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temple (edifice of worship)

temple, edifice or sometimes merely an enclosed area dedicated to the worship of a deity and the enshrinement of holy objects connected with such worship. The temple has been employed in most of the world's religions. Although remains of Egyptian temples of c.2000 BC show well-defined architectural forms, it seems likely that temples were hewed in living rock at a still earlier age: the cave temples of Egypt, India, China, and the Mediterranean basin may be viewed as later developments of such primitive shrines.

Egyptian Temples

In Egypt in the New Kingdom impressive rock temples were hewed from cliffsides, the finest being the great temple of Abu-Simbel constructed by Ramses II. In the developed structural temples of Egypt a doorway, flanked by monumental towers or pylons, led to an unroofed open court, generally surrounded on three sides by a colonnaded passage. Beyond the court lay the majestic hypostyle hall and a variety of chambers preceding and surrounding the holy of holies. From the temple entrance to this innermost sanctuary the various units diminished progressively in size and height, while the direct outside light was also reduced. The typical temple later accumulated additional pylons, courts, and rooms, the entire group being enclosed by a massive wall. Only monarchs and priests had access to the chambers beyond the hypostyle hall. The New Kingdom was the most active period of temple construction, although the grandest temple, that of Amon at Al Karnak, was begun much earlier.

Babylonian and Assyrian Temples

In the ancient Babylonian and Assyrian periods of W Asia the temple, or ziggurat, was a square pyramidal structure about 300 ft (90 m) high built up in successive, inclined terraces, sometimes as many as seven; with accessory buildings it was enclosed by walls. At its summit was a chamber that served both as a shrine and for astronomical observations. Glazed colored bricks faced the walls.

Jewish Temples

The temple of Solomon at Jerusalem, the only known monumental structure of the ancient Hebrews, consisted, according to biblical descriptions, of entrance pylons, courts, and a naos, a large rectangular chamber, giving entrance to the holy of holies, which housed the Ark of the Covenant. Its several destructions and reconstructions (one by Herod in 20 BC) have rendered unrecognizable any remains of the original edifice. The workmanship, characteristically Phoenician, was of stone, timber, and metal. The temple of Herod, to which Jesus went, was destroyed AD 70; its ruins have symbolized to the Jews their dispersion.

Greek Temples

The Dorian immigration (before 1000 BC) was a prelude to the building of Greek temples, at first made of timber and sun-dried brick. The superb stone and marble buildings on a defined floor plan were achieved in the middle of the 6th cent. BC, although the most perfect examples, like the Parthenon (5th cent. BC), came later. The Greek temple customarily stood in a temenos, or sacred enclosure, along with accessory shrines, colonnades, and buildings housing the temple treasures. It was built not as a place for assembled worship but as the dwelling for the deity, whose colossal sculptured representation was placed in the naos, and illuminated by the daylight entering through the tall entrance portal. In larger temples, to support the roof lintels, two interior rows of columns divided the naos into nave and side aisles.

Roman Temples

The Roman temple, while based upon the Greek type, retained elements from Etruscan architecture, as in its deep front portico and its elevation upon a high base, or podium, whose wings extended forward to flank the broad entrance steps. The Maison Carrée at Nîmes, France (1st cent. BC), the best-preserved Roman temple, is the common pseudoperipteral type, with engaged columns or pilasters attached to its walls. Unlike the long narrow Greek naos, the Roman cella was nearly square in plan. Of the polygonal and circular temples the circular pantheon at Rome (2d cent. AD) with its magnificent dome is the most remarkable. Many temples, particularly those of the Eastern colonies, as at Baalbek in Syria, had magnificent settings of entrance courts enclosed by colonnades.

Indian Temples

In India the most ancient remaining temples are the rock-hewed monuments of the Buddhist period (c.255 BC–c.AD 300); important groups exist in W India, east of Mumbai. The typical interior is a vast cave divided by lavishly sculptured rock piers into nave and aisles; the sculptured facade, hewed from the cliff face, has a single huge opening to admit light. The principal Indian temples are gradual accretions around a sacred site, forming a religious center comprising shrines, cells for priests, and accommodations for pilgrims. The expression of symbolism is of paramount importance in both structure and ornaments.

