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Silver, Horace

Horace Silver

Jazz pianist and composer

Discovered by Stan Getz

Left Messengers to Front Own Group

Provided University for Younger Players

Selected discography

Sources

In 1996 Horace Silver released a recording called The HardbopGrandpop. That could just as well be the title of his biography. Silver helped define the jazz style known as hard-bop back in the 1950s. Nearly half a century later, he remains among the jazz elite. Silvers status as a giant of jazz is reflected by the list of artists with whom he has been associated. He got his first big break from Stan Getz, learned his basics from Coleman Hawkins and Lester Young, honed his style with Miles Davis, broke ground with Art Blakey, and taught the ropes to Tom Harrell and the Brecker brothers, Michael and Randy. Along the way, by making the rhythm funky and keeping the melody simple, Silver has produced a huge body of jazz classics that continues to grow.

Horace Silver was born on September 2, 1928 in Norwalk, Connecticut. His father, John, was an immigrant from Cape Verde, a group of islands off the western coast of Africa, and the Latin-flavored folk music of that country would later find its way into Horaces compositions. Silver began taking piano lessons when he was about ten years old. A couple of years later, he was bitten by the jazz bug when he heard the legendary Jimmy Lunce-fords band perform at a nearby amusement park. From that point on, Silver knew that he wanted to be a musician.

Discovered by Stan Getz

By his teens, Silver was copying note-for-note the solos of early jazz pianists such as Earl Hines and Art Tatum. For a while he took up tenor sax, with the great Lester Young serving as his role model. Silvers self-education then led him to listen to bebop pioneers Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie. Eventually, he settled on Bud Powell and Thelonius Monk as his main jazz heroes. By the time he finished high school, Silver was a regular on the local club scene and even led his own trio. Silvers big break came in 1950, when his trio was serving as the backup band for the visiting Stan Getz at Hartford, Connecticuts Sundown Club. Getz was so impressed that he quickly hired Silver on as a member of his quartet for the next two years.

After his stint with Getz, Silver decided he was ready to move to New York. He quickly found work playing with some of the very musicians he had been idolizing for years, including Hawkins and Young. In 1953 Silver cut the first of his many albums on the Blue Note label, as part of a trio. By the following year, he was leading a group that included tenor saxophonist Hank Mobley and bassist Doug Watkins. This ensemble had a steady gig at a Harlem club called Mintons. Silver was named top newstar for 1954 in DownBeat magazines annual poll.

For the Record

Born Horace Ward Martin Tavares Silver, September 2, 1928, in Norwalk, CT; son of John and Gertrude (Edmounds) Silver.

Toured with Stan Getz, 1950-52; Blue Note recording artist, 1953-1980; led quartet at Mintons in Harlem, 1954; co-founded Jazz Messengers with drummer Art Blakey, 1954; leader, Horace Silver Quintet, 1955; recorded hit Song for My Father, 1964; founded Silveto record label, 1980; Impulse! recording artist, 1996.

Awards:DownBeat New Star, 1954; Budweiser Musical Excellence Award, 1958; Citizen Call Entertainment Award, 1960; Down Beat Hall of Fame, 1996.

Addresses: Agent Joanne Jimenez, The Bridge Agency, 110 Salem Rd., Pound Ridge, NY 10516; Record company GRP/Impulse Records, 555 West 57th Street, New York, NY 10019.

The Mintons band soon evolved into the Jazz Messengers, with the addition of drummer and co-leader Art Blakey and trumpet player Kenny Dorham. They recorded a 1954 album under the name Horace Silver and the Jazz Messengers.

Left Messengers to Front Own Group

The Jazz Messengerswithout Silvers name in front-recorded a live album in 1955. Silver then left the band, taking Mobley and Dorham with him, while Blakey carried on as leader of a group by that name for decades to come. With his new quintet, Silver began to further develop a distinct identity as a composer. By taking bebop and eliminating some of the complexity, while injecting elements of gospel, blues, and soul, and funkifying the beat a tad, Silver and his imitators were inventing hard-bop.

Silvers 1956 album Six Pieces of Silver produced his first hit, Señor Blues. From that point on, he was in more or less constant demand. For the next few years, his band was a revolving-door unit, with a shifting cast that included at differenttimes Mobley, Dorham, Art Farmer, Doug Watkins, Art Taylor, and Clifford Jordan. From 1958 to 1964, Silvers band had a fairly stable lineup that featured the front line of Blue Mitchell on trumpet and Junior Cook on tenor sax. This group recorded some of Silvers best-known compositions, including Sister Sadie from Blowin The Blues Away (1959) and Nicas Dream from Horace-Scope (1960).

