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Chan, Jackie 1954(?)– (Jacky Chan, Wellson Chin, Chan Yuan Lung, Cheng Lung)

CHAN, Jackie 1954(?)
(Jacky Chan, Wellson Chin, Chan Yuan Lung,
Cheng Lung)


PERSONAL


Original name, Chan Kwong Sang (some sources say Kongsang Chan); born April 7, 1954 (some sources cite 1955), in Hong Kong; son of Charles (an embassy cook) and LeeLee (an embassy maid) Chan; married Len FengChiao (an actress), 1983 (separated); children: J. C.; (with Elaine Ng) a daughter. Education: Studied martial arts, acrobatics, and mime at the Chinese Opera Research Institute (also known as China Drama Academy, Zhonguo Xuji Xueyuan, or Opera Academy), 196171.


Addresses: Agent William Morris Agency, 151 El Camino Dr., Beverly Hills, CA 90212.


Career: Actor, director, producer, screenwriter, and stunt person. Golden Way (a production company), founder and producer, 1986; Jackie Chan Stuntmen Association, founder, 1985. Appeared in television commercials for Mountain Dew, 1997; TD Waterhouse, 1999, and Hanes Tagless Tshirts, 2003; appeared in infomercial for CableFlex, 2002; previously worked as a comic book creator, dishwasher, and bricklayer.


Member: Hong Kong Directors Guild (founder; chairperson), Performing Arts Guild, Society of Cinematographers.


Awards, Honors: Hong Kong Film Award nomination (with HarkOn Fung and Yuen Kuni), best action choreography, 1983, for Long xiao ye; Hong Kong Film Award nomination, best actor, 1985, for "A " gai waak; Hong Kong Film Award nominations, best director and best actor, 1986, for Ging chaat goo si; Hong King Film Award nomination, best actor, 1986, for Long de xin; Hong Kong Film Award, best picture, 1989, for Yin ji kau; named Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, 1989; Hong Kong Film Award nomination, best actor, 1990, for Qiji; Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres, 1990; Golden Horse Award, best actor, Golden Horse Film Festival, 1992, Hong Kong Film Award nomination, best actor, 1993, both for Jing cha gu shi III: Chao ji jing cha; Golden Horse Award, best actor, Hong Kong Film Award nominations, best actor and best action choreography, 1994, all for Zhong an zu; MTV Movie Award, 1995, for lifetime achievement; Hong Kong Film Award (with Stanley Tong), best action choreography, Hong Kong Film Award nomination, best actor, MTV Movie Award nomination, best fight, 1996, all for Hong faan kui; Doctor of Social Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, 1996; MTV Movie Award nomination, best fight, Hong Kong Film Award nomination, best actor, 1997, both for Jing cha gu shi IV: Jian dan ren wu; Best Asian Film Award (with ChaiLiang Liu), FantAsia Film Festival, 1997, for Jui kuen II; Maverick Tribute Award, Cinequest San Jose Film Festival, 1998; Hong Kong Film Award, best action choreography, Hong Kong Film Award nomination, best actor, 1999, both for Ngo si sui; Actor of the Year Award, Hollywood Film Festival, 1999; MTV Award (with Chris Tucker), best onscreen duo, MTV Movie Award nomination (with Tucker), best fight, Blockbuster Entertainment Award (with Tucker), favorite duoaction adventure, 1999, all for Rush Hour; Silver Bauhinia Award, Hong Kong government, 1999; Special Award, Awards of the International Indian Film Academy, 2000, for excellence in international cinema; Hong Kong Film Award nomination, best action choreography, 2000, for Bor lei jun; Grand Prix Special des Ameriques, Montreal World Film Festival, 2001; Blockbuster Entertainment Award nomination (internet only; with Owen Wilson), favorite action team, 2001, for Shanghai Noon; MTV Movie Award (with Tucker), best fight, MTV Movie Award nomination (with Tucker), best onscreen team, 2002, both for Rush Hour 2; Taurus Honorary Award, World Stunt Awards, 2002; Star on Hollywood Walk of Fame, 2002; Innovator Award, American Choreography Awards, 2002; Daytime Emmy Award nomination, outstanding performer in an animated program, 2002, for Jackie Chan Adventures; Blimp Award, Kids' Choice Awards, 2002, for favorite male butt kicker; MTV Movie Award nomination (with Owen Wilson), best onscreen team, 2003, for Shanghai Knights; Blimp Award, Kids' Choice Awards, 2003, for favorite male butt kicker.


