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Muhammad, Elijah 1897–1975

Elijah Muhammad 18971975

Leader of the Nation of Islam

At a Glance

Assumed Leadership of the Nation of Islam

Promoted Nations Tenets

Growing Movement Inspired Debate

Muhammads Legacy

Sources

During our colored and Negro days, he was Black. So said Jesse Jackson shortly after the Honorable Elijah Muhammads death on February 25, 1975. Elijah Muhammad was a fearless critic of white America at a time when blacks who questioned the status quo had much to fear. Known as the Messenger of Allah to the Lost-Found Nation of Islam in North America, his Temple of Islam mixed black nationalism with a program of economic self-improvement and the dietary and prayer laws of traditional Islam. Muhammad and his movement pioneered an interest in black history, emphasized black pride, and practiced black entrepreneurship and self-reliance.

Elijah Muhammad was born Elijah Poole on October 7, 1897, in rural Sandersville, Georgia. His parents, Wali and Marie Poole, were former slaves who worked as sharecroppers. His father was a Baptist preacher. Young Elijah went to school through the fourth grade and learned the rudiments of reading, writing, and arithmetic before economic conditions forced him to join the rest of his family working in the fields.

There was little future there for one of thirteen children, so at the age of sixteen he left home. In 1919 he married Clara Evans, and in 1923, he, Clara, and their two young children moved to Detroit, joining a mass of African Americans who migrated north seeking jobs after World War I. There, he held a series of jobsincluding a stint on a Chevrolet assembly linebefore the Great Depression hit and devastated the U.S. economy.

In 1930 he came under the influence of Wallace D. Fard, the founder and charismatic leader of the Nation of Islam. Fard had appeared in Detroit in the summer of that year, selling raincoats and later silks. He charmed his customers with tales of black history and showed themthrough ingenious interpretations of the Biblethat Islam, not Christianity, was the religion of black men in Asia and Africa. Fards message struck a chord, and his initial sessions grew to gatherings in homes and then to mass assemblies in a hall that he and his followers hired and named the Temple of Islam.

Each person wishing to join the temple was required to write a letter asking for his original (Islamic) name to replace the slave name the white man gave his ancestors. When Elijah Poole and his two brothers applied for names,

At a Glance

Born Elijah Poole, October 7, 1897, in Sandersville, GA; name changed to Elijah Muhammad, c. 1931; died of heart and respiratory ailments, February 25, 1975; son of Wall (a Baptist preacher and sharecropper) and Marie (a sharecropper) Poole; married Clara Evans, 1919; children: eight. Religion: Nation of Islam.

Worked as a laborer in Georgia and Detroit, 1913-30; met, worked for, and studied under Wallace D. Fard, 1930-34; established Southside Mosque in Chicago, IL, 1932; became leader of Nation of Islam on Fards disappearance, 1934-75; violated Selective Service Act by exhorting followers to avoid the draft, 1942; worked to build self-reliant black enterprise under Nation of Islam banner, mid-1960s-1975. Author of Message to the Black Man in America, published by United Brothers.

Addresses: c/o Nation of Islam, 734 West 79th St., Chicago, IL 60620.

they neglected to indicate that they were related. The prophetas Fard was calledinadvertently gave them three different surnames: Sharrieff, Karriem, and Muhammad.

Once accepted, Elijah Karriemas Poole was then calleddevoted himself to Fard and the movement. Opposed by moderates, he nevertheless became Fards most trusted lieutenant. Fard acknowledged his higher status by renaming him Elijah Muhammad and appointing him chief minister of Islam.

In 1932 Fard sent Muhammad to Chicago to established the Southside Mosque, which was later called Temple No. 2. Muhammad was successful in that venture, but at the same time back in Detroit, Fard was being harassed by the police. C. Eric Lincoln, author of The Black Muslims in America, quoted Muhammads recollection of the events: He [Fard] was persecuted, sent to jail in 1932, and ordered out of Detroit, Michigan, May 26, 1933.... He came to Chicago in the same year, [was] arrested almost immediately and placed behind prison bars. He submitted himself with all humility to his persecutors. Each time he was arrested he sent for me that I... [might] see and learn the price of truth for us (the so-called Negroes).