In 1964, Silver recorded Song For My Father on an album of the same title. The song became a huge hit, and the album made Billboards top 200 pop chart. Audiences since then have almost never allowed Silver to leave the stage without playing the song. In 1965 he released the album Cape Verdean Blues, a tribute to the folk music he had learned from his father. In the late 1960s, Silver experienced a sort of spiritual awakening, which was reflected in his music. In 1970 he released an album called The United States of Mind, which included Silvers own quasi-philosophical lyrics.

Provided University for Younger Players

In the 1970s Silver collaborated with arranger Wade Marcus on a series of albums with similar titles: Silver n Brass, Silver n Wood, and Silver n Voices. During this period, his bands included anumber of young musicians who have gone on to become stars in their own right, including Michael Brecker and trumpeter Tom Harrell. Brecker, according to Down Beat, said his stint with Silver was like a university of jazz. While Silver felt that his more spiritually oriented work of the 1970s was important, he believed that the people at Blue Note wanted him to go back to the more straight ahead brand of jazz that had sold so well in the 1960s. Unwilling to haggle over the direction of his music, Silver left Blue Note, the only company he had ever recorded for, in 1980 and formed his own label, Silveto.

Silver continued to record and tour steadily throughout the 1980s. Among his albums of that period were Spiritualizing the Senses and Music to Ease Your Disease. He also put out an album of previously unreleased live material from 1964. Silver showed no signs of slowing down in the 1990s. He released three new albums between 1990 and 1996Its Got to Be Funky, Pencil Packin Papa, and The Hardbop Grandpop in spite of serious health problems that put him out of action for a period in 1993 and 1994.

In 1996 Silver became the Down Beai Hall of Fames 86th member, joining Getz, Blakey, and ahost of others whose music he had enhanced over the years with his own magic. As he approached the age of 70, Silver insisted that he still had musical goals. Above all, he expressed a hope to continue spreading jazz, which he sees as a unique and spiritually uplifting art form, to new audiences. To Silver, the music itself is the healing force that keeps him going.

Selected discography

Horace Silver and the Jazz Messengers, Blue Note, 1954.

Six Pieces of Silver, Blue Note, 1956.

The Stylings of Silver, Blue Note, 1957.

Finger Poppin, Blue Note, 1959.

Blowin the Blues Away, Blue Note, 1959.

Horace-Scope, Blue Note, 1960.

Doin the Thing, Blue Note, 1961.

Silvers Serenade, Blue Note, 1963.

Song for My Father, Blue Note, 1964.

The Cape Verdean Blues, Blue Note, 1965.

That Healin Feelin (The United States of Mind, Phase I), Blue Note, 1970.

Total Response (Phase II), Blue Note, 1971.

In Pursuit of the 27th Man, Blue Note, 1972.

All (Phase III), Blue Note, 1973.

Silver n Brass, Blue Note, 1975.

Silver n Wood, Blue Note, 1976.

Silver n Voices, Blue Note, 1977.

Silver n Percussion, Blue Note, 1977.

Silver n Strings Play the Music of the Spheres, Blue Note, 1978.

Its Got to Be Funky, Columbia, 1993.

Pencil Packin Papa, Columbia, 1994.

The Hardbop Grandpop, Impulse, 1996.

Sources

Books

Lyons, Len, and Don Perlo, Jazz Portraits, Morrow, 1989.

Reisner, Robert, The Jazz Titans, DeCapo, 1977.

Ullman, Michael, Jazz Lives, New Republic Books, 1980.

Periodicals

DownBeat, November 1980; September 1994; December 1996.

New Republic, July 8, 1978.

Additional material was provided by GRP/lmpulse Records.

Robert R. Jacobson

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Silver, Horace 1928–

Horace Silver 1928

Jazz pianist and composer

At a Glance

Selected discography

Sources

Pianist and composer Horace Silver, a pre-eminent founder i of what became known as hard bop or soul jazz, g emerged in the 1950s as noted instrumentalist and bandleader. Steeped in blues and a student of a church organist, Silver drew upon many sources for his musical vision, including Latin sounds that imbued his music with an intoxicating rhythmic quality. His inventive writing for small group settings featuring a saxophone-trumpet front line became a model for jazzmen of the post bop era. During a period when most jazz recording dates became blowing sessions in which the participants played unrehearsed standards and head arrangements, Silver maintained, within his small groups, a sense of unique compositional form, and his tightly rehearsed groups became known for their impeccable sense of swing, while retaining a soulfully powerful sound. Many of Silvers compositions such as The Preacher, Juicy Lucy, Nicas Dream, Sister Sadie, and Filthy McNasty have become modern jazz classics and continue to find their way into the repertoires of jazz artists around the world.

