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Java

Java (jä´və), island (1990 pop. 107,525,520), c.51,000 sq mi (132,090 sq km), Indonesia, S of Borneo, from which it is separated by the Java Sea, and SE of Sumatra across Sunda Strait. Although Java is the fifth largest island of Indonesia, constituting only one seventh of the country's total area, it contains two thirds of the country's population; it is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. For centuries it has been the cultural, political, and economic center of the area. In Java are the republic's capital and largest city, Jakarta, and the second and third largest cities, Surabaya and Bandung. Tanjungpriok is the chief port, and Yogyakarta and Surakarta are cultural centers.

Land and People

A chain of active volcanic mountains, most densely forested with teak, palms, and other woods, traverses the length of the island from east to west; Mt. Semeru rises to 12,060 ft (3,676 m). There are almost two million acres of planted teak forests; although Java contains only about 3% of the country's forest land, it accounts for much of its timber production. The climate is warm and humid, and the volcanic soil exceptionally fertile, but the island is subject to often deadly earthquakes. There are elaborate irrigation systems supplied by the island's numerous short, turbulent rivers. Found mostly in the interior are such animals as tigers, rhinoceroses, and crocodiles; birds of brilliant plumage are numerous.

Java was a home of early humans (see human evolution); on it were found (1891) the fossilized remains of the so-called Java man, Pithecanthropus erectus. The typically Malayan inhabitants of the island comprise the Javanese (the most numerous), Sudanese, and Madurese. Numerous Chinese and Arabs live in the cities. Like Bali, Java is known for its highly developed arts. There is a rich literature, and the wayang, or shadow play, employing puppets and musical accompaniment, is an important dramatic form. Java has many state and private institutions of higher learning; most are in Jakarta, but Bandung, Bogor, Yogyakarta, and Surabaya all have several universities.

Economy

Most of Indonesia's sugarcane and kapok are grown in Java. Rubber, tea, coffee, tobacco, cacao, and cinchona are produced in highland plantations. Rice is the chief small-farm crop. Cattle are raised in the east. In the northeast are important oil fields; tin, gold, silver, copper, coal, manganese, phosphate, and sulfur are mined. Most of the country's manufacturing establishments are in Java. Industry is centered chiefly in Jakarta and Surabaya, but Bandung is a noted textile center.

History

Early in the Christian era Indians began colonizing Java, and by the 7th cent. "Indianized" kingdoms were dominant in both Java and Sumatra. The Sailendra dynasty (760–860 in Java) unified the Sumatran and Javan kingdoms and built in Java the magnificent Buddhist temple Borobudur. From the 10th to the 15th cent., E Java was the center of Hindu-Javanese culture. The high point of Javanese history was the rise of the powerful Hindu-Javanese state of Majapahit (founded 1293), which extended its rule over much of Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula. Islam, which had been introduced in the 13th cent., peacefully spread its influence, and the new Muslim state of Mataram emerged in the 16th cent.

Following the Portuguese, the Dutch arrived in 1596, and in 1619 the Dutch East India Company established its chief post in Batavia (now Jakarta), thence gradually absorbing the native states into which the once-powerful Javanese empire had disintegrated. Between 1811 and 1815, Java was briefly under British rule headed by Sir Thomas S. Raffles, who instituted certain reforms. The Dutch ignored these when they returned to power, resorting to a system of enforced labor, which, along with harsh methods of exploitation, led to a native uprising (1825–30) under Prince Diponegoro; the Dutch subsequently adopted a more humane approach.

In the early phase of World War II, Java was left open to Japanese invasion by the disastrous Allied defeat in the battle of the Java Sea in Feb., 1942; Java was occupied by the Japanese until the end of the war. After the war the island was the scene of much fighting between Dutch and Indonesian forces, with the Indonesians declaring independence in 1945. In 1946 the Dutch occupied many of the key cities, and Yogyakarta was the provisional capital of the Republic of Indonesia from 1949 to 1950. Java now constitutes three provinces of Indonesia—West, Central, and East Java—as well as the autonomous districts of Yogyakarta and Jakarta. Overcrowding on Java led to the government's policy of "transmigration," in which farmers were relocated to less populated Indonesian islands. An earthquake in May, 2006, centered near the coast S of Yogyakarta, killed some 5,800 people and injured more than 36,000.

Bibliography

See C. Geertz, The Religion of Java (1960); C. Day, The Dutch in Java (1904, repr. 1966); B. R. Anderson, Java in a Time of Revolution (1972); R. M. Koentjaraningrat, Javanese Culture (1989).

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Java

JAVA

Java is a programming language that is widely used on the World Wide Web, both in Web pages (client side) and on Web servers (computers used to host or maintain Web sites). Therefore, it is an important technical component of e-commerce. Based on a high-level programming language called C++, the most popular, powerful aspect of Java is that it allows programmers to create programs that can be downloaded onto computers regardless of their operating systems (programs like Windows used for controlling a computer's basic operations). Additionally, because of its available security features, programs written in Java can be downloaded and run safely, eliminating concerns about viruses or damaged files.

