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Alexander, Jane

Jane Alexander

An American actress with a rarely equaled reputation for high-quality work, Jane Alexander (born 1939) has worked with equal success in the fields of film, theater, and television. She has not hesitated to take on roles with controversial content; her range as a performer is wide.

In the 1990s, Alexander spent four stormy years as the chair of the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), the chief arts funding agency operated by the United States government. As federal arts funding became a political football during the politically polarized administration of President Bill Clinton, Alexander struggled to uphold the ideal of the arts as a broadly beneficial force in society. After leaving the agency, Alexander returned to acting, and although she suffered along with other middle-aged actresses from a general lack of substantial film parts for women, she still found a strong demand for her talents.

Granddaughter of Buffalo Bill's Physician

Born Jane Quigley in Boston, Massachusetts on October 28, 1939, Alexander grew up in a fairly affluent household. Her father, Thomas Quigley, was a noted sports physician and surgeon whose own father had been the personal physician to the famed prairie scout and Wild West show promoter William "Buffalo Bill" Cody. Alexander grew up going to symphony and dance concerts and traveling on her own by subway to Boston's splendid art museums. She loved the arts in general from a young age, but her acting career did not begin until her years at Sarah Lawrence College. There, she auditioned for and won a part in The Plough and the Stars, a play by Irish writer Sean O'Casey. Alexander immersed herself in the role, and for the rest of her career she would be noted for enthusiastic research into the lives, real or imagined, of the characters she played. Her investigations began with books and would sometimes extend to visiting places where a character may have spent time.

Upset by a friend's sudden death during her sophomore year, she left Sarah Lawrence and went to study theater at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland in 1959 and 1960. She married actor and director Robert Alexander in 1962, and their son Jason went on to become a director. Robert and Jane Alexander divorced in 1969. Her second husband, director Edwin Sherin, met Alexander when she auditioned for a play and impressed him with her total commitment to the role. They would marry in 1975, occasionally working together as director and lead actress.

Alexander's professional career began at the Charles Playhouse in Boston in 1964. The following year she moved on to the Arena Stage company in Washington, D.C. and had 15 parts in plays there between 1965 and 1968. Her career at Arena Stage culminated in her creation of the role of Eleanor in Howard Sackler's The Great White Hope, playing the mistress of troubled black heavyweight boxer Jack Jefferson—based on the real-life figure of Jack Johnson and played by actor James Earl Jones. The play was a major success and moved in 1969 to Broadway in New York, where Alexander's performance earned her a Tony award.

The portrayal of an interracial romance on stage, at a time when such subject matter was still rare, brought Alexander her first taste of controversy; she received hate mail that included occasional death threats. Ignoring the attacks, she continued to perform. The Great White Hope was filmed in 1971, once again with Alexander in the role of Eleanor, and she was nominated for an Academy Award for her performance.

Portrayed Eleanor Roosevelt

For the next several years, Alexander worked consistently in theater, films, and television. She appeared in the hit Broadway play Six Rms Riv Vu in 1972 and 1973, and took one of her few Shakespearean roles in Hamlet in 1975—despite her lifelong identification with high-quality material, Alexander was more oriented toward contemporary plays and films rather than toward theatrical classics. After small parts in The New Centurions (1972) and several other films, Alexander returned to the spotlight in 1976 with the starring role of Eleanor Roosevelt in the made-for-television film Eleanor and Franklin and its sequel, Eleanor and Franklin: The White House Years, the following year. She also won another Academy Award nomination for her appearance in the political drama All the President's Men.

In 1979 Alexander landed the high-profile supporting role of Margaret in Kramer vs. Kramer, playing a friend to both parties in a bitter divorce struggle. The 1980 made-for-television film Playing for Time, in which Alexander played one of a group of female concentration-camp prisoners who stave off death by forming an orchestra and playing music for camp commanders, was another feather in Alexander's cap critically. Many of the films that made Alexander a familiar face appeared on television, and Testament (1983), a tale that manifested the nuclear-war jitters of the 1980s, started out in the television medium.