Horace Ward Martin Tavares Silver was born on September 9, 1928 in Norwalk, Connecticut. Silvers father, John Tavares Silver, hailed from the Cape Verde Islandsa former Portuguese colony off the west coast of Africaand worked at the Norwalk Tire Factory. A violinist and guitarist, he played music at family parties. Silver first studied the classical keyboard under the direction of a church organist. As a member of the Norwalk High School band, he played tenor saxophone under the influence of Lester Young. During his second year in high school, he took up the baritone saxophone, while pursuing his piano studies.

After graduating from high school, Silver continued playing piano, and primarily studied blues and boogie woogie players. His early training included memorizing Avery Parrishs classic blues solos on Erskine Hawkinss recording of After Hours. Silver also studied the music of Charlie Parker and jazz pianists Art Tatum and Teddy Wilson. As he later recounted in Talking Jazz, Teddy Wilson I copied a little of his stuff. I could copy stuff off the record. I couldnt catch all of it. I bought a couple of Teddy Wilson piano folios and tried to practice out them. Art Tatum piano folios were impossible for me to read. I couldnt get through them, there were so many thirty-second, sixty-forth notes, it looked like somebody took some ink and just threw it at the paper. Instead, Silver concentrated on studying

At a Glance

Born Horace Ward Martin Tavares, September 9, 1928, in Norwalk, CT; son of John Tavares (factory worker) and Gertrude (a domestic worker).

Career: Discovered by Stan Getz in 1950 and performed and recorded with Getz until 1951; became a member of New York Citys jazz scene and recorded as session musician for the Savoy label; made first solo recordings for the Blue Note label, 1952; led a group at Mintons Playhouse and recorded as a member of Art Blakeys Quintet, 1954; recorded solo release with Blakey and Jazz Messengers, 1954-55; subsequently recorded with the group under Blakeys leadership, 1954-56; pursued solo career, 1957; recorded a number of Blue Note albums, 1960s and 1970s; founded Silveto Productions and recorded music related to holistic healing, 1981; toured with small groups, 1980s; recorded for various labels, 1990s.

Awards: Won the New Star piano category of Down Beat magazines International Critics Poll, 1954.

Addresses: Office Silveto Productions Inc., 18326 Clifftop Way, Malibu, California, 90265-5628.

the music of bebop piano genius Bud Powell. He soon discovered the works of one of Powells mentors, Thelonious Monk, who, as Thomas Owens emphasized in Bebop The Music and Its Players, influenced Silvers fast tremolos and dry pedal-free ballads, but also in the stiff-fingered percussive technique both men sharethe oddest approach to the keyboard attack and fingering in jazz.

In 1950, while performing with Harold Holt in Hartford, Connecticut, Silver was discovered by saxophonist Stan Getz. Getz hired him for a group that toured extensively between 1950 and 1951. Within weeks of an August 1951 studio session, Silver left Getzs group in order to establish himself in New York Citys flourishing jazz scene. By performing at Birdland, he was able to accompany many of the leading jazz talents of the day. In Song of the Hawk, Silver recalled playing Birdland with Hawk [Coleman Hawkins] and bassist Curly Russellonce with Roy Eldridge and Art Blakey, once with Howard McGhee and Art Taylor. It was a privilege and an honor. Like most great artists, Hawk showed not only genius but consistency. During the early 1950s, he performed with saxophonist Lester Young and bebop bassist Oscar Pettiford.