Java is both simple and powerful, which makes it popular with programmers. Like C++, it is an object-oriented programming language. Object-oriented programming involves techniques that allow programmers to increase efficiency and reduce complexity. Java was developed by Sun Microsystems in 1991 for use in consumer devices. However, it soon found a place on the Web when Sun made it available for that purpose in the mid-1990s. In the early 2000s, Web browsers like Netscape Navigator, cellular phones, and personal digital assistants were being specifically designed to support the Java programming language.

HOW JAVA WORKS

Because it is an interpreted language, Java doesn't work alone. It relies on an interpreter called the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) to function. Many high-level programming languages, like C and C++, rely on programs called compilers or interpreters so they can be converted to the fundamental machine language (zeroes and ones) that a computer's hardware actually understands. However, instead of being translated directly into machine language, programs written in Java are compiled into bytecodean intermediate language that can be interpreted by any computer running JVM. This is what gives the Java language the ability to run on any computer. While the Java programming language is available for free to programmers, the JVM requires a license for use.

Besides JVM, the Java language relies on another critical component known as the Java Platform. As David Flanagan explained in Java in a Nutshell, the Java platform consists of a set of classes. "A class is a module of Java code that defines a data structure and a set of methods (also called procedures, functions, or subroutines) that operate on that data." Classes are subsequently organized into groups called packages, which involve many functions, including networking, graphics, input/output, user-interface creation, and security.

When programs written in Java run from a Web page, they are referred to as applets. When they run on servers, they are referred to as servlets. Rather than running from a server, Web page applets actually get downloaded to a user's computer, sometimes in a matter of seconds. This frees up the server's resources so its efficiency is not affected. Many applets are available to Web site operators for free. Examples of applets include productivity tools like spread sheets, animation, mathematical applications like calculators, Web forms, and more. Many applets can be valuable tools on e-commerce sites. Because they are actual programs, applets allow Web site operators to expand the capabilities of their sites beyond that which is possible with hypertext markup language (HTML)the authoring or presentation language used for creating the appearance of Web pages.

Like most programming languages, Java has evolved since it first came onto the scene. Since the mid-1990s, several improved versions have been released. Although other languages like Visual Basic were easier to learn, there was a very strong interest in Java during the early 2000s. At that time, hundreds of books had been written on the language, and it was poised to play an increasing role on the World Wide Web. Some industry professionals expected Java to become the dominant programming language of the 2000s.

FURTHER READING:

Appleman, Daniel. How Computer Programming Works. Berkeley: Apress. 2000.

Bull, Glen and Gina Bull "Java Applets." Learning and Leading with Technology, May, 2000.

Flanagan, David. Java in a Nutshell. Sebastopol, California: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. 1999.

"Java." NetLingo Inc, January 31, 2001. Available from www.netlingo.com.

"Java." Techencyclopedia, March 7, 2001. Available from www.techweb.com/encyclopedia.

"The Origins of C and C++." Cyberdiem, January 30, 2001. Available from www.cyberdiem.com.

Tash, Jeff. "Java! Java! Java!" Planet IT, May 4, 1999. Available from www.planetit.com.

SEE ALSO: C; Programming Language; HTML

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Java

Java A language for object-oriented programming on the Internet, especially applicable to the World Wide Web; it was developed from 1990 at Sun Microsystems by P. Naughton. The output produced by a Java compiler is not executable code but an intermediate representation, known as bytecode, that is designed to translate directly into native machine code for high performance. Bytecode can thus be interpreted on any computer on which the Java run-time system is installed, allowing cross-platform portability (see platform, portable). Allegedly, full security is provided as no Java program can break out of this run-time environment or access unprotected system resources. Java is optimized for small networked applications that are dynamically downloaded across the Internet. These small programs, known as applets, can react to user input.

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Java

Java Indonesian island, between the Java Sea and the Indian Ocean, se of Sumatra; its largest city is Jakarta. In the early centuries ad, the island was ruled by Hindu kingdoms. Islam began to spread in the 16th century. By the 18th century the island was mainly under Dutch control. It was occupied by the Japanese during World War II. Java is a mountainous country, with a volcanic belt in the s and an alluvial plain to the n. It is thickly forested and has many rivers. It produces rice, tea, coffee, sugar cane, textiles, tobacco, and rubber. Silver, gold, and phosphate are mined in the n. Area: 126,501sq km (48,842sq mi). Pop. (2000) 117,319,419.

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Java

Javacadaver, slaver •halva, salver, salvor •balaclava, Bratislava, carver, cassava, Costa Brava, guava, Java, kava, larva, lava, palaver •woodcarver •clever, endeavour (US endeavor), ever, forever, however, howsoever, never, never-never, sever, Trevor, whatever, whatsoever, whenever, whensoever, wheresoever, wherever, whichever, whichsoever, whoever, whomever, whomsoever, whosoever •delver, elver •Denver •Ava, caver, craver, deva, engraver, enslaver, favour (US favor), flavour (US flavor), graver, haver, laver, paver, quaver, raver, saver, savour (US savor), shaver, vena cava, waiver, waver •lifesaver • semiquaver •achiever, beaver, believer, cleaver, deceiver, diva, Eva, fever, Geneva, griever, heaver, leaver, lever, Neva, perceiver, receiver, reiver, reliever, retriever, Shiva, underachiever, viva, weaver, weever •cantilever

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