In Testament, Alexander played the mother in a California family trying to survive in the aftermath of a nuclear attack. Some critics condemned the film as melodramatic, but it brought the dangers of the Cold War between the U.S. and the Soviet Union home to viewers in an immediate way, and Alexander gained praise for her performance as the film became a national topic of conversation and was rushed into theatrical release. Alexander showed her versatility with a complete about-face in her next role, playing the title role of Old West diarist Calamity Jane in a television film of 1984.

With new clout in the industry, Alexander could act on a desire to branch out from high-minded roles. "I get offered a lot of films that have a noble woman pursuing a noble cause, or something like that," she explained to David Sterritt of the Christian Science Monitor. Alexander served as both star and executive producer for Square Dance (1987), a family drama set in Texas that took Alexander to country-music dance clubs as she carried out her trademark research for the role. In 1989 Alexander went beyond her usual reserved image when she played flamboyant gossip columnist Hedda Hopper in the television film Malice in Wonderland, and she had an uncredited role in the acclaimed Civil War drama Glory, as the mother of Colonel Robert G. Shaw (played by Matthew Broderick), the commander of an all-black Union regiment.

Named to Head NEA

The early 1990s saw Alexander appearing on Broadway in the Wendy Wasserstein play The Sisters Rosenzweig, never giving a thought to entering the world of government service or politics. But a staffer for Rhode Island U.S. Senator Claiborne Pell called Alexander out of the blue and asked whether she would be interested in being considered for the chairmanship of the NEA. The agency had endured several years of controversy over what some saw as obscene art it had funded, and many conservatives in the U.S. Congress were angling for the NEA's elimination, or, at the very least, a reduction in funding. The widely respected Alexander, seen as a consensus choice who could heal wounds within the agency, soon made the short list and then was nominated by President Clinton.

Alexander, for her part, warmed to her new opportunity. As reported by The Boston Globe she told a Senate committee during her confirmation hearings that "the life I have led in theater, in the world of art, has given me so much personally—particularly from Endowment-supported work—that I wish at this time to give something back." Confirmed overwhelmingly in late 1992, Alexander pledged to maintain the agency's independence from political interference. "We have to," she told Interview. "We're upholding a democratic principle here. This is the federal government, and federal agencies do not discriminate. What we do is look for high standards of excellence in the arts."

Alexander took steps to broaden the NEA's base, traveling widely to visit community-based arts groups that benefited from the agency's increased emphasis on disbursing funds beyond the traditional culture centers of the northeastern U.S. Over her first two years as chairman she visited all 50 states, emphasizing the important role the arts could play in local communities and economies. Live, nonprofit arts events were especially critical in an increasingly technology-dominated society, Alexander argued, telling an Economic Club of Detroit audience (according to Vital Speeches of the Day) that such events "will begin to seem like some of the few authentic experiences we have, and they will be places where we appreciate the artist's skill—be it music or painting or theater—and the excitement of discovering new talent."

But Congressional Republicans, who ascended to majority status in the House of Representatives after the 1994 elections, continued to threaten the NEA's existence, leaving Alexander in a defensive posture most of the time. Washington's political environment was unfamiliar for Alexander, who had spent her whole life in arts-oriented settings. The people she worked with in Washington, she complained to Marilyn Stasio of American Theatre, were "a whole new breed. They are not well educated. They are hostile and suspicious of the arts, and it was tough for me to persuade them otherwise." President Clinton, preoccupied with other issues, met with Alexander only after she tried for two years to get an appointment. Few controversies over the funding of specific projects flared while Alexander was chairman, but a combination of new proposals to curb the agency's independence and a desire to return to acting—she had been inducted into the Theatre Hall of Fame in 1995—led her to resign as NEA chairman in 1997. By that time NEA funding had been cut by almost half.

Chronicled Experiences in Book

Alexander wrote about her NEA tenure in the book Command Performance: an Actress in the Theater of Politics, recounting her clashes with congressional conservatives. Steven C. Munson of Policy Review in his negative review of the book blamed many of the problems on what it saw as Alexander's own high-handedness, observing that "the point … that Alexander seems incapable of grasping … is that who's running an agency in Washington, and how he or she approaches that task, can actually make a difference, for good or ill. While the NEA … was spared extinction, it is by no means clear that its survival was because of, rather than despite, Jane Alexander." Art in America's Robert Atkins viewed the book through a different lens, calling it "essentially a bildungsroman, a coming-of-age story in which an idealistic agency head loses her innocence in the snakepit of corruption and ambition that is Washington."