Far Eastern Temples

In China the characteristic temple differs from the form of a dwelling only in its size and richness. Besides the temple a Buddhist monastery includes a relic shrine, a pagoda, a library, and quarters for the monks. In Japan the temple harmonizes with the picturesque landscape in which it is set, with architectural emphasis on an unsymmetrical grouping of torii (sacred gateways), shrines, pagodas, and terraces.

Further Reading

See also Greek architecture; Roman architecture; Indian art and architecture; Chinese architecture; Japanese architecture; pre-Columbian art and architecture.

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"temple (edifice of worship)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"temple (edifice of worship)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/temple-edifice-worship

"temple (edifice of worship)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/temple-edifice-worship

Temple

Temple

Judaism

(also Temple Mount) The central place of Jewish worship in ancient times. The first Temple was built in Jerusalem by King Solomon. It was destroyed by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon in 586 BCE, and the fast of 9 Av was instituted to commemorate the event. It was rebuilt after the return from exile under the leadership of Zerubbabel (Haggai 2) and was greatly enlarged and improved by King Herod the Great (1st cent. BCE). Within the walls lay the Temple Court open even to gentiles; at the east end beyond the Gate Beautiful was the Court of Women which lay inside the consecrated area. Beyond this lay the Court of the Israelites, open to all male Jews, from which the sacrifices performed on the altar in the Court of Priests could be viewed. Up further steps was the Temple proper, consisting of the porch, the sanctuary which was furnished with the altar of incense, the table of shewbread, and the golden menorah, and finally the Holy of Holies. Temple ritual is described in the Mishnaic tractates, Tamid, Middot, and Yoma. The building was destroyed by the Romans (again on 9 Av) in the siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE.

Hinduism

See ART.

Jainism

Although there has been occasional dissent among Jains (e.g. the Terapanth), the majority of Jains have regarded the building of temples and the revering of the fordmakers in them as meritorious; and they would describe themselves as murtipujakas, ‘image-worshippers’. Jain temples reflect early descriptions of the first preaching hall of Mahāvīra, and usually include a tower said to represent Jain cosmography, but perhaps absorbed from Mount Meru as the axis mundi.

Japanese Religion

(Jap., tera, ji) Centres for institutionalized Buddhist practice in Japan. Japanese Buddhist temples, both architecturally and religiously, were heavily influenced initially (6th–8th cents. CE) by the Chinese and Korean temple systems. Later, Japan adopted these systems to their own practices and developing sectarian movements.

Temples generally belong to one or another of the many sects of Japanese Buddhism, including some of the Buddhist ‘new religions’ of Japan. As such, they represent Japanese Buddhism in its sectarian and institutionalized form.

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"Temple." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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temple

temple.
1. Building for pagan religious observances, or the dwelling-place of a deity. The word was applied to sacred buildings of the Ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and others. The Antique Classical temple was usually rectangular, and consisted of a cella (naos in Greek), sanctuary, and portico. Greek temples were commonly surrounded by columns (peristyle) supporting an entablature, with a pediment at each end (e.g. C5 bc Parth enon, Athens), but sometimes had a portico at each end (amphi-prostyle) with plain walls (e.g. C5 bc temple of Nikè Apteros, Athens). Roman temples usually had a deep portico at one end (derived from Etruscan exemplars), a plain cella (sometimes with engaged columns, e.g. C1 bc Maison Carrée, Nîmes), and were built on high podia. Circular buildings of the tholos type were built by both the Greeks and Romans (e.g. C1 bc temple of Vesta, Tivoli). Terms used to describe arrangements of columns are described elsewhere (see anta, colonnade, intercolumniation, portico).

2. Synagogue.

3. French Protestant church, or any building for public worship by Nonconformist Protestant sects, especially a large or grand structure.

4. Mormon place of worship.

5. Sacred edifice in Jerusalem, seat of the Jewish worship of Jehovah, especially the Temple of Solomon.

6. Headquarters of the Knights Templars, or a place once occupied by a preceptory of the Knights Templars (as in London and Paris).

7. Building with architectural pretensions for special ritual use, as a Freemasonic Lodge, related to the Temple of Solomon.

