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Haifa

HAIFA

Major city in northwestern historic Palestine and, after May 1948, Israel.

Established in the late Bronze Age on the edge of the Bay of Haifa on the Mediterranean coast, Haifa was part of the Ottoman Empire, which ruled Palestine from 1516 until the winter of 1917/18. Haifa's population was predominantly made up of Muslim and Christian Palestinians until Jews began to settle in the city in the late nineteenth century. A number of factors contributed to its economic revival: the Egyptian conquest and reforms of the mid-nineteenth century, which inaugurated modernization in Palestine; the arrival of European steamboats, which began to visit Haifa as their port of call; the immigration in 1868 of German Templars and, after 1880, of European Jews, both of whom introduced modern economic practices and machinery; and the extension of the Hejaz Railway to Haifa in 1905.

The British ruled Palestine from 1917 to 1948. During these thirty years, Haifa experienced expansion and population growth, especially after a deep-water port was opened in 1933. The 1922 census recorded 25,000 people, of whom 6,000 were Jews and 18,000 were Palestinians. As a result of growth and increased Jewish immigration, by 1944 Haifa had about 66,000 Jews and 62,000 Palestinians. It also had a small community of Bahais, who established their religious center at Mount Carmel. During the ArabIsrael War of 1948, Arab and Jewish forces fought for control of Haifa. Of the city's Palestinian population, only 3,000 remained after the war; the rest were expelled by Jewish forces or fled to Lebanon.

Haifa is now Israel's third largest city as well as its principal port and industrial and commercial center. The city's industries include oil refining, cement, chemicals, electronics, and steel. The city is composed of three sections: port facilities and warehouses at the bottom of Mount Carmel; the business district at the slopes of the mountain; and houses, apartment buildings, and parks on top of the mountain. It also has a maritime museum and two universities. Its 2001 population was over 270,000, of whom 10 percent were Palestinian.

See also arabisrael war (1948); haifa university; israel; mandate system; ottoman empire; palestine; palestinian citizens of israel.


Bibliography

Herbert, Gilbert, and Sosnovsky, Silvina. Bauhaus on the Carmel and the Crossroads of Empire: Architecture and Planning in Haifa during the British Mandate. Jerusalem: Yad Izhaq Ben-Zvi, 1993.

Seikaly, May. Haifa: Transformation of an Arab Society, 19181939. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.

philip mattar

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"Haifa." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Haifa." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/haifa

"Haifa." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved September 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/haifa

Haifa

Haifa (hī´fä), city (1994 pop. 246,700), NW Israel, a port on the Mediterranean Sea, at the foot of Mt. Carmel. Haifa is the chief city of N Israel and the country's principal oil refining center. Along with Ashdod, Haifa is one of Israel's main ports and handles oceangoing vessels, including oil tankers. Industries include steel, shipbuilding, textiles, chemicals, high-tech electronics, and food processing. Haifa is known to have existed by the 3d cent. AD but was of little importance during early Muslim times. The Crusaders, who called it Caiffa or Caiphas, developed it commercially. Destroyed by Saladin in 1191, it began to revive in the late 18th cent. The city's main growth occurred in the 20th cent. with the development of its port. Haifa was contested by Jews and Arabs in the 1948–49 war because of its industrial importance. By the late 20th cent. the city's population was largely Jewish, although Muslims, Christians, and Druze continued to live in the area. Haifa was a target of Iraqi missiles during the Persian Gulf War and Hezbollah missiles launched from S Lebanon in 2006. Haifa Univ. and the Technion (Israel Institute of Technology; est. 1924) are there. Haifa is the world center of Baha'i and the site of the shrine of Bab and a Baha'i temple.

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"Haifa." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Haifa." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/haifa

Haifa

Haifa (Hefa) City on Mount Carmel, Israel. It is the centre of Baha'i. It is Israel's major port and third-largest city. Industries: textiles, shipbuilding, oil-refining. Pop. (1997) 264,301.

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"Haifa." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Haifa." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved September 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/haifa

Haifa

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