"After being away from theatre for all that time, I was pretty overwhelmed by how deeply moved I was to be back on stage," Alexander told Stasio. She threw herself back into her work, returning to the cinema screen for the first time in ten years with a small role in 1999's The Cider House Rules and taking on various theater projects in New York and Washington. A 2003 production of Henrik Ibsen's Ghosts at Washington's Shakespeare Theatre seemed to refer back to her NEA experiences; it was staged with sexually explicit paintings on the set, standing in for the controversial books her character liked to read in the play as originally written. In 2005 she performed in the one-woman play What of the Night and made a triumphant return to television, starring in Warm Springs and returning to her long fascination with the family of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Her portrayal of Sara Delano Roosevelt, the president's mother, brought her an Emmy award and another flower in a long garland of honors that recognized her craft.


Alexander, Jane, Command Performance: An Actress in the Theater of Politics, Public Affairs, 2000.

Newsmakers 1994 issue 4, Gale, 1994.


American Theatre, September 1998; July 2000; July-August 2003.

Art in America, July 2001.

Boston Globe, September 25, 1992.

Christian Science Monitor, March 13, 1987.

Dance Magazine, December 1997.

Interview, July 1994.

New York Times, March 6, 1984.

Policy Review, December 2000.

Variety, April 11, 2005.

Vital Speeches of the Day, January 15, 1996.

Washington Post, November 25, 1978.


"Jane Alexander," Internet Movie Database, (December 4, 2005).

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Addams, Jane


Jane Addams, a pioneer in social reform, founded Hull House, the first settlement house in the United States, to serve the immigrant families who came to Chicago at the beginning of the industrial revolution. For nearly fifty years, Addams worked relentlessly for improved living and working conditions for America's urban poor, for women's suffrage, and for international pacifism.

Addams was the youngest of eight children born to John H. and Sarah Addams. Her mother died when she was two years old, and her teenage sisters, Mary, Martha, and Alice, took over her upbringing. Her family followed the Quaker faith, and valued hard work and change through peaceful efforts. Addams idolized her father, whom she described as a man of great integrity. He remained a pivotal figure in her life until his death in 1881.

Addams's first exposure to urban poverty occurred when she was six years old, during a trip with her father to Freeport, Illinois. Upon seeing the city's garbage-filled streets and slum housing, she asked her father why the people lived in such horrid houses. After her father told her the people were too poor to have nicer homes, she announced that she would buy a big house when she was grown, where poor children could come and play whenever they liked.

Addams suffered throughout her life from a painful curved spine that caused her to walk pigeon-toed. As a result, she was always self-conscious about her appearance. She was a good student and often helped classmates who were having difficulties with their studies. After graduating from high school in 1877, she attended nearby Rockford Female Seminary, one of the oldest institutions for female education in the area. Rockford encouraged its students to become missionaries, but Addams, who struggled with her religious beliefs all her life, refused to consider that vocation. While at Rockford, she met Ellen Gates Starr, who would later help her found Hull House. Reflecting Addams's emerging concern about the place of women in America, she and Starr attempted to convince the seminary to offer coursework equivalent to that of men's colleges. Eventually, the seminary did become Rockford College.

Addams graduated from Rockford in 1881. Several months later, she was devastated when her father died of a ruptured appendix while on a family vacation in Wisconsin. His death left her a wealthy woman, and she decided to fulfill her plan to attend the Women's Medical College of Philadelphia. Addams began her studies that fall, but almost immediately the back pain she had suffered all her life flared up, forcing her to undergo back surgery.

During her lengthy recovery, Addams toured Europe with her stepmother, Anna Haldeman Addams. Throughout her trip, Addams was struck by the poverty of the industrialized countries she visited. At a fruit and vegetable auction in London, she watched as starving men and women fought over decayed and bruised produce. As she wrote in her autobiography, her impression was of "myriads of hands, empty, pathetic, nerveless and workworn, … clutching forward for food that was already unfit to eat." She was also appalled at the lack of concern for poor people shown by better-off Europeans.