Silvers first sides as a leader for the Blue Note label, a company he would have a steady working relationship for the next 40 years, were a series of trio dates from 1952 and 1953. These recordings featured Art Blakey and the varied bass accompaniment of Gene Ramey, Curly Russell, and Percy Heath. These early efforts captured a number of Silvers original compositions such as Quicksilver, Safari, and Opus De Funk. Around the same time he debuted on the Blue Note label, Silver took part in numerous sessions for the Savoy label. On these recordings, he performed with saxophonists Lou Donaldson and Al Cohn. In 1954, Silver led a quartet at Mintons Playhouse with saxophonist Hank Mobley and bassist Doug Watkins. In February of 1954, he appeared as a member of the Art Blakey Quintet for the Blue Note album At Night At Birdland Vol. I and Vol. II. Under Blakeys leadership, Silver joined trumpeter Clifford Brown, Lou Donaldson, and bassist Curly Russell for a showcase of hard bop which included his three original compositions Split Kick, Quicksilver, and Myreh. Nick Catalano, author of Clifford Brown: The Life and Art of the Legendary Jazz Trumpeter, emphasized that the Birdland album has become a jazz classic for many reasons; the brilliant improvisations, the innovative Silver compositions, the quintessential hard bop musical statements, and the production standards by Rudy Van Gelder and Blue Note.

In 1954, Silver led a Blue Note recording band under the name The Jazz Messengers. The Jazz Messengers was a quintet that included his Mintons sidemen Mobely and Watkins along with Blakey and trumpeter Kenny Dorham. Although Blakey had led a big band called the Jazz Messengers in 1947, the formation of this smaller cooperative unit marked the official debut of a band that, under Blakeys subsequent leadership, would become a premiere showcase of young jazz talent. Cut in two sessions in December of 1954 and February of 1955, Horace Silver and the Jazz Messengers featured six original Silver compositions including The Preacher, a groundbreaking number of what became known as hard bop or soul jazz. An immensely popular number among jazz musicians, The Preacher was described by Ira Gitler in the albums liner notes as an earthy swinger, and derived its melody from Show Me the Way to Go Home.

During 1954, Silver also took part in Prestige recording dates led by Miles Davis. As Davis explained in his memoir, Miles, I liked the way Horace played piano. He put fire under my playing. In March of 1954, Davis recorded with Silver, Blakey, and bassist Percy Heath. Silvers presence on Davis Blue Note date and also on his next three recording sessions during this prolific spring, commented Jack Chambers in Milestones, gave him exactly the kind of exposure he needed. His immediate blossoming as a major talent further enhanced Davis reputation as a jazz mentor. Several Davis-led sessions held in March and April of 1954 yielded material that was included on the albums Blue Haze and Walkin. Silver returned to the studio with Davis in late June of 1954, and appeared on the album Miles Davis and The Jazz Giants: Bags Groove with tenor saxophonist Sonny Rollins, Percy Heath, and drummer Kenny Clarke.

Silver won the New Star piano category of Down Beat magazines International Critics Poll in 1954. Over the next two years, he found himself in great demand as a Blue Note session pianist. In 1955 he recorded with saxophonist Milt Jackson, Gigi Gryce, and Kenny Clarke, and also appeared with an eight-piece band (including the conga playing of Carlos Potato Valdes) on Dorhams Blue Note album Afro-Cuban. Under the leadership of Art Blakey, Silver, Dorham, and Watkins appeared together at a club date in November of 1955. The session was released as the live recordings, The Jazz Messengers at the Cafe Bohemia Vol. I and Vol. II. Silvers next two recording sessions with Art Blakey took place in April and May of 1956, and were released as the Columbia album Art Blakey, The Jazz Messengers. The album featured Dorhams trumpet replacement, Donald Byrd, in addition to Mobely and Watkins. It is my opinion, stated drummer Kenny Washington in the liner notes to The Jazz Messengers, that by the time these 1956 Columbia sides were released the Messengers had found a sound of their own. Credit must also be given to Horace Silver for this direction. In September of 1956, Silver provided the piano accompaniment for bassist Paul Chamberss Blue Note release, Whims of Chambers. The recording also included Donald Byrd, John Coltrane, Kenny Burrell, and Philly Joe Jones.

In 1956, Silver left The Jazz Messengers to form his own group with Mobley and trumpeter Art Farmer. During the following year, he continued to record with artists like Sonny Rollins. Silvers late 1958 release Further Explorations which featured Farmer, saxophonist Clifford Jordan, bassist Teddy Kotick and drummer Louis Hayesrepresented, according to David Rosenthal in Hard Bop, the most successful crystallization of his style as a pianist, composer, and bandleader. At the time it was recorded, the quintet had been playing together for many months and had evolved into one of the best-integrated combos in jazz. Silvers 1959 Blue Note album, Blowiri The Blues Away, became a fiery showcase of original compositions featuring saxophonist Blue Mitchell, trumpeter Junior Cook, bassist Gene Taylor, and drummer Louis Hayes. From the albums break neck title track, The Baghdad Blues to the beautiful ballad Peace and the classic and often covered Sister Sadie the unit, whether in its quintet or trio setting, played some of the finest music of the hard bop era. Apropos of all the talk about soul and funk lately, discussed Ira Gitler in the liner notes to Blowin The Blues Away, it is interesting to note that with Horace Silver, the one who has them in abundant amounts, they have always been natural qualities and never the result of self-conscious striving.

