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Haggard, Merle

Merle Haggard

Singer, songwriter, guitarist

Poverty and Prison

Overnight Success

Huge Hit with Okie

Financial Trouble

New Start with Independent Label

Selected discography

Selected writings

Sources

Merle Haggard has been called the poet laureate of the hard hats because he is an intense, dedicated artist who happens to write and perform traditional country songs. Haggard holds the record, after Conway Twitty, for the most number-one country singleshardly a year passed between 1963 and the mid-1980s when he did not have at least one original hit. According to Tim Schneckloth in Down Beat magazine, Haggard is playing a very personal brand of music that is strongly rooted in the American past, music that synthesizes the work of long-departed artists from virtually every field of American popular music. Like much art Haggards work is complex, operating on a number of different levels. A listener can come into the show totally cold, never having heard of Haggard or his many sources, and still be impressed by Haggards expressive singing and concisely powerful songwriting. But there are other things going on. Beyond the level of pure entertainment, strands of American music are being woven together in a totally organic manner. [The] music seems completely natural to the players and the singers on the stage.

A Time magazine correspondent observes that, in the midst of country musics booming supermarket of traditional goods and new brands, teaser displays and soaring profits, Haggard stands virtually alone as a pure, proud and prominent link between countrys past and present. He is not about to record with a couple of dozen violins to woo the easy-listening audience or hire a rock band to turn on the kids. Haggard has wide enough range and appeal already. That appeal has been recognized with a staggering array of awards from the Nashville music industry as well as the respect of peers like Johnny Cash, Willie Nelson, and Kris Kristofferson. Critics such as Atlantic essayist Paul Hemphil! call Haggard one of the few genuine folk heroes in American popular music today, a writersongster who is gifted with an ability to capture the life of the common man with a certain dignity.

Poverty and Prison

Most country musicians sing about hard lives of poverty, prison, and privation. Haggard is the rare artist who has actually lived that life. Before he was born his parents were forced to abandon their Oklahoma farm and join the Depression-era migration to California. Haggard was born in 1937 in a railroad boxcar his father had converted into a house near Bakersfield, California. The Haggard family had slightly better fortune than many Okies who found themselves on the West CoastJames Haggard got regular work with the railroad and did carpentry on the side. Young Merle was particularly close to his father and was left at loose ends when the elder Haggard died in 1946. Within five years, while he was still a young teen, Haggard was skipping school and indulging in petty crime. The trouble with me, he told Newsweek, was that I started taking the songs I was singing too seriously. Like Jimmie

For the Record

Born Merle Ronald Haggard on April 6, 1937, in Bakersfield, CA; son of James (a railroad worker and carpenter) and Flossie Mae (Harp) Haggard; married Leona Hobbs, c. 1957; divorced; married Bonnie Owens (a singer), June 28, 1965; divorced; married Leona Williams (a singer), 1978; divorced; married Debbie; divorced; married Theresa Ann Lane; children: (first marriage) Dana, Marty, Kelli, Noel, (fifth marriage) Ben, Jenessa. Education: Earned high-school equivalency diploma.

Singer and songwriter, 1960-; recorded first single, Singing My Heart Out, with Tally Records, 1963; had first charted single, Sing Me a Sad Song, 1963; artist with Capitol Records, 1963-76, Tally Records, 1977, MCA Records, 1977-80, Epic Records, 1981-1990, Curb Records, 1990-1998, and Anti/Epitaph, 2000-; president of Shade Tree Music Publishing Company, 1970-, and Hag Productions, Inc., 1973-; has made numerous national tours and television appearances.

Awards: Twelve citations from the Academy of Country and Western Music, including Best Male Vocalist, 1966, 1971, and 1972; twenty-six Achievement Awards from Broadcast Music, Inc.; Songwriter of the Year Award from Nashville Songwriters Association, 1970; and a Grammy Award for Best Country Vocal Performance, Male, for Thats the Way Love Goes, 1984; induction, Country Music Hall of Fame, 1996.

Addresses: Office Hag Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 536, Palo Cedro, CA 96073, phone: (530) 547-5454. AgentBobby Roberts Company, Inc., P.O. Box 1547, Goodlettsville, TN 37070, phone: (615) 859-8899, fax: (615) 859-2200, website: http://www.bobbyroberts.com. Website Merle Haggard Official Website: http://www.merlehaggard.com.

