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Shiraz

SHIRAZ

Ancient city and provincial capital in southwestern Iran.

Shiraz, the capital of Fars, probably dates back to Achemenid times (c. 550330 b.c.e.). During the Sassanian dynasty (c. 226642 c.e.), it developed into an important commercial center and military base, a position it has retained for more than 1,300 years. During the medieval period, two of Iran's greatest poets, Saʿdi and Hafez, lived in the city. Shiraz flourished in the late eighteenth century as the capital of the Zand dynasty (17501794).

During the nineteenth century Shiraz was an important center for the distribution of foreign trade, much of which passed through the Persian Gulf port of Bushehr (Bushire), about 125 miles west of the city. The development of ports in Khuzestan in the early twentieth century, and especially the building of the Trans-Iranian Railway, which bypassed both Shiraz and Bushehr, led to the decline of this trade. Beginning in the 1930s, however, modern industries were developed in Shiraz, initially textile factories, but increasingly more diversified manufacturing after 1965. Industrialization brought a major influx of rural migrants, and the city's population increased nearly sixfold in 40 years, from 179,000 in 1956 to 1,053,000 by 1996.

Bibliography

Fisher, W. B. "Physical Geography." In The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 1, edited by W. B. Fisher. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1968.

neguin yavari
updated by eric hooglund

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"Shiraz." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Shiraz." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shiraz

"Shiraz." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved June 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shiraz

Shiraz

Shiraz (shēräz´), city (1991 pop. 965,117), capital of Fars prov., SW Iran, at an altitude of c.5,200 ft (1,580 m). It is a commercial and industrial center and has long been known for its wines, carpets, and metalwork. Other manufactures include textiles, petrochemicals, cement, and sugar. An old settlement, Shiraz became an important commercial, military, and administrative center in the late 7th cent. In the 9th cent. two brothers of Imam Riza died in Shiraz; their tombs are still visited by pilgrims. From about the 10th cent. Shirazi traders were active along the E African coast. Timur sacked the city in the late 14th cent., but later, under the Safavids, it was embellished with numerous new buildings. Under Karim Khan, the city served (1750–79) as capital of Persia; it declined after Karim's successor, Aga Muhammad Khan, moved the capital to Tehran. Hafiz and Sadi, two of Persia's greatest poets, are buried in garden-enclosed tombs in Shiraz. A university and the Fars Museum are also in the city. Nearby are the ruins of Persepolis, established by Darius I (fl. 521 BC–486 BC) as capital of the Persian empire. The palace was destroyed by Alexander in 330 BC

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"Shiraz." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Shiraz." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shiraz

"Shiraz." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shiraz

Shiraz

Shiraz Capital of Fars province, in the Zagros Mountains, sw Iran. An ancient city established near Persepolis, it was an artistic centre from the 4th century. From the 7th century it was a trade centre, and in the 9th century it developed into a place of Muslim pilgrimage. From 1750–94 Shiraz was the capital of Persia, and many buildings date from that period. Still noted for its wine and carpets, its other products include metalwork, textiles, cement and sugar. Pop. (1996) 1,053,025.

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"Shiraz." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Shiraz." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shiraz

"Shiraz." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved June 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shiraz

Shiraz

ShirazAbkhaz, as, Baz, has, jazz, pizzazz, razz, whereas •Boas, Boaz •topaz • Shiraz • Alcatraz • razzmatazz

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"Shiraz." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Shiraz." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shiraz

"Shiraz." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved June 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shiraz