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Jam, Jimmy and Lewis, Terry

Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis

Took Control

Ideal Partnership

Successful Hobby

Business Smarts, Community Service

Selected discography (as producers)

Sources

Producers, musicians

The production team of Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis helped reshape the landscape of black musicand, by extension, of popular musicduring the 1980s and 1990s with recordings by artists as diverse as pop diva Janet Jackson, gospel choir the Sounds of Blackness, close-harmony group Boyz II Men, and R&B veterans Gladys Knight, Barry White, and Patti LaBelle. They achieved further success with their record label, Perspective, as well as hit film soundtracks and a song for the 1996 Olympic Games. Despite having earned countless hit records and scores of awards, the pairs bottom line has always remained the same: their friendship is the basis for their creative partnership, and their love of music overrules all other considerations.

The pair met in high school in Minneapolis. Jamwhose given name was James Harris IIIearned his nickname as a local DJ, though he also jammed on keyboards. Lewis, meanwhile, had designs on a career in professional football. He had a pretty good chance, earning a scholarship to Notre Dame University, but an injury prevented him from pursuing his athletic dream. He therefore fell back on music, playing bass in a band called Flyte Tyme, which he had co-founded. The group played the kind of adrenalized funk that was in vogue in Minneapolis at the time, thanks to acts like Lewis friend Prince. Jam was invited to join Flyte Tyme, and Prince became the groups manager. He ran a tight ship, replacing the bands vocalist, shortening its name to The Time, and demanding total commitment from the musicians. We werent going to get paid a lot of money, Jam recalled in Rolling Stone, but we were going to learn.

Took Control

Jam and Lewis appeared on two albums by The Time, but after formalizing their songwriting partnership in 1981 their interest in other projects grew. Writing and producing for the S.O.S. band, they found themselves trapped in Atlanta by inclement weather; as a result, they missed a Time show in San Antonio. As Jam told Uptown, this brought down the wrath of Prince upon them. Prince didnt want to break the group up, he said, but the snowstorm provided the excuse he needed to fire us two. He thought we were off seeing some girls.

At a Glance

Jimmy jam (born James Harris III, June 6, 1959, Minneapolis, MN), married; one child. Terry Lewis (born November 24,1956, Omaha, NE), married Karyn Lewis (a singer), 1991; three children.

Met in Minneapolis, mid-1970s; performing and recording artists for band Flyte Tyme (later The Time), mid-1970s-1983; formalized songwriting partnership, 1981; formed production company Flyte Tyme Productions, 1982; produced and/or composed for other acts, including S.O.S. Band, Kfymaxx, Human League, Robert Palmer, Janet Jackson, Michael Jackson, Boyz II Men, Barry White, Gladys Knight, Karyn White, others 1982; formed Perspective Records in partnership with A&M Records, 1991; produced recordings by Perspective artists Sounds of Blackness, Mint Condition, Lo-Key, Raja-Nee, Ann Nesby, and others, 1991.

Selected awards: American Music Award for best R&B single, 1986, for Janet Jacksons Nasty/Grammy Award for producers of the year, 1986; ASCAP Songwriters of the Year awards and R&B Writers of the Year Awards, 1987-93,1995, ASCAP Golden Note Award, 1993, and Song of the Year award, 1996; N AACP Heritage Award for Lifetime Achievement; T.J. Martell Humanitarian Award, 1996; numerous gold and platinum records.

Addresses: Record companyPerspective Records, A&M, 1416 North LaBrea, Los Angeles, CA 90028. Production companyFlyte Tyme Productions, 4100 West 76th St, Edina, MN 55435.

Then he saw our picture in Billboard or something with the SOS Band, and all that changed. Seems like it was OK to be off seeing girls, but not OK to be furthering your own career. After finishing their tour obligations with The TimePrinces opening actthe pair left the group.

