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Thomas Chippendale

Thomas Chippendale

Thomas Chippendale (1718-1779), an English cabinetmaker, was one of the most distinguished of all furniture designers. His "Director" was the first comprehensive design book for furniture ever to appear, and it remains probably the most important.

The son of a joiner and the grandson of a carpenter, Thomas Chippendale was born at Otley, Yorkshire, on June 5, 1718. There is a tradition that as a young apprentice he made the dollhouse at Nostell Priory, Yorkshire, and also worked at Farnley Hall near Otley. He moved to London and married in 1748; his eldest son, also named Thomas, was born in 1749. In 1753 Chippendale went into partnership with James Rannie and took residence on St. Martin's Lane, where he remained until his death.

Chippendale's The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's Director appeared in 1754. This work, containing 160 plates and some descriptive notes, was intended to serve as a trade catalog and guide to clients. Its special significance is that it forms an important expression of the gay and lively rococo taste which became fashionable in the mid-18th century in the reaction against the somewhat ponderous character of early Georgian furniture. All three aspects of the rococo style were represented: the French, the Gothic, and the Chinese. At one time it was believed that many of the designs in the Director were not the work of Chippendale, but Anthony Coleridge (1968) suggests Chippendale himself was responsible for the original drawings. The Director was so successful that a second edition appeared in 1755 and a third edition, revised and enlarged, in 1762.

One of Chippendale's important early commissions was the furnishing of Dumfries House in Scotland in 1759. This house was the first independent work of the architect Robert Adam, and it was probably here that the long association between the two men began. Both were members of the Society of Arts, to which Chippendale was elected in 1760.

The Director was the principal inspiration behind the characteristic mahogany furniture of the mid-18th century, and Chippendale's designs were used, often in greatly simplified form, by innumerable provincial and rural craftsmen. The most distinguished furniture produced from the Chippendale workshops, however, was the handsome marquetry pieces inspired by the neoclassic designs of Robert Adam. It was for many years hotly debated whether Chippendale ever actually made furniture to the architect's designs, but that he did so is conclusively proved by Chippendale's bill of July 9, 1765, for the supply to Sir Lawrence Dundas of armchairs and sofas which correspond exactly to an Adam design dated 1765. It appears that henceforth Chippendale absorbed the Adam manner so successfully that the architect had the fullest confidence in leaving the design of movable articles to Chippendale, who supplied furniture in the neoclassic style to Harewood House, Newbey Hall, and Nostell Priory, all in Yorkshire, and to other houses with which Adam was concerned. The pair of important satinwood and mahogany marquetry china cabinets at Firle Place, Sussex, is in Chippendale's neoclassic style (ca. 1770).

Chippendale died in London in November 1779. His eldest son continued the family business.

Further Reading

The first monograph on Chippendale was Oliver Brackett, Thomas Chippendale: A Study of His Life, Work, and Influence (1924). This was superseded by the monumental study of Anthony Coleridge, Chippendale Furniture: The Work of Thomas Chippendale and His Contemporaries in the Rococo Taste (1968). Two volumes of selections of Chippendale designs were published by Alec Tiranti, with notes and preface by R. W. Symonds: Chippendale Furniture Designs (1948) and The Ornamental Designs of Chippendale (1949).

The first systematic account of Chippendale and his contemporaries was Ralph Edwards and Margaret Jourdain, Georgian Cabinet-Makers (1944; rev. ed. 1955); this work was partially superseded by later studies. Chippendale's designs are discussed in Peter Ward-Jackson, English Furniture Designs of the Eighteenth Century (1958). For the most comprehensive general account of Chippendale's furniture in the Adam style see Clifford Musgrave, Adam and Hepplewhite and Other NeoClassical Furniture (1966). Other useful works are Ralph Fastnedge, English Furniture Styles from 1500 to 1830 (1955), and Helena Hayward, ed., World Furniture: An Illustrated History (1965).

Additional Sources

Gilbert, Christopher, The life and work of Thomas Chippendale, London: Studio Vista, 1978. □

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Chippendale, Thomas

Thomas Chippendale (chĬp´əndāl´), 1718–79, celebrated English cabinetmaker. His designs were so widely followed that a whole general category of 18th-century English furniture is commonly grouped under his name. Chippendale's Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's Director, an illustrated trade catalog first published in 1754, was widely influential in England and America. Among the numerous pieces stamped with his style, it is possible to assign unquestionably to his own workshop only those for which the original bills still remain, as in the case of Harewood House and Nostell Priory, whose furnishings were created by him. While he based his work upon the general Queen Anne and Georgian characteristics of sober design and thoroughly fine construction, retaining many of the early 18th-century details, Chippendale's distinction was to introduce many other forms. For these he used three outside inspirations—Chinese, Gothic, and contemporaneous French rococo. The first two resulted naturally from the general mid-18th-century enthusiasms for chinoiserie decoration and pseudo-Gothic architecture. Chippendale's name is emphatically identified with the extensive variety of chair types that he developed—from geometrical to Chinese, lattice, or sumptuously carved and interlaced forms. Chippendale's varied output also included desks; mirror frames; hanging bookshelves; settees, with which he was especially successful; china cabinets and bookcases, frequently with fretted cornices and latticework glazed doors; and tables with delicately fretted galleries and distinctive cluster-column legs of Gothic inspiration. The last phase of his career shows the influence of the designs of Robert Adam. Chippendale's style, quickly imported to America, was imitated by a number of expert cabinetmakers.

See studies by A. Coleridge (1968) and C. Gilbert (2 vol. 1986).

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Chippendale, Thomas

Chippendale, Thomas (1718–79). Cabinet-maker and designer, the son of a Yorkshire joiner, he set up business in London about the 1750s. Employing varied styles and adapting to changing fashions, Chippendale designed an extensive range of furniture, carpets, wallpapers, and brassware, from the elaborate yet delicate for the homes of gentry, to the simple and unpretentious for their servants' quarters. In 1754 he published The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's Director which influenced style in Europe and America. Both Catherine the Great and Louis XVI had copies of the book. Chippendale's designs are in many distinguished houses, including Badminton, Harewood, and Alnwick castle. Probably his best work was after 1770, when he worked with Robert Adam, a notoriously fastidious architect. Not highly regarded by his contemporaries and successors—Sheraton said his designs were ‘wholly antiquated and laid aside’—Chippendale's name has come to typify 18th-cent. mahogany furniture.

June Cochrane

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"Chippendale, Thomas." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Chippendale, Thomas

Chippendale, Thomas (1718–79) English furniture designer. One of the great craftsmen, much of his fame rested upon the wide circulation of his The Gentleman and Cabinet Maker's Directory (1754–62), a trade catalogue illustrating the designs of his factory. Many of Chippendale's finest pieces were marquetry and inlaid items in neo-classical vein.

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