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Amritsar

Amritsar (əmrĬt´sər), city (1991 pop. 709,456), Punjab state, NW India. It is a district administrative center, as well as a trade and industrial city where carpets, fabrics of goat hair, and handicrafts are made. The center of the Sikh religion (see Sikhism), Amritsar was founded in 1577 by Ram Das, the fourth guru [Hindustani,=teacher], on land given by Akbar. The Golden Temple (refurbished 1802), set in the center of a lake, is especially sacred to Sikhs. The city was the center of a Sikh empire in the early 19th cent., and modern Sikh nationalism was founded there. Khalsa College, a branch of Punjab Univ., is in Amritsar. The first Amritsar massacre took place in the Jalianwala Bagh, an enclosed park, in Apr., 1919; hundreds of Indian nationalists were killed and thousands wounded when troops under British control fired upon them. The second massacre occurred June, 1984, when Indian troops, opposing a militant Sikh separatist movement, shot their way into the Golden Temple, killing more than 400 people inside.

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Amritsar

Amritsar (Pañjābī, ‘pool of nectar’). Sikhs' spiritual capital. Amritsar, Pañjāb, is 400 km. NNW of Delhi and 30 km. from Pakistan. It is especially holy to Sikhs on account of the Harimandir (Golden Temple). Amritsar, first known as Gurū kā Chak, Rāmdāspur, and Chak Rām Dās, was founded 1577 CE by Gurū Rām Dās, who built a brick temple there. The city took its name from the pool. In 1984, the Indian army stormed the Harimandir to dislodge Sikh militants.

In 1919, many Sikhs who, disregarding the Rowlatt Acts, had gathered on Vaisākhī in Jalliānwālā Bāgh, were killed by British soldiers under the command of Brigadier General Dyer. This event, of great significance for the Independence movement in India, and for establishing ‘minimum force’ as a rule in crowd control, is known as the Amritsar massacre.

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"Amritsar." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Amritsar massacre

Amritsar massacre, 1919. On 13 April 1919 at Jallianwalla Bagh in Amritsar, General R. E. H. Dyer ordered his soldiers to fire on a protesting though unarmed crowd, killing 400 people. The shootings were for defiance of a martial law ban on assembly imposed under the Rowlatt Act, passed against sedition at the end of the First World War. The Act and the massacre became symbols of British oppression to the Indian freedom struggle, then developing a mass political following. Mahatma Gandhi led nation-wide demonstrations, which brought him to leadership of the Indian national movement.

David Anthony Washbrook

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Amritsar

Amritsar City in Punjab state, nw India. Founded in 1577, Amritsar is the religious centre of Sikhism, and site of its holiest shrine, the Golden Temple. It was the scene of the Amritsar Massacre (1919), when hundreds of Indian nationalists were killed by British troops. Amritsar is noted for its handicrafts. Industries: textiles, silk weaving. Pop. (2001) 975,695.

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Amritsar

Amritsar a city in the state of Punjab in NW India, founded in 1577 by Ram Das (1534–81), fourth guru of the Sikhs. It became the centre of the Sikh faith and the site of its holiest temple, the Golden Temple. It was the scene of a riot in 1919, in which 400 people were killed by British troops.

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"Amritsar." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Amritsar

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