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Real Presence

Real Presence, expression of the belief among certain Christians, especially Roman Catholics and some Anglicans, that the actual presence of the body and blood of Jesus is in the Eucharist. Saints Ignatius of Antioch, Justin Martyr, and Irenaeus wrote of the bread and wine of the Eucharist as the actual body and blood of Christ. In the 4th cent. the focus shifted to the substantial transformation of the elements; by the 7th cent. the idea that the bread and wine were transmuted or converted in substance to the body and blood of Christ was prevalent throughout Christendom. This transformation was the subject of controversy in the 9th and 11th cent., and a Roman Council of 1079 issued a statement declaring that the bread and wine are changed substantially through consecration. The Fourth Lateran Council (1215) again sanctioned belief in transubstantiation. The doctrine recieved its classic formulation in the writing of St. Thomas Aquinas. The Council of Trent, confronted with Protestant challenges, especially from Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin, issued an authoritative teaching upholding the doctrine of transubstantiation. For Protestant interpretations, see Lord's Supper.

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"Real Presence." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Real Presence." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/real-presence

"Real Presence." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/real-presence

Real presence

Real presence. In Catholic and some Protestant teaching, the presence of the body and blood of Christ in the eucharist. The specifically Catholic aspects of the doctrine are: (i) its understanding in terms of transubstantiation, and (ii) its consequences for eucharistic devotions such as the exposition of the sacrament.

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"Real presence." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Real presence." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/real-presence

"Real presence." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved December 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/real-presence