Their earliest songwriting job netted them $1,500 for one tune, reported the Los Angeles Times. Though at first the two regarded such enterprise as a diversion, they soon came to understand that it could be the basis of a lucrative career. More and more work followed, and by 1984 they had reclaimed the name Flyte Tyme--for their production company, which boasted its own studio. The first Jam and Lewis milestone came when they produced Control, the turning-point album by Janet Jackson. Known until that time as a TV actress and Michael Jacksons sweet-faced kid sister, Janet put herself entirely in the hands of her producers, who shaped her project with the utmost care. The result was a record with enough edge to establish her as a credible R&B artist, but with enough pop smarts to take her into the mainstream. All we ever try to do is bring out the personality, Jam told Elle. Janet was like a stick of dynamite. We lit the fuse. Control scored a string of crossover hits and multiplatinum sales; it firmly established Jackson in the pop firmament.

The album also made Jam and Lewis into major players on the pop scene, even before they landed a Grammy Award as producers of the year. Though they had generated a buzz for several years, they now began to call the shots in their career; soon they were writing and producing hits for a flock of young artists, including Force M.D.s, Robert Palmer, Alexander ONeal, New Edition, and many others. Their work on Jacksons Rhythm Nation 1814 album consolidated her superstar status.

David Browne of Entertainment Weekly observed that Jam and Lewis helped shape the pop sound of the late 1980s. With its rigid Robo-drummer beats and homogenized blend of computers and vocal harmonies, he wrote, the sound of Jacksons first recordings with the duo was shocking in its airtight quality. This highly processed, energetic sound would mellow in time as Jam and Lewisever alert to the prevailing commercial windsmoved with the times. Youve got to remember, Lewis reflected in Inc., without the business theres no music. And by the time this article appeared in 1990, the business was well in hand; the magazine remarked admiringly of the pairs state-of-the-art earnings.

Ideal Partnership

Yet money, by most accounts, has had little impact on the pairs deep friendship and harmonious working relationship. We share the same value system as [other] human beingsrespect one another, respect other people, Lewis told the Los Angeles Times. They listen to each other and talk about everything, and they come to conclusions together, the pairs assistant Susan Owens added. They truly love each other. Lewis, who married singer Karyn Lewis, told the paper that he would have married Jam if his partner were a woman. Its not a common relationship, he added. Its not built on greed but built on trust; everything is 50-50. This point was underscored by their insistence on sharing credit for all their achievements; Jam would not accept a Keyboard magazine award until Lewis name was put on the plaque.

Jam and Lewis based their production philosophy not on what artists were hot, but on what could be achieved by a collaboration. Weve been offered people whove sold millions of records, Lewis insisted in Elle, but they have refused to work with artists unless they can bring something to the party. The year 1991 saw the founding of their label Perspective, in conjunction with A&M Records. The first release on the label invited some skepticism: The Evolution of Gospel by the choir Sounds of Blackness. Yet the album became a smash and won a slew of awards, including a Grammy. Similar success met with the next Perspective release, Mint Conditions Meant to be Mint. Jam and Lewis achieved another triumph with the soundtrack to the film comedy Mo Money. The powerhouse collectiona multiplatinum smashboasts tracks by Color Me Badd, Caron Wheeler, and Public Enemy and a Janet Jackson-Luther Vandross duet, among others. According to Musician reviewer James Hunter, the soundtrack allowed the pair to summarize, as per their famous command of mainstream black pop, the current state of the art.

Successful Hobby

Jam and Lewis oversaw Janet Jacksons image-shifting janet., and were even permitted by her new label, Virgin, to release a Jackson single on Perspective. janet. presented the singer in a far more adult light, emphasizing her erotic maturation. Jam described the recording to Jet as suggestive, but not explicit and a more mature album musically. He added that he and Lewis like to think of ourselves as tailors. We look at each artist individually and try to make him or her a suit thats made especially for the artist. The suit they cut for Jacksonwhich, in its celebration of sex, was closer to a birthday suit than any of her previous workwas another smash.