Rodgers, I wanted to ride the freight trains. As a result, I was a general screw-up from the time I was 14.

Haggard escaped from juvenile homes no less than seven times, traveled up and down the West Coast doing odd jobs here and there, and fathered four children in a short-lived marriage. When he wasnt in trouble he could sometimes be found picking guitar in small clubs and dancehalls; he had taught himself to play after his mother showed him several basic chords. In 1957 he and his friends tried to burglarize a Bakers-field bar; he was arrested and sent to San Quentin for a six-month to 15-year stay. At first Haggard continued his antisocial behavior in the rough prison. The turning point came when he spent his twenty-first birthday in solitary confinement, listening to the agonies of the inmates on the nearby death row. Im not so sure it works like that very often, he told Atlantic, but Im one guy the prison system straightened out. I know damned well Im a better man because of it. Released from solitary, Haggard volunteered for the prisons most difficult jobs. He also played in a prison band and got to meet his idol, Johnny Cash. When he was paroled at 23, he returned to Bakersfield, determined to make good.

Overnight Success

By 1960 Bakersfield had earned the nickname Nashville West, having become a minor but significant center for the production of country music. Haggard soon found regular work as a backup guitarist at the clubs in Bakersfield and Las Vegas. In 1962 he met an energetic Arkansan named Fuzzy Owen, who became his manager and mentor in the business. Owen coached Haggard on his singing and songwriting, setting high standards that the young performer struggled to meet. Owen had bought Tally Records, a tiny production company, and in 1963 he recorded Haggards first singles. The second of these, Sing Me a Sad Song, made the country charts, and their following release, All My Friends Are Gonna Be Strangers, made the country top ten. Overnight, according to Hemphill, the doors blew open for Haggard. Capitol Records offered him a contract, andin what would become typical Haggard fashionthe artist agreed to the deal only if Capitol would buy Tally Records and make Fuzzy Owen his manager. Capitol agreed. Hemphill notes that Haggard assembled a band, started writing his own stuff, running into Hollywood to record, hitting the top of the charts with every release, turning them into albums, and became by 1968 one of the top stars in country music with a fanatical following in Americas factories and bars and prisons. He was, to that forgotten mass out there between New York and Los Angeles, relevant.

Huge Hit with Okie

That relevance became charged with political meaning in 1969 when Haggard released his two biggest sellers, Okie from Muskogee and The Fightin Side of Me, songs that affirmed a middle-American pride in America at a moment of national turmoil. Okie in particular was the making of Haggard, to quote the Time reporter. The song put [him] into the millionaire class, which he did not mind. It also earned him a reputation as a spokesman for the right wing, which he did. For several years Haggard struggled with the superpatriotic image his best-known songs attached to him, only emerging from Okies shadow when the Vietnam War ended and the nation became less polarized. Haggard told Down Beat that, of all the songs he has written, Okie from Muskogee was the one that had about 18 different messages. Anything that becomes as big as that song did has got to have something more than a beer belly mentality to it. I didnt even know what it had myself. I got to analyzing it later and realized that it could be taken any number of ways, one of which is from a pride standpoint. Of course, a lot of people think that you have to have a beer gut mentality to be proud of a particular thing. In other words, you should be ashamed to be proud.

The critics expected Haggard to follow Okie with a string of patriotic hits that would capitalize on the mood of his blue-collar audience. Haggard surprised them, though, by returning to his standard themes: the hard life of the working man, the prisoner, and the disappointed lover. Esquire contributor Bob Allen notes that Haggards songs prove him to be a writer and singer of remarkable range and sensitivity. There are, in fact, few popular musicians today who have, in the clear, simple meter of the workingman, embraced so many dimensions of the American experience. In Haggards songs, one hears the countrys history, mythopoeic personas (the freight-riding drifter, the honest workingman, the condemned fugitive), and musical heritage. These songs stand as stunning synapses of memory and emotional revelation, and are as simple and concise in their imagery as they are universal in their sweep. More and more, Haggard began to pay homage to his stylistic forebears; since 1980, for instance, he has played a major role in the revival of western swing music and has, with his band the Strangers, created a new genre, country jazz.