On her return home in 1885, Addams found herself exhausted, depressed, and unsure of her life's purpose. On a second trip to Europe, she visited Toynbee Hall, an experimental Oxford-based project in London's poverty-stricken East End. Educated young men had moved into the area and were offering literacy classes, art lessons, and other activities to residents. Because the men actually settled in the area and lived with the residents, Toynbee was called a settlement house.

"Private beneficence is totally inadequate to deal with the vast numbers of the city'S disinherited."
—Jane Addams

Addams decided to use Toynbee as a model and establish a similar facility in the slums of Chicago. With over a million residents, that city was home to hundreds of thousands of immigrants—from Germany, Ireland, Sweden, Italy, Russia, Greece, and many other countries. These desperate people were a ready source of cheap labor for the Chicago factories, and their poor wages forced them to live in overcrowded, rat-infested tenements, surrounded by filthy, garbage-filled streets. Journalist Lincoln Steffens described the Chicago of that time as violent, foul smelling, and lawless.

Addams enlisted the aid of her former schoolmate, Starr, in her new venture. The women first had to overcome the adamant objections of friends and relatives who were horrified that two educated, unmarried women would consider living in the city's slums. But Addams and Starr soon found a house where they could begin their work, the former mansion of Charles J. Hull. Once a stately country home, the house was now surrounded by rundown, noisy city tenements. In the beginning, Addams was able to rent only a few rooms in the house, but eventually, Hull's heir, Helen Culver, gave her the entire house and some surrounding land.

After several months of cleaning and refurbishing, Addams and Starr opened Hull House in September 1889. Initially, the two were met with great suspicion by the area's residents. Local priests warned their parishioners the women might try to convert them to a new religion, and street children threw garbage and rocks at the house. But Addams and Starr continued to greet their neighbors in a friendly manner, and the residents soon discovered that the women were concerned about their well being. They also found that the women would sell them nourishing food for just a few pennies, and they soon came to depend on Hull House.

In the first few years of the settlement house, Addams established a kindergarten, a women's boarding house, the nation's first public playground, and a day care center for mothers forced to leave their children alone for as long as ten hours each day in order to work. Hull House offered evening college extension courses, English and art classes, a theater group, and books

and magazines for children and adults. Observing the long hours and dangerous working conditions that the neighborhood children were forced to endure, Addams and her friends soon began working for state regulation of child labor, and went on to lobby in Washington, D.C. At home, when city garbage collectors continually ignored overflowing garbage bins, Addams applied for and was appointed to the position of ward garbage inspector, and forced the trash collectors to remove the filth.

Addams described her work at Hull House as an effort to conserve and push forward the best of the community's achievements. She strove to respect and preserve the immigrants' cultures, and the holidays of their various nations were always celebrated at Hull House.

Among the volunteers who flocked to Hull House to work with Addams were several women who later brought about important social reform. Julia C. Lathrop helped establish Chicago's first juvenile court. Dr. Alice Hamilton worked in industrial medicine and conducted studies that helped improve factory conditions. Florence Kelley investigated sweatshops for the Illinois State Bureau of Labor and helped establish child labor laws. Although Addams developed a wide circle of influential supporters because of her work, such as socialist eugene v. debs and journalist Steffens, she also occasionally lost admirers for the same reason. Addams never wavered in her belief that the same activities that caused her to lose some supporters would help her to gain others.

In the first decade of the twentieth century, Addams established herself as a prolific writer, publishing Democracy and Social Ethics (1902), Newer Ideals for Peace (1907), The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909), and the best-selling first volume of her autobiography, Twenty Years at Hull House (1910). During these years, she began to turn her attention more and more to women's issues—particularly the right to vote. In 1913, seven years before the nineteenth amendment to the U.S. Constitution granted women the right to vote in all elections, she helped secure the vote for women in Chicago.

Addams's work continued to expand beyond Hull House and women's rights. In 1909, she supported the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (naacp) and served on its executive committee. In 1915, she helped establish the Women's Peace Party, and traveled to Europe to attend the International Women's Peace Conference in the Netherlands and carry the message of peace to the countries fighting in world war i. Addams continued to hold to her pacifist views even when the United States entered the war in 1917, and she was blacklisted as a result. The Daughters of the American Revolution, a group that had once honored Addams for her colonial ancestry, expelled her, and she was shunned by many other supporters. She continued her humanitarian work during the war, however, helping the U.S. Department of Food Administration to distribute food to European allies.