Fard was not the only object of police interest. Muhammad himself was arrested in 1934 when he refused to transfer his children from the movements school, the University of Islam, to a public school. Tried in Detroit, he was found guilty of contributing to the delinquency of a minor and placed on six months probation.

Likewise, the police were not the only organization harassing the Nation of Islam. Communists, anti-union, pro-Ethiopian, and pro-Japanese elements all tried to take over the movement for their own ends. Despite these pressures, Fard established effective organization, implemented ritual and worship, founded the University of Islam school for Muslim children, and instituted the Fruit of Islam, a paramilitary organization meant to protect the organization from police and other unbelievers.

Assumed Leadership of the Nation of Islam

When Fard disappeared in June of 1934, most saw Muhammad, his chief minister, as a natural successor. But Detroit was filled with rivals, so Muhammad returned to Chicago and Temple No. 2. There he set up new headquarters and began to reshape the movement under his own highly militant leadership. He equated Fard with Allah and instituted prayers and sacrifices to Fard. He also assumed the mantle of Prophet, which Allah had worn during his mission in Detroit.

The five-foot five-inch tall, thin-voiced Muhammad was physically an unlikely leader of a mass movement. But what he lacked in physical stature he more than made up for in intensity and radicalism. Whites, according to Muhammad, had forced the present intolerable situation on blacks, but the black man had allowed it to continue by remaining in a land not his own. According to Muhammad, separation was the only answer. The separation Muhammad was talking about was not the back to Africa movement that black nationalist leader Marcus Garvey had proposed a generation previously. Lincoln quoted Muhammad as saying that what he and the Nation of Islam wanted was some of the land our fathers and mothers paid for in 300 years of slavery.

According to Muhammad, blacks were the original, superior race of humans on earth. The tribe of Shabazzthe black racebegan when an explosion divided the earth and the moon sixty-six trillion years ago. Whites, Muhammad claimed, were created by the evil magician Yakub. Yakub had grafted the weaker of two germs that exist within blacks, and the end product of his biological experiment was the white race. As a result of their unnatural creation, whites were thought to be evil and degraded. Muhammad believed that the white mans reign on earth was to last 6,000 years before Allah came, at which time the white race would reach its end. The Nation of Islam views the coming of Allah as the coming of the Supreme Black Man, the Supreme Being among a mighty nation of divine black men.

Promoted Nations Tenets

The Nation of Islam became known for fostering black pride and self-sufficiency among its predominantly young, male, lower-class members. Muhammad promoted an effective program of good health, self-improvement, and moral guidelines for members of the movement to follow. Alcohol, tobacco, and the slave diet of pork and corn-bread were prohibited; one meal of fresh food was encouraged; male members were required to recruit new followers to the faith; and a strict code of marital fidelity was enforced. Muhammad also encouraged members to improve themselves economically and provided schooling and training in business enterprises to assist them in attaining the goal of financial independence. Put your brains to thinking for self; The Black Muslims in America quoted him as saying, your feet to walking in the direction of self; your hands to working for self and your children.... Stop begging for what others have and help yourself to some of this good earth.... We must go for ourselves.... This calls for the unity of us all to accomplish it!

Throughout the 1930s, Muhammad and his staff continued to build temples in the heart of the black ghetto, where, according to The Black Muslims in America, the illusion of a Black Nation within a surrounding and hostile White nation takes on a semblance of reality. During World War II the authorities saw the Nation of Islams separatist ideology as a threat to the war effort. In 1942 Muhammad was arrested and charged with sedition and violation of the Selective Service Act. Cleared of sedition charges, he was convicted of exhorting his followers to avoid the draft. He spent the remaining years of the war in a federal prison in Milan, Michigan, where he was able to control the movement from his prison quarters.