The team paused briefly during this time to look back on a decades work. Its been 10 wonderful years, Lewis declared in Jet. Its work if you look at it as a job, but music has always been a hobby with us. We were doing it before we got paid, and wed probably be doing it if we werent getting paid. Megastar Michael Jackson took a page from his sisters book and hired the team to write and produce material for his HIStory project. Jam took the opportunity to defend the scandal-plagued Michael in Entertainment Weekly. Hes the biggest prize in the [cultural] jungle, Jam explained, and the medias on this mission to capture him. He added that both Jacksons have an ability to elevate the work of everyone around themthrough hard work, sheer talent, and a desire not to be second-best.

Jam and Lewis, meanwhile, had themselves moved into the front rank of pop music, penning and producing hits for established actssuch as Boyz II Menbut also discovering new talent. Among the performers developed under the Perspective banner were hip-hoppers Tanya Von, Mr. Blaq, and Young Zee, and such R&B vocalists as Solo and Sounds of Blackness singer Ann Nesby. Musician summed up the Jam-Lewis appeal in its review of The Night Before Christmas A Musical Fantasy by the Sounds of Blackness. The magazine dubbed the seasonal hit another masterful example of how these artist/producers can include everything but the kitchen sinkchurch choruses, pop leads, street beats and glistening samplesand still sound rich instead of overextended, engaged instead of plotted. Meanwhile the soundtracks Jam and Lewis assembled for such films as The Money Train and Kazaam frequently outclassed the features themselves, filled as they were with top-flight talent and hit material while avoiding the scattershot quality of most anthology albums.

An industry colleague speculated in the Los Angeles Times about the reasons behind their success: Theyre well-rounded musically as far as the genres they can dip into, he said. Theyre not dominated by their rhythmic or their chordal approach. Theyre equal in all areas. He added that the Jam-Lewis production technique is probably the finest in the business. There are no holes in their armor.

Business Smarts, Community Service

The pairs acumen has extended beyond their skills in the studio; they have shown similar foresight as businessmen. What sets these two apart form other creative musicians, marveled Inc. magazine, is that theyve channeled this talent through a company that they control and manage. And, boy, do they managecosts, for instance. By setting up their production facilities in the small Minnesota town of Edinarather than Los Angeles or New Yorkthey saved a great deal of money; their involvement on the development side, meanwhile, guaranteed that they would earn more than a mere percentage for their creative work. As Lewis emphasized to the Los Angeles Times, Without a healthy business practice, there is no room for creativity, because creativity is dwarfed because youre so worried about how to pay the bills.

Jam, meanwhile, admitted that at times he has encountered racism in Edinaparticularly from the police, who have stopped him numerous times in his various expensive vehiclesbut remained philosophical. Its unfortunately part of society, he reflected. Overall, I think this is a beautiful state and a nice city. Ive been here all my life. I like it 99 percent of the time. You cant waste too much energy on the 1 percent.

The duo also devoted some effort to improving the conditions that gave rise to racism and inequality, chairing an innovative program called the Literacy Lyric Project. Co-sponsored by the performance-rights organization ASCAP and the International Association of African American Music, the venture included motivational workshops at inner-city schools stressing reading and other learning skills. The first such workshop took place at North Community High in Minneapolis, which Jam and Lewis attended. What better way to drive home the importance of reading to our children than through the exceptional talents of Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis, proclaimed ASCAP head Marilyn Bergman--as quoted in the organizations journal PlayBack. Their music has given us a new vocabulary, whose notes speak a universal language of art which can inspire and empower our children.

Jam and Lewis sought to inspire an even larger audience by contributing a song, Atlantas Welcome to the World, for the 1996 Olympic Games. And they continued to rack up awards and honors. Yet it remained clear that the hit production teams philosophy had scarcely wavered since the early years. We never do something for money, Lewis told the Los Angeles Times. We do it because creatively we feel we can contribute.

Selected discography (as producers)

The Time, The Time, Warner Bros., 1981.

The Time, What Time Is It?, Warner Bros., 1982.

Klymaxx, Girls Will Be Girls, Solar, 1982.

S.O.S. Band, On the Rise, Tabu/Epic, 1983.

Change, Change of Heart, RFC/Atlantic, 1984.