Following the war, Addams also worked to have food sent to the starving civilians in the defeated countries, setting off yet another round of criticism. In 1920, in response to increasing attempts to stifle unpopular opinion in the United States, Addams helped found the american civil liberties union, dedicated to protecting the individual's right to believe, write, and speak whatever he or she chooses.

By the 1930s, the public's bitterness toward Addams had abated. In 1931, she was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, an achievement that Addams felt justified her pacifist work to the world. Frederick Stang, of the Nobel Committee in Norway, said Addams had clung to her idealism during a difficult time in which peace was overshadowed. Addams went on to receive fourteen honorary degrees, among them one from Yale, the first honorary degree that school had ever awarded to a woman.

In 1930, Addams completed her autobiography with the publication of The Second Twenty Years at Hull House. A few years later, surgery revealed that Addams was suffering from advanced cancer. She died in May 1935. Shortly before her death, Addams was honored at an event marking the twentieth anniversary of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. In response to the many tributes she received, she said she was driven by the fear that she might give up too soon and fail to make the one effort that might save the world.

further readings

Addams, Jane. 2002. Democracy and Social Ethics. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.

Davis, Allen Freeman. 2000. American Heroine: The Life and Legend of Jane Addams. Chicago, Ill.: Ivan Dee.

Deegan, Mary Jo. 1988. Jane Addams and the Men of the Chicago School, 1892–1918, New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books.

Linn, James Weber. 2000. Jane Addams: A Biography. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.

Polikoff, Barbara Garland. 1999. With One Bold Act: The Story of Jane Addams. Chicago: Boswell Books.

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Addams, Jane

Jane Addams

Born: September 6, 1860
Cedarville, Illinois
Died: May 21, 1935
Chicago, Illinois

American reformer and social worker

Jane Addams was called the "beloved lady" of American reform. She was a social worker, reformer, and pacifist. One of her most important accomplishments was to create a settlement house, a center that provides services to members of a poor community. Addams founded the most famous settlement house in American history, Hull House, in Chicago, Illinois.

Family and education

Jane Addams was born in Cedarville, Illinois, on September 6, 1860. She was the eighth child of John Huy Addams, a successful miller, banker, and landowner. She did not remember her mother, who died when she was three years old. She was devoted to and deeply influenced by her father. He was an idealist and philanthropist who served as state senator of Illinois from 1854 to 1870.

Although Addams became an activist for the poor, she herself came from a prosperous family. As a young woman she attended Rockford Female Seminary in northern Illinois. There she was not only a fine student but also the class president for four years and the editor of the school magazine. Addams also developed an interest in the sciences, even though such studies were not stressed at the school. After her graduation in 1881 she entered the Women's Medical College in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. However, after six months she was forced to end her studies to have a spinal operation. Addams was never quite free of illness throughout her life.

Finding a career

It took Addams a long time to recover from her operation. During this time she fell into a deep depression. This was partly because of her illness and partly because of her sensitivity to the way women of her status were expected to live in nineteenth-century America. Intelligent middle-class women like Addams were frequently well educated. However, they were expected to live simply as wives and mothers within homes dominated by men. Society discouraged women from putting their talents to use outside the home. Addams traveled in Europe between 1883 and 1885 and spent winters in Baltimore in 1886 and 1887. During this time she searched for comfort in religion. However, she did not find a satisfactory outlet for her abilities until she made a second trip to Europe in 1887. At this time she visited Toynbee Hall, the famous settlement house in London, England.

Toynbee Hall was a social and cultural center in the slums of the East End neighborhood in London. It was designed to introduce young men who wanted to join the ministry to the world of England's urban poor. Addams thought it would be a good idea to provide a similar opportunity for young middle-class American women. She decided "that it would be a good thing to rent a house in a part of the city where many needs are found." She especially wanted to provide opportunities for well-educated young women to "learn of life from life itself."

Creation of Hull House

Hull House was located in one of Chicago's poorest immigrant slums. Addams originally thought Hull House would provide a service to young women who wanted more than a homemaker's life, but it soon developed into a great center for the poor of the neighborhood. Hull House provided a home for working girls, a theater, a boys' club, a day nursery, and numerous other services.