Small, thin, and suffering from asthma and bronchitis, Muhammad was nevertheless able to keep the movement going. His column in the Pittsburgh Courier was widely read and commented on in the black community. In the late 1940s, Malcolm Little joined the movement while serving in a Massachusetts prison. Renamed Malcolm X, he became Muhammads chief disciple and bore Muhammads message across the country. According to Newsweek, Malcolm put the little kingdom of Allah on the map.

Growing Movement Inspired Debate

By 1960 the Nation of Islam had 69 temples or missions in 27 states. Tiny compared to conventional churches, its growth nevertheless became a worry to both conservatives and liberals. The conservative newsweekly U.S. News & World Report played on racial fears with a 1959 article called Black Supremacy Cult in U.S.How Much Of A Threat? Among liberals, NAACP Chief Council Thurgood Marshall, probably smarting from Nation of Islam criticism, told the New York Times that the movement was run by a bunch of thugs organized from prisons and jails and financed, I am sure by [Egyptian nationalist leader Gamal Abdel] Nasser or some Arab group.

But while many criticized the Nation of Islams rhetoric, its positive effects could not be overlooked. Even Newsweek admitted that behind the discourse on White devils, there was an inspirational message. The real heart of Muhammads message was the worth, the competence and the solidarity of Black people. He urged them to express it through a meld of puritan morals (no cigarettes, liquor, drugs or non-marital sex) and Protestant work ethics.

Despite or maybe because of the movements tremendous growth, some say a rift had developed and that Muhammad was looking for an opportunity to put Malcolm X in his place. That opportunity came in November of 1963 when Malcolm told a Black Muslim rally at Manhattan Center that the assassination of President Kennedy was an instance of the chickens coming home to roost. While Malcolms statement was not against the Nation of Islam dogma, it was not the kind of utterance Muhammad wanted him to make in public. As punishment Malcolm was silenced for 90 days.

Malcolm accepted the punishment, but on March 8, 1964, he broke with Muhammad, telling the press that he was leaving the Muslims to organize his own party. According to the New York Times, Muhammads reaction to Malcolms schism was both angry and regretful. Malcolms plans have had no effect at all on the movement. My work is divine work and people believe in what I am teaching of the resurrection from the deaththe mental death of my people. Anyone who deviates from Islam is a hypocrite.

After Malcolm X was assassinated in February of 1965, Muhammad kept close to his Chicago mansion, giving few interviews and rarely appearing in public. When he did appear it was in the company of hundreds of Fruit of Islam security guards. Mostly he worked in the Nation of Islam offices, planning recruitment strategies and tending to the movements growing network of businesses, farmlands, and restaurants.

In the early 1970s, an increasing radicalism made itself felt in the movement. A January 1972 shootout between police and a Louisiana Nation of Islam splinter group brought to light a split in the movement. According to Newsweek, younger activists such as the Young Muslims in Chicago, Saudi Arabia in New York, and El Colistrand in Oakland, California, were disenchanted with the $1.5 million the Nation of Islam was spending on mansions for Muhammad, his family, and his aids in Chicago. Muhammad responded to the rebellions like the elder statesman he by then was. I think there is some little splinter group that sometimes wants to go out for themselves and be big boys, he told Newsweek, and so they take chances sometimes, and sometimes they stub their toes and they have to go back home and bandage them up. By that time, were back where we was.

Muhammads Legacy

On January 30, 1975, Elijah entered Mercy Hospital in Chicago suffering from heart trouble, bronchitis, asthma, and diabetes. He died on February 25th. In a 1989 article for The Final Call titled Allahs Promise, Nation of Islam minister Louis Farrakhan eulogized Muhammad and called on black men and women to see the value of his words: This modern era of Black consciousness was inaugurated by Muslims.... We became Muslims because Master Fard Muhammad came and raised up the Honorable Elijah Muhammad and gave him a methodology that enabled him to reach a spiritually and mentally dead people and raise us to spiritual and mental life.