Haggard struggled with artistic malaise and professional burnout in the late 1980s, which was especially evident in his lack of enthusiasm for touring. In Behind Closed Doors: Talking with the Legends of Country Music, he told Alanna Nash that he suffered from physical and mental fatigue. And boredom, or complacency, or whateverdoin the same thing. He added: A lot of people dont realize that what goes along with this glamour and these high points that the people witnessthe big nights at the [Country Music Association] and this and thatare just a small percentage of the life thats involved. The main part of this life is a twenty-year bus ride. Still, Haggard was able to rejuvenate himself by working with other artists, like Willie Nelson, and by experimenting onstage with his highly regarded band. Haggards last number-one hit, Twinkle, Twinkle, Lucky Star climbed to the top of the charts in 1987, bringing his career total to 39 numberone songs. His contract with Epic ran out soon after, and he signed with Curb Records in 1990.

Financial Trouble

His first album for Curb, Blue Jungle, was released in 1990. Haggard had a disagreement with Curb over the terms of his new recording contract, and as a result, a new album didnt appear for nearly four years after that. In the meantime, Haggard found himself struggling financially and was forced to declare bankruptcy in 1993. I finally grew up when I turned 50, Haggard told Salon.com. He realized, A person cannot do all he wants to do. Between the lifestyle, the IRS, and the lack of a hit record, its taken me 10 years to just get my head back to even, he confessed to Newsweek. But maybe its brought the creative juices to the surface again. It is widely speculated that Haggard spent up-wards of $100 million dollars in the decade prior to his bankruptcy. The next year, Haggard released his third album for Curb, simply titled 1994. The album spawned his last semi-hit, In My Next Life, which broke the top 60 and fell soon after that. Still, despite the lack of a hit song, the album received good reviews.

Haggards next album, 1996, was released in the year of its title, again on Curb. That year, Haggard was honored with an induction into the Country Music Hall of Fame. He also began hosting a weekly country radio show called The Road I Traveled. The show featured artists that influenced him and artists that he in turn has influenced. Program director Ken Brooks said that Haggard was a natural choice as host for the show. He has probably lived three lifetimes compared to most people, he told Billboard. The material from the show was drawn from Haggards personal experiences, connections, and extensive travels.

New Start with Independent Label

Haggard surprised many in the music industry when he signed with Anti Records, an imprint of the predominantly punk label Epitaph, in 2000. He spoke with Thrasher magazine about his decision to move to the small independent label. Epitaph came to me. They said they were interested in paying me a lot of money they didnt want me to re-record anything3 they said they didnt want to change one hair on my head, was their phrase. When you deal with the people Ive dealt with, and then run into someone whos honest, its really unbelievable. His first album for the label, If I Could Only Fly, was released in 2000 to critical acclaim. It would end up on Rolling Stone and Salons Best of 2000 lists.

Haggard published his second autobiography, My House of Memories, in 2002. He told Salon, Writing a memoir is like going to a psychiatrist. The emotions are still sensitive. You uncover these memories and the emotions are just lying there, naked. Alanna Nash perhaps best sums up the complicated character of Haggard when she calls him the restless, conflicted, dislocated itinerant poet [who] has eschewed an array of wives and children for the lure and the loneliness of the road. Nash also quotes the award-winning singer himself, who admits wistfully: My character will probably pay in the end for not experiencing those soft and beautiful parts of life Ive heard other people sing about in their songs.

Selected discography

Strangers, Capitol, 1965.

(With Bonnie Owens) Just between the Two of Us, Capitol, 1966.

Best of Merle Haggard, Capitol, 1968.

Okie from Muskogee, Capitol, 1969.

Same Train, a Different Time, Capitol, 1970.

A Tribute to the Best Damned Fiddle Player in the World, Capitol, 1970.

Land of Many Churches, Capitol, 1972.

I Love Dixie Blues, Capitol, 1974.

My Farewell to Elvis, MCA, 1977.

Im Always on a Mountain When I Fall, MCA, 1978.

Serving 190 Proof, MCA, 1979.

Rainbow StewLive at Anaheim Stadium, MCA, 1980.

Songs for the Mama That Tried, MCA, 1981.

(With George Jones) A Taste of Yesterdays Wine, Epic, 1982.

Going Where the Lonely Go, Epic, 1982.

(With Willie Nelson) Pancho and Lefty, Epic, 1983.

Thats the Way Love Goes, Epic, 1983.

Its All in the Game, Epic, 1984.

Kern River, Epic, 1985.

Amber Waves of Grain, Epic, 1985.

Big City, Epic, 1985.

Merle Haggard: His Best, MCA, 1985.