Thelma Houston, Qualifying Heat, MCA, 1984.

Cherelle, Fragile, Tabu/Epic, 1984.

Cherelle, High Priority, Tabu/Epic, 1985.

Alexander ONeal, Alexander ONeal, Tabu/Epic, 1985.

Force M.D.s, Tender Love, Warner Bros., 1985.

Human League, Crash, A&M, 1986.

Robert Palmer, Riptide, Island, 1986.

Janet Jackson, Control, A&M, 1986.

S.O.S. Band, Sands of Time, Tabu/Epic, 1986.

ONeal, Hearsay, Tabu/Epic, 1987.

Herb Alpert, Keep Your Eyes on Me, A&M, 1987.

Cherelle, Affair, Tabu/Epic, 1988.

New Edition, Heart Break, MCA, 1988.

ONeal, All Mixed Up, Tabu/Epic, 1989.

Janet Jackson, Janet Jacksons Rhythm Nation 1814, A&M, 1989.

ONeal, All True Man, Tabu/Epic, 1991.

Karyn White, Ritual of Love, Warner Bros., 1991.

Sounds of Blackness, The Evolution of Gospel, Perspective, 1991.

Mint Condition, Meant to be Mint, Perspective/A&M, 1991.

Various, Mo Money (film soundtrack), Perspective/ A&M, 1992.

Sounds of Blackness, The Night Before Christmas A Musical Fantasy, Perspective, 1992.

Janet Jackson, janet., Virgin, 1993.

Color Me Badd, Time and Chance, Giant, 1993.

Johnny Gill, Provocative, Motown, 1993.

Lisa Keith, Walkin in the Sun, Perspective, 1993.

ONeal, Love Makes No Sense, Tabu, 1993.

Ralph Tresvant, Its Goin Down, MCA, 1993.

Boyz II Men, II, Motown, 1994.

Gladys Knight, Just for You, MCA, 1994.

Patti Labelle, Gems, MCA, 1994.

Lo-Key, Back 2 Da Howse, Perspective, 1994.

Chante Moore, A Love Supreme, MCA, 1994.

Beverly Hills Cop III soundtrack, MCA, 1994.

A Low Down Dirty Shame soundtrack, Jive, 1994.

Raja-Nee, Hot and Ready, Perspective, 1994.

Sounds of Blackness, Africa to America: The Journey of the Drum, Perspective, 1994.

Barry White, The Icon is Love, A&M, 1994.

Karyn White, Make Him Do Right, Warner Bros., 1994.

Janet Jackson, Design of a Decade, 1986/1996, A&M, 1995.

Michael Jackson, HIStory Continues, Past, Present and FutureBook 1, MJJ, 1995.

Money Train (soundtrack), 550, 1995.

Lionel Richie, Louder than Words, Mercury, 1995.

Ann Nesby, Im Here for You, Perspective, 1996.

Sources

Periodicals

ASCAP Playback, July 1995; January 1996.

Billboard, June 29, 1996.

Elle, March 1993.

Entertainment Weekly, June 23, 1995; October 6,1995.

Inc., January 1990.

Jet, May 24, 1993.

Los Angeles Times, June 28, 1992; June 22, 1996.

Musician, September 1992; January, 1993.

Uptown, April 1992.

Other

Additional information was provided by the Jimmy Jam & Terry Lewis homepage on the World Wide Web.

Simon Glickman

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Jam, Jimmy and Lewis, Terry

Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis

Producers, songwriters, record company executives

Made Flyte Tyme in Minneapolis

Conquered Market With Control

Broadened Reach

Selected discography

Sources

When Elle music writer Steven Daly said that Janet Jacksons 1986 album Control changed the face of pop radio, he was perhaps saying less about Jackson than about the production team of Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis. Daly explained, Their unholy alliance with the youngest daughter of a dysfunctional showbiz family would turn the beat around, setting black music back on its proper course to chart domination. In ten years, Jam and Lewis, now based at their Flyte Tyme Productions in Minneapolis, have written and/or produced over 40 singles and albums that have sold in excess of 500,000 to one million units, as well as an expanse of top hits on the R & B, dance, and pop music charts. Rolling Stones Michael Goldberg aptly described them as auteur producers whose body of work has a musical and thematic unity that transcends the work of the individual artists they produce.