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"temple." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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temple

temple a building devoted to the worship, or regarded as the dwelling place, of a god or gods or other objects of religious reverence. The word is recorded from Old English (in form temp(e)l), and was reinforced in Middle English by Old French temple; both come from Latin templum ‘open or consecrated ground’.
The Temple is the name given to either of two successive religious buildings of the Jews in Jerusalem. The first (957–586 bc) was built by Solomon and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar; it contained the Ark of the Covenant. The second (515 bc–ad 70) was enlarged by Herod the Great from 20 bc and destroyed by the Romans during a Jewish revolt; all that remains is the Wailing Wall. Also called Temple of Solomon.

A group of buildings in Fleet Street, London, which stand on land formerly occupied by the headquarters of the Knights Templars is also known as the Temple; the Inner Temple and the Outer Temple, two of the Inns of Court, are located there.
Temple Bar the name of the barrier or gateway closing the entrance into the City of London from the Strand; removed in 1878. Heads of those executed for treason were traditionally exposed there.

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"temple." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"temple." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved June 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/temple

temple

tem·ple1 / ˈtempəl/ • n. a building devoted to the worship, or regarded as the dwelling place, of a god or gods or other objects of religious reverence. ∎  (the Temple) either of two successive religious buildings of the Jews in Jerusalem. The first (957–586 bc) was built by Solomon and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar; it contained the Ark of the Covenant. The second (515 bcad 70) was enlarged by Herod the Great from 20 bc and destroyed by the Romans during a Jewish revolt; all that remains is the Western Wall. ∎  (the Temple) a group of buildings in Fleet Street in London that stand on land formerly occupied by the headquarters of the Knights Templars. Located there are the Inner and Outer Temple, two of the Inns of Court. ∎  a synagogue. ∎  a place of Christian public worship, esp. a Protestant church in France. tem·ple2 • n. the flat part of either side of the head between the forehead and the ear. tem·ple3 • n. a device in a loom for keeping the cloth stretched.

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"temple." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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temple

temple Place of worship for Jews and members of many other religions. Temples were a grand architectural focal point in the religion and culture of ancient Egypt and the Near East. In Mesopotamia, they took the form of elaborate towers called ziggurats. Greek and Roman temples, with beautifully carved statues and columns, were houses fit for the gods. In Judaism, the term refers specifically to the first and second Temple built in Jerusalem. Today, Jews worship in a local synagogue. Temples also exist as places of worship for Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists, and Sikhs. Some Evangelical Christian sects and the Mormon Church use the term.

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Temple (city, United States)

Temple, city (1990 pop. 46,109), Bell co., central Tex.; inc. 1882. In a rich blackland region, Temple has grain and textile mills, railroad shops, and plants that make computer printers and terminals, furniture, and school and office supplies. Several state and federal agencies have agricultural research centers there. A campuse of the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine is in the city.

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temple

temple1 sacred edifice. OE. temp(e)l (reinforced in ME. by (O)F. temple). — L. templum space marked out by an augur for taking observations, broad open space, consecrated space, sanctuary; of uncert. orig.

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temple

temple2 flat part of the head between forehead and either ear. XIV. — OF. temple (mod. tempe) :- Rom. *tempula, alt. of L. tempora, pl. of tempus.

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Temple

Tem·ple 1 / ˈtempəl/ an industrial and commercial city in central Texas; pop. 46,109.

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temple

temple (tem-pŭl) n. the region of the head in front of and above each ear.

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"temple." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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temple

temple3 weaver's stretcher. XV. — F., ult. identical with TEMPLE2.

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Temple

Temple

a local group of Oddfellows.

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temple

templeapple, chapel, chappal, Chappell, dapple, grapple, scrapple •scalpel •ample, trample •pineapple •carpal, carpel •example, sample •sepal •stemple, temple •maple, papal, staple •peepul, people, steeple •tradespeople • sportspeople •townspeople • workpeople •cripple, fipple, nipple, ripple, stipple, tipple, triple •dimple, pimple, simple, wimple •Oedipal • maniple • manciple •municipal •principal, principle •participle • multiple •archetypal, disciple, typal •prototypal •hopple, popple, stopple, topple •gospel •Constantinople, copal, nopal, opal, Opel •duple, pupal, pupil, scruple •quadruple • septuple • sextuple •quintuple • octuple •couple, supple •crumple, rumple, scrumple •syncopal • episcopal • purple

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