Though a premiere exponent of soul jazz, Silvers music did not limit itself to a blues and gospel influenced sound. As Thomas Owens asserted in Bebop: The Music and Its Players, For every down-home funky tune there is one or more that in no way fits the funky stereotype. Silvers musical repertoire, noted Rosenthal in Hard Bop, contained some of modern jazzs most poignant ballads. In addition, he was something of an innovator in his compositions, venturing into time signatures (like the 6/8 he used in his major hits, Senor Blues) and bar lengths (like the 16-6-16 structure of Swingin Samaba) that broke with jazzs traditional Tin Pan Alley-derived-two-bar A-A-B-A formula. In The History of Jazz, Ted Gioia also explained that many of Silvers compositions reflected a refreshing diversity of 6/8 rhythms and jazz waltzes and Caribbean-Latin Hybrids. The latter style found its way into Silvers music following a trip to Rio de Janeiro when he heard the authentic playing of bossa nova. Inspired by Brazilian music, he decided to incorporate the bossa nova sound as well as the folk music of his fathers Cape Verdean heritage into his jazz compositions. In 1963, Silver debuted his Caribbean and Latin-tinged material on Blue Notes Song For My Father. The album became one of the companys best-selling recordings and stayed on the charts for many weeks. It was also named by Down Beat magazine readers as one of the top five jazz albums of the year. Cut in three sessions, the album captured two different quintets, one with trumpeter Carmell Jones, Joe Henderson, Teddy Smith, and Roger Humphriesand the other with Mitchell, Cook, Gene Taylor, and Roy Brooks. In May of 1963, Silvers Serenade was released. The album contained five original Sliver compositions, along with the Mitchell-Cook front line and the rhythm section of Taylor and Brooks.

In 1964, Silver recruited saxophonist Joe Henderson and, the following year, added trumpeter Woody Shaw to his band. In History of Jazz, Gioia stated Horace Silvers mid-1960s combo might have challenged Blakeys supremacy in the hard-bop idiom, if it had only lasted longer. Its front line of saxophonist Joe Henderson and trumpeter Woody Shaw featured two of the most promising younger jazz talents of the day. The horns of Shaw and Henderson, augmented by guest trombonist J.J. Johnson, provided the accompaniment for Silvers Blue Note album, The Cape Verdean Blues. Recorded in the fall of 1965, the album showcased five original numbers and continued Silvers foray into Latin-Caribbean influences. Listening to these sides, commented Leonard Feather in the albums liner notes, one can understand easily why Horace Silvers success pattern has taken him forward uninterruptedly for almost ten years. The Horace Silver Quintet albums are predictable only to the extent that one can foretell their general character. Horace Silver is one composer who is never content to rest on past achievements. A mix of soul jazz and Latin sounds, Silvers 1966 Blue Note release, The Jody Grind, exhibited his artistic consistency as composer and bandleader. Apart from the bluesy title track, the album contains the original compositions Mary Lou and Mexican Hip Dance.

Because of its versatility and modern edge, Silvers music influenced musical trends outside mainstream jazz. John Storm Roberts, in his book Latin Jazz: The First of the Fusions, commented that during the 1970s Silvers soul-Latin mix would give another shot in the arm to the movement toward a funk-Latin jazz fusion. During the 1980s, Silvers Latin-tinged music reached London discos, and influenced many of the Young Lions of the new acoustic jazz school. However, as Stuart Nicholson observed in Jazz: The 1980s Resurgence, Silverfailed to capitalize on the bebop revival of the 1980s in the way several of his contemporaries did. In 1981, Silver formed Silveto Records. As he explained in Talking Jazz, the label was devoted to self-help, holistic, metaphysical music intended to integrate a trilogy, consisting of spirit, mind and body. Among the best of his Silveto recordings was Music to Ease Your Disease. This album featured Silvers former saxophonist Junior Cook, trumpeter Clark Terry, bassist Billy Drummond, and drummer Billy Hart. Silver returned to his hard bop roots during the 1990s, and recorded the Columbia releases Its Got to Be Funky in 1993 and Pencil Packin Papa in 1994. He also recorded The Hardbop Grandpop! in 1996 and Jazz Has a Sense of Humor in 1999 for the Impulse! label. His 1997 Silveto release, A Prescription For the Blues, featured the horns of Michael and Randy Brecker, bassist Ron Carter, and longtime side-man Louis Hayes. Silvers music was included on a Blue Note remix release in 1998, and appeared as part of the companys three CD compilation, The Blue Note Years.