Jam and Lewis both grew up in Minneapolis, though Lewis was not born there. Born in Omaha, Nebraska, on November 24, 1956, Lewis moved to the city with his family in the early 1960s. Jam, born James Harris III, on June 6, 1959, met Lewis while the two were high school students. They did not meet in class, however, but while attending an Upward Bound program for urban youth on the University of Minnesota campus. According to their Flyte Tyme publicity literature, the precise locus of the meeting was over a piano. The initial encounter, nonetheless, did not blossom into a career option until some years later; in the meantime, Lewis was pursuing a high school athletic career that won him a football scholarship to Notre Dame University, and Jam was earning his nickname spinning records for dancers at Minneapolis clubs.

Made Flyte Tyme in Minneapolis

Lewis was forced to forgo college when a knee injury cut short his athletic potential during his senior year of high school, which compelled him to seriously consider a career in music. Lewis had formed and played bass in a band called Flyte Tyme that, in the mid-1970s, shared the funk spotlight with another homegrown Minneapolis superstar, Prince. The Lewis-Jam musical connection blossomed in the late 1970s when Lewis invited his friend to play keyboards for his band; they would begin regularly writing songs together early in 1981. Around this time, Prince began exercising his entrepreneurial reach by essentially buying Flyte Tyme and replacing vocalist Alexander ONeal with his friend and protege Morris Day. Firmly in control, Prince dubbed the band The Time and began shaping them into a professional outfit.

For the Record

Team consists of Jimmy Jam (born June 6, 1959, in Minneapolis, MN) and Terry Lewis (born James Harris III, November 24, 1956, in Omaha, NE; married Karyn White [a singer]).

Duo met while high school students, Minneapolis, mid-1970s; Lewis formed, and played bass for, funk band Flyte Tyme, mid-1970s, and recruited Jam, on keyboards, late 1970s; formalized songwriting partnership, 1981; members of band The Time, 1981-83; formed production company Flyte Tyme Productions, 1982; wrote and produced tracks for other bands, including Klymaxx and the S.O.S. Band, 1983-86; produced Janet Jacksons debut album, Control, and albums for the Human League, the Force M.D.s, and Robert Palmer, 1986; in joint venture with A&M Records, formed Perspective Records, 1991, and produced Sounds of Blackness debut album, The Evolution of Gospel; through Perspective, began management of promotion and marketing of A&M R & B roster, 1993.

Awards: American Music Award for best R & B single, 1986, for Janet Jacksons Nasty; Grammy Award for producers of the year, 1986; American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) Writers of the Year awards and R & B Writers of the Year awards, 1987-93; ASCAP Golden Note Award, 1993; NAACP Heritage Award for Lifetime Achievement; Minnesota Dr. Martin Luther King Day Humanitarian Award; numerous gold and platinum singles and albums.

Addresses: Production company Flyte Tyme Productions, 4100 West 76th St., Edina, MN 55435.

Although Jam and Lewis, the primary songwriters for the band at that time, were dissatisfied with their lack of independence under Princes stewardship, they realized the benefits of the arrangement. Goldberg allowed that they became professionals while playing in the Time, and he quoted Jam as having recalled, Prince was going to call the shots. We werent going to get paid a lot of money, but we were going to learn. We were not going to make a bunch of mistakes Prince had made. Jam further mused that, in the long run, You came away from that experience definitely having the work ethic. You believe in yourself.

Jam and Lewis vented their creative frustrations by writing songs for other musicians and occasionally producing the tracks. By the time they incorporated their musical and production skills in 1982 with the creation of Flyte Tyme Productions, they had begun traveling to various cities around the country, renting time in recording studios. It was just such a travel engagement that ended their relationship with Prince. Between Time gigs in 1983, Jam and Lewis flew to Atlanta to produce Just Be Good to Me, a song they had written for the S.O.S. Band. A freak blizzard in Georgia forced them to miss a Time concert in San Antonio, Texas. Prince, widely known for his no-nonsense managerial style, told them to either devote their energy to the band or leave; they left.