CREDITS


Film Appearances:

Kid, Big and Little Wong Tin Bar, 1962.

Qin Xiang Lian (also known as The Story of Qin Xianglian and The Story of Qiu Glin ), 1964.

(Uncredited) Da zui xia (also known as Big Drunk Hero and Come Drink with Me ), 1966.

(Uncredited) Extra/Jing Wu student, Jing wu men (also known as The Chinese Connection, The Iron Hand, and School for Chivalry ), 1972.

(Uncredited) Qi lin zhang (also known as Bruce Lee and I, Bruce and I, Fist of Unicorn, Force of Bruce Lee's Fist, and The Unicorn Palm ), 1972.

Hapkido (also known as Lady Kung Fu ), 1972.

Tie wa (also known as Attack of the Kung Fu Girls, The Heroine, and Kung Fu Girl ), 1973.

(Uncredited) Extra, Enter the Dragon (also known as The Deadly Three, Long zheng hu dou, and Operation Dragon ), 1973.

Himself, Xia lao hu (also known as The Young Tiger ), 1973.

Si To, In Eagle Shadow Fist (also known as Ding tian li di, First of Anger, Eagle Shadow Fist, Not Scared to Die, and Return to China ), All Seasons, 1973.

(Uncredited) Bit part, Bei di yan zhi (also known as Facets of Love ), 1973.

Stuntman, Crash che botte! (also known as Crash! Che botte ... (strippo, strappo, stroppio), Si wang yi hou, Supermen against the Orient, and The Three Fantastic Supermen in the Orient ), 1974.

Police Woman (also known as Police Woman against Jackie Chan, Rumble in Hong Kong, and Young Tiger ), 1974.
Jin ping shuang yan (also known as The Golden Lotus ), 1974.

(As Chan Yuan Lung) Jackie, Guang dong xiao lao hu (also known as Little Tiger of Canton, Master with Cracked Fingers, and Snake Fist Fighter ), 1974.

Fists of the Double K (also known as Fist to Fist and Hong Kong FaceOff ), 1974.

(As Chan Yuan Lung) Tan Feng, Shao Lin men (also known as Countdown in Kung Fu, Hand of Death, Shaolin Men, and Strike of Death ), 1975.

Pai an jing ji (also known as No End of Surprises ), 1975.

Hua fei man cheng chun (also known as All in the Family ), 1975.

(As Chen Lung) Ai Long, New Fist of Fury (also known as Fists to Fight and Xin chingwu men ), Lo Wei Motion Picture Company, 1976.

Shao Lin mu ren xiang (also known as 36 Wooden Men, Shaolin Chamber of Death, Shaolin Wooden Men, and Shaolin Wooden Men ... Young Tiger's Revue ), 1976.

Wa WuBin/Tiger, Feng yu shuang liu xing (also known as Jackie Chan versus (Jimmy) Wang Wu and The Killer Meteors ), 1976.

(As Chen Lung) Cao Lei, Jian hua yan yu jiang nan (also known as To Kill with Intrigue ), 1977.

(Uncredited) San shi liu mi xing quan (also known as The 36 Crazy Fists, Blood Pact, Jackie Chan's Bloodpact, and Master and the Boxer ), 1977.

Himself (rerelease only), Bruce Lee, the Legend, 1977.

Lord Ting Chung, Fei du juan yun shan (also known as Magnificent Bodyguards and Magnificent Guards-men ), 1978.

(As Jacky Chan) Wong FeiHong, Drunken Money in the Tiger's Eyes (also known as Challenge, Drunken Master, Eagle Claw, Snake Fist, and Cat's Paw, Part 2, The Story of the Drunken Master, and Zui Quan ), Seasonal, 1978.

YiLang, Spiritual Kung Fu (also known as Karate Ghostbuster and Quan Jing ), All Seasons, 1978.

Hsu YinFang, Snake and Crane Arts of Shaolin (also known as She Hao Ba Bu ), All Seasons, 1978.

Chien Fu, She xing diao shou (also known as Eagle's Shadow, Bruce vs. Snake in Eagle's Shadow, and Snake in the Eagle's Shadow ), 1978.

Shing Lung, The Fearless Hyena (also known as Hsiao chuan yi chao ), Alpha, 1979.