Thousands of people visited Hull House each year. It became the source of inspiration for dozens of similar settlement houses in other cities. Its success also made Addams famous throughout the United States. She became involved in an attempt to reform Chicago's corrupt politics. She served on a commission to help resolve the Pullman railroad strike of 1894. Addams supported workers' rights to organize and spoke and wrote about nearly every reform issue of the day. Her topics ranged from the need for peace to women's right to vote.

Voice for reform

Addams served as an officer for countless reform groups. These groups included the Progressive political party and the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. She served as this group's president in 1915 and attended international peace congresses in a dozen European cities. Addams gained a reputation as a pacifist (a person who is against conflict and war). She won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931.

Addams also wrote books on a wide range of subjects. Her achievements gained her honorary degrees from several universities and made her an informal adviser to several American presidents. She died on May 21, 1935, in Chicago, Illinois.

For More Information

Addams, Jane. Forty Years at Hull-House. New York: Macmillan, 1935.

Davis, Allen F. American Heroine. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Polikoff, Barbara Garland. With One Bold Act. Chicago: Boswell, 1999.

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Addams, Jane

Addams, Jane

Jane Addams (18601935) is remembered primarily as the feisty American founder of the Settlement House Movement, which sought to challenge the industrial and urban order of the period to achieve social and environmental reforms. Inspired by a visit to London's East End and Toynbee Hall, a "settlement house" addressing the needs of the urban poor, Addams and her friend Ellen Starr cofounded Hull House in the slums of Chicago in 1889. Hull House became the central organizing hub and political force to provide social services to the exploding number of immigrants coming to Chicago to work in the unregulated factories. The living and working conditions around industrialized Chicago were horribly unsanitary, unhealthy, stinking, and crowded, and the politics were fairly corrupt.

Addams's Hull House confronted questions of housing, sanitation, and public health, areas not typically seen as being connected. A major campaign attacked the inadequate and inequitable garbage collection in the neighborhoods of crowded tenements. Addams's unsuccessful bid for the contract to collect the city's garbage gained so much publicity that the mayor appointed her to be Chicago's garbage inspector. In this role, Addams was so successful in raising public awareness of the situation that restructuring the garbage collection system quickly rose to the top of the agenda of both City Hall and the reform movement. She was also a mover and a shaker in the areas of labor reform, especially around fighting for industrial safety, humane worker conditions, and labor unions, and against child labor. Much of her work led to the right to vote for women. In 1910 Yale University awarded Addams the first honorary degree ever bestowed on a woman. In 1931 she received the Nobel Peace Prize, becoming the first American woman to receive a Nobel Prize.

see also Activism; Settlement House Movement; Solid Waste.


internet resources

jane addams hull house museum. available from

Susan L. Senecah

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Addams, Jane

Addams, Jane (1860–1935) Addams was an American sociologist of central importance to the work of the Chicago School in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. A powerful influence on many other women in sociology, such as Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Emily Greene Balch, in 1889 she set up a social settlement in Chicago, Hull House, which was partly inspired by London's Toynbee Hall, but was more woman-influenced, more egalitarian, and less religious. She argued that one of the main problems for women was trying to manage the conflicting demands of family and society, and believed social settlements were one way to resolve the problem. Hull House was an important sociological centre for the University of Chicago, and also attracted other leading social theorists, Marxists, anarchists, and socialists of the time. A spokeswoman for women and working-class immigrants in particular, Addams was a cultural feminist who believed female values were inherently superior to those of men, and argued that a more productive and more peaceful society could be built by drawing on, and integrating, such values. Her commitment to pacifism made her a social pariah during the First World War, although in 1931 she was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. See Emily Cooper Johnson ( ed.) , Jane Addams; A Centennial Reader (1960)
, and Mary Jo Deegan , ‘Women in Sociology: 1890–1930’, Journal of the History of Sociology (1978)

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Harrison, Jane Ellen

Jane Ellen Harrison, 1850–1928, English classical scholar. She applied archaeological discoveries in the interpretation of Greek religion. Her works include Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (1903), Themis (1912), Ancient Art and Ritual (1913), and Epilegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (1921).

See biography by J. G. Stewart (1959).

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