Conquered Market With Control

Over the next few years, Jam and Lewis developed their talents and built their business as both songwriters and producers. Following their break from The Time in 1983and the timely success of Just Be Good to Me for the S.O.S. BandJam and Lewis turned out a string of triumphs, including a hit with Cherrelles I Didnt Mean to Turn You On. Jam told Rolling Stones Goldberg how Princes ultimatum had changed their lives, revealing, That was the first time that we got serious about producing.... Up to that time it was just fun. Hey, lets write some songs. Ha-ha, this is fun. All of a sudden, its like... this is how Im going to make my living now. By 1984, they had bought their own studio, also named Flyte Tyme Productions, and had set up full-time operations in Minneapolis.

1986 proved to be the turning point for Flyte Tyme, largely, but not entirely, due to the success of Janet Jacksons debut album, Control. Their work with Jackson exemplified the teams production ethic, demonstrating how they manage to realize the potential of musicians whose careers are at a crossroads. Jackson lived in the shadow of her superstar brother, Michael, and had received little attention despite years of work in television and music. Jam and Lewis approached the singer with a concept, designing songs specifically for her image and crafting an album to fill an apparent void in the music scene of the moment.

Jam disclosed to Elles Daly, With Control we tried to make a very street-edged R & B record with a lot of attitude.... We just set out to make as black an album as we could. Goldberg noted that after Jam and Lewis brought Jackson to Minneapolis to record, they were doing their kind of research, gathering the raw material from which they would fashion a batch of semibiographical hit songs... that revealed a shockingly emancipated Janet Jackson and subsequently transformed her into the major new superstar of 1986. Of their approach to the songwriting, Jam said, All we ever try to do is bring out the personality. Janet was like a stick of dynamite. We lit the fuse. The ensuing explosion produced a multiplatinum album and five Top Ten pop hits, among them the memorable Control, Nasty, What Have You Done for Me Lately, and When I Think of You.

Broadened Reach

From the landmark of Control, Jam and Lewis have focused on expanding their production facilities. Their potential grew markedly as their influence shifted from a black music market to the pop arena, which allowed them to introduce more and more black musicians to greater success and marketability. The Top Ten status of a 1986 single, Tender Love, with the Force M.D.s had marked Flyte Tymes initial transition from the R & B charts to the pop charts, closely anticipating the tremendous crossover success of Control. 1986 also saw the production of Top Ten hits with Human, by the Human League, and a cover version of Cherrelles I Didnt Mean to Turn You On by Robert Palmer. The resounding coup of 1986 demanded industry attention for Jam and Lewis, including the 1986 Grammy for producers of the year. By 1989 the duo were able to reflect their change in status with a change in venue, trading the original Minneapolis studio for a multimillion-dollar, cutting-edge complex outside of the city.

Post-Jackson, Jam and Lewis found themselves free to pick and choose the artists with whom they would work; they received calls from the likes of megastars Aretha Franklin and Whitney Houston. But they continued, despite their movement into a mainstream market that allowed them freedom from the limits imposed on black producers in a segregated industry, to champion African-American musicians who werent quite realizing their musical and business potential. Lewis told Daly, Weve been offered people whove sold millions of records... but if we dont feel we can bring something to the party, then we dont take it.... Its not that we dont love these people and their workthats exactly why we wont touch it.