Farrakhan continued: Elijah Muhammad was indeed a friend of the Black man and woman. He worked, suffered, studied, and constantly prayed for our rise. He sacrificed his own personal life to devote 44 years to the rise of our people. He singlehandedly, with tenaciousness of will and singleness of purpose, turned the language of America from use of the word Negro, which means something dead, lifeless and hard, into seeing ourselves as Black people, members of the aboriginal nation of the Earth.... He more than any religious leader is responsible for causing us to refer to one another as brothers and sisters.

Sources

Books

Lincoln, C. Eric, The Black Muslims in America, Greenwood Press, 1982.

The Negro Almanac: A Reference Work on the African American, edited by Harry A. Ploski and James Williams, 5th edition, Gale, 1989.

Young, Henry J., Major Black Religious Leaders, Abingdon, 1979.

Periodicals

The Final Call, January 15, 1989.

Newsweek, January 31, 1972; March 10, 1975.

New York Times, February 26, 1975.

New York Times Magazine, March 22, 1964.

Reporter, August 4, 1960.

Time, March 10, 1975.

U.S. News & World Report, November 9, 1959.

Jordan Wankoff

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Elijah Muhammad

Elijah Muhammad

Elijah Muhammad (1897-1975) was the leader of the Nation of Islam ("Black Muslims") during their period of greatest growth in the mid-20th century. He was a major advocate of independent, black-operated businesses, institutions, and religion.

Elijah Muhammad was born Elijah (or Robert) Poole on October 7, 1897, near Sandersville, Georgia. His parents were ex-slaves who worked as sharecroppers on a cotton plantation; his father was also a Baptist preacher. As a youngster Elijah worked in the fields and on the railroad, but he left home at age 16 to travel and work at odd jobs. He settled in Detroit in 1923, working on a Chevrolet assembly line.

Poole and his two brothers became early disciples of W.D. Fard, the founder of the Nation of Islam. Fard, of mysterious background, appeared in Detroit in 1930, selling silk goods and telling his customers in Detroit's African American ghetto of their ancestral "homeland" across the seas. Soon Fard began holding meetings in homes, and then in rented halls, telling his listeners tales purporting to describe their nonwhite kin in other lands and urging them to emulate these brothers and sisters in such matters as dress and diet. Fard proclaimed Islam the one correct religion for African Americans, denouncing Christianity as the religion of the slavemasters. His meetings became dominated by his bitter denunciations of the white race. Soon Fard announced the opening of the Temple of Islam. It featured much antiwhite invective and embodied an unorthodox form of Islam, but the movement also emphasized African American self-help and education.

Fard disappeared, as mysteriously as he had arrived, in the summer of 1934. The movement he had founded quickly developed several factions, the most important of which was led by Poole, who had become a top lieutenant to Fard and whose name along the way had been changed to Elijah Muhammad. The movement had long had a policy of requiring members to drop their "slave" names.

Settling in Chicago, away from hostile Muslim factions in Detroit, Muhammad built what quickly became the most important center of the movement. Chicago soon featured not only a Temple of Islam, but a newspaper called Muhammad Speaks, a University of Islam (actually a private elementary and high school), and several movement-owned apartment houses, grocery stores, and restaurants. Temples were opened in other cities, and farms were purchased so that ritually pure food could be made available to members. The movement was a sharply disciplined one. Members had strict rules to follow regarding eating (various foods, such as pork, were forbidden), smoking and drinking (both banned), dress and appearance (conservative, neat clothing and good grooming were required), and all kinds of personal behavior (drugs, the use of profanity, gambling, listening to music, and dancing were all outlawed).