A musician whose musical career spanned from hardbop to a modern sound drenched in a funky earthi-ness and Latin-Caribbean sound, Silver has created a formidable and influential style by distilling the kinetic energy of bebop into a music of emotional intensity and beauty. In his book Talking Jazz, Ben Sidran noted, To this day jazz players quote his [Silvers] writing and playing, and many of the young lions, those emerging in the popular press, try their best to imitate his compositional devices and to reinvent the Horace Silver sound.

Selected discography

Horace Silver and the Jazz Messengers, Blue Note, 1955.

Six Pieces of Silver, Blue Note, 1956.

Further Exlporations, Blue Note, 1958.

Blowin the Blues Away, Blue Note, 1959.

Horace-Scope, Blue Note, 1960.

Tokyo Blues, Blue Note, 1962.

Silvers Serenade, Blue Note, 1963.

Song For My Father, Blue Note, 1964.

The Horace Sliver Quintet Plus J.J. Johnson, The Cape Verdean Blues, Blue Note, 1965.

The Jody Grind, Blue Note, 1966.

Serenade to a Soul Sister, Blue Note, 1968.

Spiritualizing the Senses, Silveto, 1983.

Its Got to Be Funky, Columbia, 1993.

Hardbop Grandpop, Impusle!, 1996.

Prescription For the Blues, Impulse!, 1997.

Jazz Has a Sense of Humor, Impulse!, 1999.

Horace Silver Retrospective, Blue Note, 1999.

with Miles Davis

Miles Davis, Blue Haze, Prestige, 1954.

Miles, United Artists, 1954.

Miles Davis Allstars, Prestige, 1954.

Miles Davis and The Jazz Giants, Bags Groove, Prestige, 1954.

with others

Stan Getz: Birdland Sessions, 1952.

Al Cohn, Cohns Tones, Savoy, 1953.

Art Farmer, Art Farmer Septet, 1953.

A Night at Birdland With the Art Blakey Quintet Vol. 1 and 2, Blue Note, 1954.

The Jazz Messengers at the Cafe Bohemia, Vol. 1 and 2, Blue Note, 1955.

Kenny Dorham, Afro-Cuban, Blues Note, 1955.

Kenny Clarke, Bohemia After Dark, Savoy, 1955.

Gigi Gryce, Nicas Tempo, Savoy, 1955.

Art Blakey and The Jazz Messengers, Columbia, 1956.

The Jazz Message of Hank Mobley, Savoy, 1956.

Paul Chambers, Whims of Chambers, Blue Note, 1956.

Sonny Rollins Vol. Two, Blue Note, 1957.

Sources

Books

Catalano, Nick,Clifford Brown: The Life and Art of the Legendary Jazz Trumpeter, Oxford University Press, 2000.

Chambers, Jack, with new introduction,Milestones: The Music and Times of Miles Davis, Da Capo, 1998.

Chilton, John,The Song of the Hawk: The Life and Recordings of Coleman Hawkins, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1990.

Davis, Miles with Qunicy Troupe,Miles, The Autobiography, Touchstone Books, 1990.

Gioia, Ted.The History of Jazz, Oxford University Press, 1997.

Maggin, Donald L.,Stan Getz: A Life in Jazz, Quill, 1996.

Owens, Thomas,Bebop, The Music and Its Players, Oxford University Press, 1993.

Roberts, John Storm, Latin Jazz: The of the First Fusions 1880s to Today, Schirmer Books, 1999.

Rosenthal, David H., Hard Bop: Jazz and Black Music 1955-1965, Oxford University Press, 1992.

Sidran, Ben,Talking Jazz: An Oral History, Da Capo, 1995.

Other

Additional information for this profile was obtained from the liner notes by Ira Gitler Horace Silver and the Jazz Messengers and Blowin the Blues Away; Kenny Washington,Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers; and a telephone conversation with Horace Silver, Malibu, California, June 21, 2000.

John Cohassey

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"Silver, Horace 1928–." Contemporary Black Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Silver, Horace 1928–." Contemporary Black Biography. . Retrieved June 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/silver-horace-1928