pennsylvania. It is located near the center of Lancaster County in one of the most fertile agricultural lowland areas in the United States. The surrounding terrain is generally rolling, with some low ranges of hills. To the west lie the Susquehanna River and the South Mountains. The climate is classified "humid continental." The southeast corner of Pennsylvania lies in the path of Caribbean hurricanes that occasionally bring high winds and heavy rains to the area.

Area: 7 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 368 feet above sea level

Average Temperatures: January, 29.1° F; July, 74.4° F; annual average, 52.2° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 43 inches of rain; 31 inches of snow

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Lancaster: Introduction

Lancaster: Introduction

Lancaster, an important industrial and business center in southeastern Pennsylvania, is located in the heart of Pennsylvania Dutch country. It is the county seat of Lancaster County, where the "Plain" peopleAmish, Mennonite, and Brethrenliving without benefit of automobiles, electricity, or television, practice a lifestyle that vanished from most areas of this country generations ago. The historic city of Lancaster, known for its strong work ethic and community spirit, won the All-America City Award in 2000 for its outstanding community-building programs.

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Lancaster: Municipal Government

Lancaster: Municipal Government

Lancaster, the county seat of Lancaster County, operates under the mayor-council form of government.

Head Official: Mayor Charlie Smithgall (since 1998; current term expires January 1, 2006)

Total Number of City Employees: 610 (2005)

City Information: City of Lancaster, 120 N. Duke St., PO Box 1599, Lancaster, PA 17608; telephone (717)291-4711

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Lancaster

Lancastertheatre (US theater) •realtor •amphitheatre (US amphitheater) •proprietor, rioter •breakfaster • comforter • Lancaster •Doncaster •Alasdair, baluster •bardolater, idolater •amateur, shamateur •schemata • stigmata • automata •traumata • covenanter •Mahabharata • orator • warranter •Alberta, asserter, Bizerta, converter, deserter, Goethe, inserter, kurta, perverter, reverter, subverter •frankfurter

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