A Friend in California, Epic, 1986.

Out Among the Stars, Epic, 1986.

Songwriter, MCA, 1986.

Back to the Barrooms/The Way I Am, Epic, 1987.

(With Nelson) Seashores of Old Mexico, Epic, 1987.

(With Nelson and Jones) Walking the Line, Epic, 1987.

Chill Factor, Epic, 1988.

Merle Haggards Greatest Hits, MCA, 1988.

5:01 Blues, Epic, 1989.

Blue Jungle, Curb, 1990.

1994, Curb, 1994.

1996, Curb, 1996.

Live at Billy Bobs Texas, Salsoul, 1999.

If I Could Only Fly, Anti, 2000.

Roots, Vol. 1, Anti, 2001.

Selected writings

Haggard, Merle, My House of Memories (autobiography), Harper, 2002.

Haggard, Merle, Sing Me Back Home (autobiography), Times Books, 1981.

Sources

Books

Haggard, Merle, Sing Me Back Home (autobiography), Times Books, 1981.

Nash, Alanna, Behind Closed Doors: Talking with the Legends of Country Music, Knopf, 1988.

Periodicals

Atlantic, September, 1971.

Billboard, September 18, 1993; November 2, 1996.

Down Beat, May 1980; July 1994.

Esquire, September, 1981.

Hollywood Reporter, March 5, 2002.

Knight-Ridder/Tribune Service, July 23, 1993.

Look, July 13, 1971.

Los Angeles Business Journal, January 29, 2001.

Newsweek, June 18, 1973; April 15, 1996.

People, November 23, 1981.

Thrasher, March 2002.

Time, May 6, 1974.

Washington Post, August 13, 1974.

Online

Merle Haggard, Salon, http://www.salon.com (September 20, 2002).

Anne Janette Johnson

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Haggard, Merle

Merle Haggard

Singer, songwriter, guitarist

For the Record

Selected discography

Sources

Merle Haggard has been called the poet laureate of the hard hats because he is an intense, dedicated artist who happens to write and perform traditional country songs. Haggard holds the record, after Conway Twitty, for the most number-one country singleshardly a year has passed since 1963 when he has not had at least one original hit. According to Tim Schneckloth in down beat magazine, Haggard is playing a very personal brand of music that is strongly rooted in the American past, music that synthesizes the work of long-departed artists from virtually every field of American popular music. Like much art Haggards work is complex, operating on a number of different levels. A listener can come into the show totally cold, never having heard of Haggard or his many sources, and still be impressed by Haggards expressive singing and concisely powerful songwriting. But there are other things going on. Beyond the level of pure entertainment, strands of American music are being woven together in a totally organic manner. [The] music seems completely natural to the players and the singers on the stage.

A Time magazine correspondent observes that, in the midst of country musics booming supermarket of traditional goods and new brands, teaser displays and soaring profits, Haggard stands virtually alone as a pure, proud and prominent link between countrys past and present. He is not about to record with a couple of dozen violins to woo the easy-listening audience or hire a rock band to turn on the kids. Haggard has wide enough range and appeal already. That appeal has been recognized with a staggering array of awards from the Nashville music industry as well as the respect of peers like Johnny Cash, Willie Nelson, and Kris Kristofferson. Critics such as Atlantic essayist Paul Hemphill call Haggard one of the few genuine folk heroes in American popular music today, a writer-songster who is gifted with an ability to capture the life of the common man with a certain dignity.

Most country musicians sing about hard lives of poverty, prison, and privation. Haggard is the rare artist who has actually lived that life. Before he was born his parents were forced to abandon their Oklahoma farm and join the Depression-era migration to California. Haggard was born in 1937 in a railroad boxcar his father had converted into a house near Bakersf ield, California. The Haggard family had slightly better fortune than many Okies who found themselves on the West CoastJames Haggard got regular work with the railroad and did carpentry on the side. Young Merle was particularly close to his father and was left at loose ends when the elder Haggard died in 1946. Within five years, while he was still a young teen, Haggard was skipping school and indulging in petty crime. The trouble with me, he

For the Record

Full name Merle Ronald Haggard; born April 6, 1937, in Bakersfield, Calif.; son of James (a railroad worker and carpenter) and Flossie Mae (Harp) Haggard; married Leona Hobbs, c. 1957 (divorced); married Bonnie Owens (a singer), June 28, 1965 (divorced); married Leona Williams (a singer), 1978 (divorced); married, wifes name Debbie; children: (first marriage) Dana, Marty, Kelli, Noel. Education: Earned high-school equivalency diploma.