Muhammad also revised the theology of the movement. Under his system, Fard was proclaimed the earthly incarnation of Allah, the Muslim name for God; (Elijah) Muhammad was his divinely-appointed prophet. Muhammad also taught that blacks constituted the original human beings, but that a mad black scientist named Yakub had created a white beast through genetic manipulation and that whites had been given a temporary dispensation to govern the world. That period, however, was due to end soon; now the time was at hand for blacks to resume their former dominant role. It was understood that violent war would be likely before the transition could be completed. In the meantime, Muhammad advocated an independent nation for African Americans.

In 1942 Muhammad was one of a group of militant African American leaders arrested on charges of sedition, conspiracy, and violation of the draft laws. He was accused of sympathizing with the Japanese during World War II and of encouraging his members to resist the military draft. He had, indeed, argued that all nonwhites are oppressed by whites, and that it made no sense for African Americans to fight those who were victims of white racism as much as they themselves were. Muhammad was certainly no pacifist, but he argued that the only war in which African Americans should participate would be the coming "Battle of Armageddon," in which blacks would reassert their rightful superiority. For his words and actions Muhammad spent four years, from 1942 to 1946, in federal prison at Milan, Michigan.

Factions occasionally withdrew from Muhammad's movement. In the early 1960s Muhammad came to be overshadowed by the charismatic Malcolm X, leader of the New York Temple. Tensions between Malcolm X and Muhammad's leadership grew; finally, after Malcolm X commented that John F. Kennedy's assassination was a case of "the chickens coming home to roost," Muhammad suspended him. Shortly thereafter, in 1964, Malcolm X founded his own movement, which moved toward a more orthodox form of Islam. However, Malcolm X was assassinated on February 21, 1965.

Elijah Muhammad died on February 25, 1975. After his death the leadership of his movement passed to his son, Wallace (now Warith) Deen Muhammad. The younger Muhammad renamed the movement the World Community of Al-Islam in the West, and then the American Muslim Mission; he also began to call blacks "Bilalians," after Bilal, who was said to have been an African follower of the prophet Muhammad. Warith Muhammad relaxed the strict dress code, abandoned resistance to military service, encouraged members to vote and to salute the flag, and even opened the movement to whites. In general, he made the movement much more conventionally Islamic.

Many members were disturbed at the movement's new, moderate direction and withdrew to form more traditionalist splinter groups. The most important of them retained the old name, the Nation of Islam, and was led by Louis Farrakhan (born Louis Eugene Walcott of British West Indian parents in 1934). Farrakhan generally retained Elijah Muhammad's ideas and practices, including the strict behavioral rules. He achieved prominence when he became a major adviser to Jesse Jackson during the latter's presidential campaign in 1984. At that time Farrakhan aroused controversy, particularly for his reported death threats directed at Jackson's Jewish critics.

Further Reading

The life and role of Elijah Muhammad are prominently discussed in the first thorough study of the Nation of Islam, C. Eric Lincoln, The Black Muslims in America (1961). His own principal work is Message to the Blackman in America (1965). Basic information can also be found in Malcolm X and Alex Haley, The Autobiography of Malcolm X (1965). Information on Muhammad's life and ideas can be found in a number of books and articles on Black religion in America. See, for example, Henry J. Young, "Elijah Muhammad (1897-1975): Messenger of Allah," Major Black Religious Leaders Since 1940 (1979). For an interesting interpretation of the role of Fard, see Wallace D. Muhammad, "Self-Government in the New World," in Milton C. Sernett, editor, Afro-American Religious History: A Documentary Witness (1985). □

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Muhammad, Elijah

Elijah Muhammad

Born: October 7, 1897
Sandersville, Georgia
Died: February 25, 1975
Chicago, Illinois

African American religious leader

Elijah Muhammad was the leader of the Nation of Islam ("Black Muslims") during their period of greatest growth in the mid-twentieth century. He was a major promoter of independent, black-operated businesses, institutions, and religion.

