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Teṉkaḷai

Teṉkaḷai and Vaṭakaḷai. The two rival religious movements within Śrī-Vaiṣṇavism. In origin, this division goes back to different theological positions, taken by Vedāntadeśika in relation to the teachings of Piḷḷai Lokācārya, about the nature of prapatti, Lakṣmī, and divine grace. The former argued that the traditions inherited from the Āḻvārs and Rāmānuja had to be regarded together (as the ubhaya-Vedānta, ‘the twofold Vedic heritage’) and as fulfilling orthodoxy, not as cancelling it. He implicitly objected to a one-sided emphasis on a locally restricted, vernacular tradition (namely, the Āḻvārs, as interpreted by the Lokācārya). Grace had to be ‘earned’ through at least a minimum of human co-operation, which must include orthodox behaviour. His opponents viewed things differently. They regarded the Āḻvār heritage as supreme and produced a vast commentarial literature on the Nālāyira-divya-prabandham in Tamil. Not only did they read Rāmānuja's theology into the poems, but their exegesis derived from them also the blueprint of a totally novel form of religion. The novelty lay in the assumption of the unconditional availability of grace, with two important corollaries. First, no restrictions (as through caste, etc.) must be imposed on it; and secondly, ‘orthodox behaviour’ was seen as creating the delusion of being able to merit divine grace. Through the teaching and organizing of Maṇavāḷa mā-muṉi (15th cent.) the obvious social, institutional, and cultural implications of all this were actualized and given a further economic and political dimension. Central in this was the question of control over temples (and their endowments).

The characteristic signs are a U containing a single vertical line for the Vaṭakaḷai (central line usually yellow) and the same supported on a stem for the Teṉkaḷai (central line red).

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"Teṉkaḷai." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Teṉkaḷai." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved October 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/tenkalai

Teṉkaḷai

Vaṭakaḷai (religious movement within Śrī-Vaiṣṇavism): see TEፈKAḶAI.

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Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

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"Teṉkaḷai." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Teṉkaḷai." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/tenkalai-0

"Teṉkaḷai." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved October 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/tenkalai-0