Country singer and songwriter, 1960. Recorded first single, Singing My Heart Out, with Tally Records, 1963; had first charted single, Sing Me a Sad Song, 1963. Artist with Capitol Records, 1963-76, Tally Records, 1977, MCA Records, 1977-80, and Epic Records, 1981. President of Shade Tree Music Publishing Company, 1970, and Hag Productions, Inc., 1973. Has made numerous national tours and television appearances.

Awards: Twelve citations from the Academy of Country and Western Music, including best male vocalist, 1966, 1971, and 1972; twenty-six Achievement Awards from Broadcast Music, Inc. ; Songwriter of the Year award from Nashville Songwriters Association, 1970; and Grammy Award, 1984, for best country-western vocal of the year.

Addresses: Office Hag Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 536, Palo Cedro, Calif. 96073. Other 6988 Ramlin Ln., Bella Vista, Calif. 96008.

told Newsweek, was that I started taking the songs I was singing too seriously. Like Jimmie Rodgers, I wanted to ride the freight trains. As a result, I was a general screw-up from the time I was 14.

Haggard escaped from juvenile homes no less than seven times, travelled up and down the West Coast doing odd jobs here and there, and fathered four children in a short-lived marriage. When he wasnt in trouble he could sometimes be found picking guitar in small clubs and dance hallshe had taught himself to play after his mother showed him several basic chords. In 1957 he and his friends tried to burglarize a Bakers-field bar; he was arrested and sent to San Quentin for a six-month to fifteen-year stay. At first Haggard continued his antisocial behavior in the rough prison. The turning point came when he spent his twenty-first birthday in solitary confinement, listening to the agonies of the inmates on the nearby death row. Im not so sure it works like that very often, he told Atlantic, but Im one guy the prison system straightened out. I know damned well Im a better man because of it. Released from solitary, Haggard volunteered for the prisons most difficult jobs. He also played in a prison band and got to meet his idol, Johnny Cash. When he was paroled at twenty-three, he returned to Bakersfield, determined to make good.

By 1960 Bakersfield had earned the nickname Nashville West, having become a minor but significant center for the production of country music. Haggard soon found regular work as a backup guitarist at the clubs in Bakersfield and Las Vegas. In 1962 he met an energetic Arkansan named Fuzzy Owen, who became his manager and mentor in the business. Owen coached Haggard on his singing and songwriting, setting high standards that the young performer struggled to meet. Owen had bought Tally Records, a tiny production company, and in 1963 he recorded Haggards first singles. The second of these, Sing Me a Sad Song, made the country charts, and their following release, All My Friends Are Gonna Be Strangers, made the country Top 10. Overnight, according to Hemphill, the doors blew open for Haggard. Capitol Records offered him a contract, andin what would become typical Haggard fashionthe artist agreed to the deal only if Capitol would buy Tally Records and make Fuzzy Owen his manager. Capitol agreed. Hemphill notes that Haggard assembled a band, started writing his own stuff, running into Hollywood to record, hitting the top of the charts with every release, turning them into albums, and became by 1968 one of the top stars in country music with a fanatical following in Americas factories and bars and prisons. He was, to that forgotten mass out there between New York and Los Angeles, relevant.

That relevance became charged with political meaning in 1969 when Haggard released his two biggest sellers, Okie from Muskogee and The Fightin Side of Me, songs that affirmed a middle-American pride in America at a moment of national turmoil. Okie in particular was the making of Haggard, to quote the Time reporter. The song put [him] into the millionaire class, which he did not mind. It also earned him a reputation as a spokesman for the right wing, which he did. For several years Haggard struggled with the superpatriotic image his best-known songs attached to him, only emerging from Okies shadow when the Vietnam War ended and the nation became less polarized. Haggard told down beat that, of all the songs he has written, Okie from Muskogee was the one that had about 18 different messages. Anything that becomes as big as that song did has got to have something more than a beer belly mentality to it. I didnt even know what it had myself. I got to analyzing it later and realized that it could be taken any number of ways, one of which is from a pride standpoint. Of course, a lot of people think that you have to have a beer gut mentality to be proud of a particular thing. In other words, you should be ashamed to be proud.