Early life

Elijah Muhammad was born Elijah (or Robert) Poole on October 7, 1897, near Sandersville, Georgia. His parents were former slaves who worked as sharecroppers (farming the owner's land for a share of the crops) on a cotton plantation; his father was also a Baptist preacher. One of thirteen children, his schooling only lasted until he was nine; then Elijah had to work in the fields and on the railroad. His light skin color made him even more aware of the injustices (unfair treatments) that had been done to his ancestors. He left home at age sixteen to travel and work at odd jobs. He settled in Detroit, Michigan, in 1923, working on a car assembly line.

Poole became an early follower of W. D. Fard (c. 1877c. 1934), the founder of the Nation of Islam, a religious faith practiced by Muslims in which Allah is the one god and Muhammad is his prophet (one who speaks through messages from a divine source). Fard appeared in Detroit in 1930, selling silk goods and telling his customers in the African American ghetto of their ancestral "homeland" across the seas. Fard proclaimed Islam the one correct religion for African Americans, denouncing Christianity as the religion of the slave masters. Soon Fard announced the opening of the Temple of Islam. It featured an unorthodox (nontraditional) form of Islam, but the movement also emphasized African American self-help and education.

Life as leader

Fard disappeared, as mysteriously as he had arrived, in the summer of 1934. The movement he had founded quickly developed several smaller groups. The most important was led by Poole, who had become a top leader to Fard and who had changed his name along the way to Elijah Muhammad. The movement had long had a policy of requiring members to drop their "slave" names.

Settling in Chicago, Illinois, Muhammad built what quickly became the most important center of the movement. Chicago soon featured not only a Temple of Islam, but a newspaper called Muhammad Speaks, a University of Islam, and several apartment houses, grocery stores, and restaurantsall owned by the movement. Temples were opened in other cities, and farms were purchased so that "pure" food could be made available to members. The movement was very controlled. Members had strict rules to follow regarding eating (various foods, such as pork, were forbidden), smoking and drinking (both banned), dress and appearance (conservative, neat clothing and good grooming were required), and personal behaviordrugs, the use of foul language, gambling, listening to music, and dancing were all not allowed.

Muhammad also revised the religion of the movement. Under his system Fard was proclaimed the earthly representative of Allah, and Elijah Muhammad was his divinely appointed prophet. Muhammad also taught that black people were the original human beings and that white people had been given a temporary privilege to govern the world. That period, however, was due to end soon; the time was at hand for black people to resume their former dominant role.

In 1942 Muhammad was one of a group of militant African American leaders arrested on charges of violation of the draft laws. He was accused of sympathizing with the Japanese during World War II (193945; a war fought between the AxisGermany, Japan, and Italyand the AlliesEngland, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States) and of encouraging his members to resist the military draft. He had, indeed, argued that white people oppressed (forced down) all people of color, and that it made no sense for African Americans to fight those who were victims of white discrimination (an unjust treatment or judgment because of differences) as much as they themselves were. For his words and actions Muhammad spent four years, from 1942 to 1946, in a federal prison at Milan, Michigan.

Splintering off

Small groups of like-minded individuals occasionally withdrew from Muhammad's movement. In the early 1960s Muhammad came to be overshadowed by the charming Malcolm X (19251967), leader of the New York Temple. In 1964 Malcolm X founded his own movement, which moved toward a more traditional form of Islam. However, Malcolm X was assassinated on February 21, 1965.

Elijah Muhammad died on February 25, 1975. After his death the leadership of his movement passed to his son, Wallace (now Warith) Deen Muhammad, who renamed the movement the World Community of Al-Islam in the West, and then the American Muslim Mission. Warith Muhammad relaxed the strict dress code, abandoned resistance to military service, encouraged members to vote and to salute the flag, and even opened the movement to white people. In general, he made the movement much more conventionally Islamic.

