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Zurich

ZURICH

ZURICH. Although there is evidence of settlement around Zurich from the Bronze Age, the Romans were the first to fortify the site and named it Turicum. The legend of the city's foundation dates from the martyrdom of Felix and Regula, Roman Christians and the patron saints of Zurich, who fled to the city from the massacre of their legion in Valais in the third century c.e. They were martyred by decapitation for refusing to pray to Roman gods, whereupon they picked up their heads and carried them up the hill to the spot where they wished to be buried. The Wasserkirche in Zurich marks the spot where they are thought to have been executed. During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, Zurich's traders exploited the favorable location of the city between the Alpine passes and the Rhine to build the city's wealth from textiles, such as wool and silk. In 1336 the Bürgermeister Rudolf Brun led a revolt that shifted power from the patrician families into the hands of the thirteen guilds. Shortly thereafter, in 1351, still under Brunn's direction, Zurich joined the Swiss Confederation, though it remained an imperial city under the direct authority of the emperor. During the fifteenth century Zurich repeatedly attempted to centralize the Confederation under its control, and the result was civil wars such as the Old Zurich War (14391450).

Although it lay in the vast diocese of Constance, Zurich was fairly independent of the bishop and had three major ecclesiastical bodies: the Grossmünster, the Fraumünster, and St. Peterskirche. Huldrych Zwingli (14841531) arrived in Zurich in 1519 and gradually built a reform movement that gained minority, although influential, support from leading families and the guilds. In April 1525 the Reformation was formally adopted and the Reformed church established. It was an institution that remained under the control of the magistrates throughout the early modern period. Zurich developed provision for higher education, but not a university. It remained an important center of trade and a key member of the international Reformed church, but during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Zurich was a provincial city with little influence beyond the Swiss Confederation.

See also Switzerland ; Zwingli, Huldrych .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Flüeler, Niklaus, and Marianne Flüeler-Grauwiler, eds. Geschichte des Kantons Zürich. Vol. 2, Frühe Neuzeit,16. bis 18. Jahrhundert. Zurich, 1996.

Gordon, Bruce. The Swiss Reformation. Manchester, U.K., 2002.

Bruce Gordon

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Zürich

Zürich (tsü´rĬkh), canton (1993 pop. 1,158,100), 668 sq mi (1,730 sq km), N Switzerland. The most populous Swiss canton, Zürich is bounded in part by the Lake of Zürich in the south and Germany in the north. It is a fertile agricultural region with orchards, meadows, and forests. Among the rivers that flow through the canton are the Rhine and the Thur. Machinery and other metal goods as well as textiles are manufactured. Its inhabitants are chiefly German-speaking and Protestant. In the canton there are numerous towns and a few industrial cities, notably Winterthur and the capital, Zürich (1993 pop. 345,200). The largest Swiss city, Zürich is the country's commercial and economic center as well as the intellectual center of German-speaking Switzerland. Its chief manufacture is machinery, and the city supports a healthy tourist trade. It is the hub of a printing and publishing industry, and its international banking and financial institutions are renowned. Zürich hosts many annual international congresses; its airport is the busiest in Switzerland. Occupied as early as the Neolithic period by lake dwellers, the site of Zürich was settled by the Helvetii. It was conquered (58 BC) by the Romans, and after the 5th cent. passed successively to the Alemanni, the Franks, and to Swabia. It became a free imperial city after 1218, accepted a corporative constitution in 1336, and joined the Swiss Confederation in 1351. Its claim to the Toggenburg led to a ruinous war (1436–50) with the other confederates. In the 16th cent. Zürich, under the influence of Ulrich Zwingli, became the leading power of the Swiss Reformation and once more provoked a civil war. The Roman Catholic victory at Kappel (1531) ended Zürich's political leadership. In 1799 the city was the scene of two battles of the French Revolutionary Wars (see Helvetic Republic). Zürich developed as a cultural and scientific center in the 18th and 19th cent. It has the largest Swiss university (founded 1833), a world-famous polytechnic school (est. mid-19th cent.), and many museums. The Romanesque Grossmünster (11th–13th cent.), where Zwingli preached, the Fraumünster (12th and 15th cent.), the 17th-century town hall, and numerous old residences contrast harmoniously with many fine modern structures. The educational reformer Heinrich Pestalozzi was born in the city, and James Joyce is buried there. The city is beautifully situated on the Limmat and Sihl rivers and at the northern end of the Lake of Zürich.

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"Zürich." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Zürich

Zürich City on the River Limmat, at the nw end of Lake Zürich, in the foothills of the Alps, n Switzerland; the country's largest city. Conquered by the Romans in 58 bc, the city later came under Alemanni and then Frankish rule. It became a free imperial city in 1218, and joined the Swiss Confederation in 1351. In the 16th century, it was a focal point of the Swiss Reformation. Ulrich Zwingli founded Swiss Protestantism at Zürich's cathedral in 1523. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the city developed as a cultural and scientific centre. It has the Swiss National Museum and many old churches. Zürich is the commercial hub of Switzerland and has numerous banking and financial institutions. Industries: motor vehicles, machinery, paper, textiles, electrical products, printing and publishing, tourism. Pop. (1996) 344,000.

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"Zürich." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Zurich

Zurich. Swiss city with long musical tradition. Main orch. is the Tonhalle, founded 1868. Its cond. have incl. Friedrich Hegar (1868–1906), Volkmar Andreae (1906–49), and Erich Schmid (1949–57) jointly with Hans Rosbaud (1950–62), Rudolf Kempe (1965–72), and Charles Dutoit (1967–71). Among smaller ensembles the Collegium Musicum was cond. by Paul Sacher from 1941. At the opera house, Parsifal had its first authorized stage perf. outside Bayreuth in 1913. Operas given f. stage p. in Zurich incl. Lulu (1937), Mathis der Maler (1938), Moses und Aron (1957 cond. Rosbaud), The Greek Passion (1961), and Sutermeister's Madame Bovary (1967).

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"Zurich." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Zürich

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