Jam and Lewis brought precisely this philosophy to the record label, Perspective Records, that they created in a joint venture with A&M Records in 1991. Their first recording was an indisputable success, not simply because of positive reviews and sales, but also because Jam and Lewischaracteristicallywere able to create mainstream popularity for an unlikely client: a 40-member gospel choir called Sounds of Blackness. Their debut album, The Evolution of Gospel, garnered the Grammy for best gospel album by a choir or chorus and landed three singles on the R & B charts. Perspectives second release, Mint Conditions Meant to Be Mint, put this young band in the Number One R & B spot with the single Breakin My Heart (Pretty Brown Eyes). Perspective continued to market new bands, including Lo-Key?, and turned the soundtrack for the Daman Wayans film Mo Money into a platinum record. In 1993 A&M extended its deal with Perspective through a significant infusion of cash and manpower, and it was announced that Perspective would be charged with promotion and marketing of A&Ms R & B rosterquite the vote of confidence for Jam and Lewis.

Over the years the dynamic duoalmost as well known for their signature dark suits, fedoras, and shades as for their remarkable skillshave maintained their partnership with Jackson, possibly the one superstar in their roster. Janet Jacksons Rhythm Nation 1814 built on the success of Control, making its mark in 1989 with five Number One assaults on the R & B chart and six Top Five landings on the pop chart. Ms. Jacksons 1993 offering, janet., debuted at Number One on the pop charts and remained there for six weeks; by this time, the lead single from the album, the gently grooving Thats the Way Love Goes, had been prominent on both the pop and R & B charts for almost a month. The record, in fact, seemed unstoppable, spawning two more hits, If and Again, as Jacksons world tour headed off into 1994. Similarly, the momentum of Jam and Lewiss Flyte Tyme showed no signs of letting up.

Selected discography

As producers

The Time, The Time, Warner Bros., 1981.

The Time, What Time Is It?, Warner Bros., 1982.

Klymaxx, Girls Will Be Girls, Solar, 1982.

The S.O.S. Band, On the Rise (includes Just Be Good to Me), Tabu/Epic, 1983.

Klymaxx, Meeting in the Ladies Room, Constellation/MCA, 1984.

The S.O.S. Band, Just the Way You Like It, Tabu/Epic, 1984.

Change, Change of Heart, RFC/Atlantic, 1984.

Thelma Houston, Qualifying Heat, MCA, 1984.

Cherrelle, Fragile (includes I Didnt Mean to Turn You On), Tabu/Epic, 1984.

Cherrelle, High Priority, Tabu/Epic, 1985.

Alexander ONeal, Alexander ONeal, Tabu/Epic, 1985.

Force M.D.s, Tender Love (12 single), Warner Bros., 1985.

The Human League, Crash (includes Human), A&M, 1986.

Robert Palmer, Riptide (includes I Didnt Mean to Turn You On), Island, 1986.

Janet Jackson, Conirol (includes Nasty, Control, What Have You Done for Me Lately, and When I Think of You), A&M, 1986.

The S.O.S. Band, Sands of Time, Tabu/Epic, 1986.

ONeal, Hearsay, Tabu/Epic, 1987.

Herb Alpert, Keep Your Eyes on Me, A&M, 1987.

Cherrelle, Affair, Tabu/Epic, 1988.

New Edition, Heart Break, MCA, 1988.

ONeal, All Mixed Up, Tabu/Epic, 1989.

Jackson, Janet Jacksons Rhythm Nation 1814, A&M, 1989.

ONeal, All True Man, Tabu/Epic, 1991.

Karyn White, Ritual of Love, Warner Bros., 1991.

Sounds of Blackness, The Evolution of Gospel, Perspective/A&M, 1991.

Mint Condition, Meant to Be Mint (includes Breakin My Heart [Pretty Brown Eyes]), Perspective/A&M, 1991.

Mo Money (soundtrack), Perspective/A&M, 1992.

Jackson, janet. (includes Thats the Way Love Goes, If, and Again), Virgin, 1993.

Sources

Billboard, October 23, 1993.

Ebony, July 1987.

Elle, March 1993.

High Fidelity, September 1986.

Jet, May 24, 1993.

Musician, September 1992.

People, June 29, 1992.

Rolling Stone, April 23, 1987.

Ondine E. Le Blanc

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"Jam, Jimmy and Lewis, Terry." Contemporary Musicians. . Retrieved August 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/jam-jimmy-and-lewis-terry-0