Many members were disturbed at the movement's new, moderate direction. The most important of them formed a new group called the Nation of Islam, led by Louis Farrakhan (1933). Farrakhan generally retained Elijah Muhammad's ideas and practices.

For More Information

Clegg, Claude Andrew, III. An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.

Evanzz, Karl. The Messenger: The Rise and Fall of Elijah Muhammad. New York: Pantheon Books, 1999.

Halasa, Malu. Elijah Muhammad. New York: Chelsea House, 1990.

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Muhammad, Elijah

Muhammad, Elijah 1879-1975

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Elijah Muhammad was born on or about October 7, 1879, in Sandersville, Georgia, as Elijah Poole into a family with thirteen siblings. In his late teens or very early twenties he married Clara Evans, with whom he had eight children. He moved to Detroit, Michigan, in 1929 or 1930 to find employment, as did many blacks during the Great Migration from the South to the North during and after the stock market crash of 1929. In Detroit Clara Poole first heard of a peddler/preacher named Master Fard Muhammad who was preaching a different religious messagethe oneness of God, and that blacks needed to embrace the religion of their ancestorsIslam. Intrigued, Elijah went to investigate both the man and the message, and soon was Fard Muhammads favored student. The community the Poole family joined was recorded as the Nation of Islam (NOI), founded by Fard Muhammad.

An ardent and trustworthy student, Poole was first given the surname Karriem and then Muhammad as he matured from student to minister to Supreme Minister. By 1934 Fard Muhammad had left active participation in the NOI and Elijah Muhammad was appointed its leader, which enabled him to put what he had learned into action. His enduring task was to teach black people that their history written by white people was not true, to enlighten them about who they actually were in creation and the civilization of the world, and to maximize their potential as productive human beings working to better their spiritual, moral, and economic lives in a hostile, evil society. With a truncated U.S. education (ended at about the fourth grade) and a highly developed intellect accompanied by firm belief, Elijah Muhammad built a small but concrete empire. The Nation owned land, farms, schools, grocery stores, a national newspaper, clothing factories, and an international fish shipping company.

Muhammad used a multipronged, basic approach in his community. This was to engender moral and spiritual cleanliness (inwardly and outwardly); to instill the notion of seeking knowledge; to understand the command to work for self and the betterment of the black community by building and sustaining an economy, eating right, and nurturing strong families; and to avoid those things that would hamper any of the above, such as drinking alcohol, eating pork, gambling, and so on. This approach resulted in greater land and building ownership and the establishment of import-export businesses, clothing and grocery stores, and savings plans, and the publication of numerous texts as well as a newspaper that is now more than seventy years old.

The Muslim Program of the Nation of Islam has always been characterized as being divided between what Muslims want and what they believe. Simply summarized, Muhammad recognized that the United States had engineered a genocidal program against its ex-slaves that included regular lynchings, beatings, segregation, and racial discrimination. His response was to call for the establishment of a separate state where blacks could prosper. Members of his community believe in the oneness of God (Allah), the Holy Quran, and all the revealed scripturesthe Torah, the Biblewith the same qualifications as Sunni and Shia Muslims (for example, they do not believe that Jesus is God). They also believe that the so-called Negroes in America are Gods chosen people.

The main goal for this community has always been the same: to uplift the black community to take a place in world leadership, moving away from dominion over others to cooperative living. With this in mind, members of this community have conscientiously objected to military service through several European wars and the United Statess aggressions overseas. Their points were most ardently made by one of the most outspoken of the NOIs members, El-Hajj Malik Shabazz (Malcolm X). Shabazz was introduced to the teachings of the Nation of Islam while in prison in the 1950s, and upon his release he met Muhammad and became his student. Shabazzs intellect and charisma propelled him quickly through the ranks of the NOI to become one of its most visible spokespersons, until his assassination in 1963. Shabazz had publicly questioned the integrity of Muhammad, revealing that he had affairs with several of his secretaries, producing children. It is widely suspected that these public revelations, as well as jealousy engendered by Shabazzs high public profile, provoked his assassination; the men arrested for the murder were associated with the Nation of Islam. Muhammad lived until 1975, when leadership of the Nation of Islam passed to another student, Louis Farrakhan, until 2006; the leadership at that point transferred to a board.