The critics expected Haggard to follow Okie with a string of patriotic hits that would capitalize on the mood of his blue-collar audience. Haggard surprised them, though, by returning to his standard themesthe hard life of the working man, the prisoner, and the disappointed lover. Esquire contributor Bob Allen notes that Haggards songs prove him to be a writer and singer of remarkable range and sensitivity. There are, in fact, few popular musicians today who have, in the clear, simple meter of the workingman, embraced so many dimensions of the American experience. In Haggards songs, one hears the countrys history, mythopoeic personas (the freight-riding drifter, the honest working-man, the condemned fugitive), and musical heritage. These songs stand as stunning synapses of memory and emotional revelation, and are as simple and concise in their imagery as they are universal in their sweep. More and more, Haggard began to pay homage to his stylistic forebears; since 1980, for instance, he has played a major role in the revival of western swing music and has, with his band the Strangers, created a new genre, country jazz. Schneckloth contends that in his twenty years as a singing star Haggard has become almost symbolic of the purist, professional, no-nonsense approach to performing rooted American music.

In recent years Haggard has had to struggle with artistic malaise and professional burnout, especially evident in his lack of enthusiasm for touring. In Behind Closed Doors: Talking with the Legends of Country Music, he told Alanna Nash that he suffers from physical and mental fatigue. And boredom, or complacency, or whateverdoin the same thing. He added: A lot of people dont realize that what goes along with this glamour and these high points that the people witnessthe big nights at the [Country Music Association] and this and thatare just a small percentage of the life thats involved. The main part of this life is a twenty-year bus ride. Still, Haggard has been able to rejuvenate himself by working with other artistslike Willie Nelsonand by experimenting onstage with his highly regarded band. Nash perhaps best sums up the complicated character of Haggard when she calls him the restless, conflicted, dislocated itinerant poet [who] has eschewed an array of wives and children for the lure and the loneliness of the road. Nash also quotes the award-winning singer himself, who admits wistfully: My character will probably pay in the end for not experiencing those soft and beautiful parts of life Ive heard other people sing about in their songs.

Selected discography

Strangers, Capitol, 1965.

(With wife, Bonnie Owens) Just between the Two of Us, Capitol,
1966.

Best of Merle Haggard, Capitol, 1968.

Okie from Muskogee, Capitol, 1969.

Same Train, a Different Time, Capitol, 1970.

A Tribute to the Best Damned Fiddle Player in the World, Capitol.

Land of Many Churches, Capitol, 1972.

I Love Dixie Blues, Capitol, 1974.

Serving 190 Proof, MCA, 1979.

Im Always on a Mountain When I Fall, MCA.

My Farewell to Elvis, MCA.

Songs for the Mama That Tried, MCA.

Rainbow StewLive at Anaheim Stadium, MCA, 1980.

(With Willie Nelson) Pancho and Lefty, Epic, 1983.

Amber Waves of Grain, Epic, 1985.

Big City, Epic, 1985.

Merle Haggard: His Best, MCA, 1985.

Its All in the Game, Epic.

Kern River, Epic.

A Friend in California, Epic, 1986.

Out Among the Stars, Epic, 1986.

Songwriter, MCA, 1986.

Thats the Way Love Goes, Epic.

Going Where the Lonely Go, Epic.

(With George Jones) A Taste of Yesterdays Wine, Epic.

Back to the Barrooms/The Way I Am, Epic, 1987.

(With Nelson) Seashores of Old Mexico, Epic, 1987.

(With Nelson and Jones) Walking the Line, Epic, 1987.

Chill Factor, Epic, 1988.

Merle Haggards Greatest Hits, MCA, 1988.

Sources

Books

Haggard, Merle, Sing Me Back Home (autobiography), Times Books, 1981.

Nash, Alanna, Behind Closed Doors: Talking with the Legends of Country Music, Knopf, 1988.

Periodicals

Atlantic, September, 1971.

down beat, May, 1980.

Esquire, September, 1981.

Look, July 13, 1971.

Newsweek, June 18, 1973.

People, November 23, 1981.

Time, May 6, 1974.

Washington Post, August 13, 1974.

Anne Janette Johnson

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

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  • Chicago
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"Haggard, Merle." Contemporary Musicians. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Haggard, Merle." Contemporary Musicians. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/haggard-merle

"Haggard, Merle." Contemporary Musicians. . Retrieved July 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/haggard-merle