SEE ALSO Black Nationalism; Islam, Shia and Sunni; Malcolm X; Nation of Islam; Nationalism and Nationality; Religion; Rituals

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Lincoln, C. Eric. 1991. The Black Muslims in America. Queens, NY: Kayode Publications.

Muhammad, Elijah. 1965. Message to the Black Man in America. Chicago: Muhammad Mosque of Islam No. 2.

Muhammad, Elijah. 1967. How to Eat to Live. Chicago: Muhammad Mosque of Islam No. 2.

Aminah Beverly McCloud

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Elijah Muhammad

Elijah Muhammad (1897–1975). Leader of the Nation of Islam, the American Black Muslim movement, called more fully ‘The Lost-Found Nation of Islam’, or, from 1976, ‘The World Community of Islam in the West’. He was born in Georgia with the name Elijah Poole. Moving to Detroit, he became a follower of Wallace D. Fard ( Wali Farad, known as Prophet Fard) who had founded the Temple of Islam to affirm ‘the deceptive character of the white man and the glorious history of the black race’. He advocated self-help, especially through education, and he produced two manuals which guided the movement, The Secret Ritual of the Nation of Islam and Teaching for the Lost Found Nation of Islam … He became the chief aide of Fard, who gave him his new name, and when Fard disappeared in 1934, Elijah Muhammad took control. The original goals of the Nation of Islam were continued in what was originally a splinter group, but which rapidly grew in size, led by Louis Farrakhan (b. 1933). A fiery and inspiring orator, Farrakhan has often been dismissed as a racist and anti-Semitic orator, but he speaks from great intelligence and culture. His political ambitions on behalf of the movement came to an end with the failure of Jesse Jackson (in the presidential nominations) in 1984, but the march of a million men in 1995 re-established Farrakhan and the nation of Islam as a political force.

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"Elijah Muhammad." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Elijah Muhammad." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/elijah-muhammad

Muhammad, Elijah

Elijah Muhammad, 1897–1975, American black-nationalist and religious leader, b. near Sandersville, Ga. Originally named Elijah Poole, he left home at 16 and worked at various jobs. In 1923 he settled in Detroit and became an automobile assembly-line worker. In 1931 he became a follower of Wali Farad, or W. D. Fard, who had established a Temple of Islam in Detroit. When Farad disappeared in 1934, Poole (now renamed Muhammad) assumed leadership of the movement that was to become known as the Black Muslims, officially the Nation of Islam. He was imprisoned during World War II for encouraging resistance to the draft. Muhammad called himself the "Messenger of Allah" and preached that the only salvation for black people in the United States lay in withdrawal into an autonomous state. He retained almost autocratic control over his movement. He greatly influenced Malcolm X, although Malcolm later left the Black Muslims. W. Deen Mohammed, his son, succeeded him as leader of the Nation of Islam.

See biographies by C. A. Clegg 3d (1997) and K. Evanzz (1999).

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"Muhammad, Elijah." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Muhammad, Elijah." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/muhammad-elijah

Muhammad, Elijah

Muhammad, Elijah (c.1897–1975) Leader (1934–75) of the Black Muslims, b. Elijah Poole. He became leader following the disappearance of the Black Muslims founder, Wallace D. Fard. During World War II, he was imprisoned for encouraging draft-dodging. The rhetorical skills of Malcolm X gained the movement national attention, and tensions grew until Malcolm was suspended. Under Muhammad's leadership, the Muslim doctrines were codified and membership increased.

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"Muhammad, Elijah." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Muhammad, Elijah." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/muhammad-elijah