Dragon, The Young Master (also known as Shi di chu ma ), Golden Harvest, 1979.

Tang HowYuen, Long quan (also known as Dragon Fist and In Eagle Dragon Fist ), 1979.

Jerry Kwan, The Big Brawl (also known as Battle Creek, Battle Creek Brawl, and Sha shou hao ), Warner Bros., 1980.

Dragon, The Dragon Fist (also known as Dragon Lord, Dragon Strike, Young Master in Love, and Long xiao ye ), Alpha, 1980.

Jiang, Dian zhi gong fu gan chian chan (also known as Half a Loaf of Kung Fu ), 1980.

Jackie Chan, Subaru driver, The Cannonball Run, Twentieth CenturyFox, 1981.

Iga ninpoucho (also known as Black Magic Wars, Iga Magic Story, and Ninja Wars ), 1982.

CID 07, Wu fu xing (also known as 5 Lucky Stars and Winners and Sinners ), 1983.

Chan Lung, Long teng hu yue (also known as The Fearless Hyena Part II ), 1983.

Jackie, Cannonball Run II, Warner Bros., 1984.

Dragon Mi Yong, Project A (also known as Pirate Patrol, "A " gai waak, "A " ji hua, and Operazione pirati ), Alpha, 1984.
Two in a Black Belt, 1984.

Second motorcycle cop, Shen yong shuang xiang pao (also known as Pom Pom ), 1984.

Sammy, Mai nei dak gung dui (also known as Dragon Attack, Fantasy Mission, and Mini Special Force ), 1984.

Thomas, Kwai tsan tseh (also known as Million Dollar Heiress, Spartan X, Los supercamorristas, Weapon X, and Wheels on Meals ), 1984.

To Kill with Intrigue, All Seasons, 1985.

Billy Wong, The Protector (also known as Wei long meng tan ), Warner Bros./Columbia/Cannon, 1985.

Ka Kui Chan/Kevin Chan, Jing cha gu shi (also known as Police Story, Police Force, Jackie Chan's Police Force, Ging chaat goo si, and Jackie Chan's Police Story ), Cinema Group Entertainment/Golden Way/Palace, 1985.

Muscles, Xia ri fu xing (also known as My Lucky Stars 2: Twinkle, Twinkle Lucky Stars and The Target ), 1985.
Ninja Thunderbolt (also known as Ninja and the Thief and To Catch a Ninja ), 1985.

Tat Fung, Long de xin (also known as The First Mission, Heart of Dragon, and The Heart of the Dragon ), 1985.

Muscles, My Lucky Stars (also known as Fuk sing go jiu, Fu xing gao zhao, and Lucky Stars Superior Shine ), Golden Harvest, 1985.

Cheng Leng (JackieHawk of Asia), Long Xiong Hu Di (also known as The Armour of God and Operation Condor 2: The Armour of Gods ), TohoTowa/Target International/Video Programme Distributors, 1986.

Prisoner, Nui ji za pai jun (also known as Naughty Boys ), 1986.

The Fearless Hyena, Part II, All Seasons, 1986.

(In archive footage) Foh lung (also known as Fire Dragon ), 1986.

Jackie Lung, Fei lung maang jeung (also known as 3 Brothers, Cyclone Z, Dragons Forever, Fei long meng jiang, and Flying Dragon Fierce Challenge ), 1987.

Dragon Mi Yong, "A " gai waak juk jaap (also known as "A " ji hua xu ji, Jackie Chan's Project A2, Project A II, Project A Sequel, Project A, Part II, and Project B ), 1987.

Kevin Jackie Chan Ka Kui (Jackie Chan), Ging chaat goo si juk jaap (also known as Jackie Chan's Police Story, Jing cha gu shi xu ji, Kowloon's Eye, Police Force II, Police Story 2, and Police Story Sequel ), 1988.

"Charlie" Cheng Wah Kuo, Qiji (also known as Black Dragon, Miracle, Miracles: The Canton Godfather, and Mr. Canton and Lady Rose ), 1989.

Lung/Steve, Huo shao dao (also known as The Burning Island, Island of Fire, Island on Fire, Jackie Chan Is the Prisoner, and When Dragons Meet ), 1990.

The Best of the Martial Arts Films (also known as The Best of the Martial Arts Movies and Deadliest Art The Best of the Martial Arts Films ), 1990.

Jackie Condor/Jackie Chan, The Armour of God II: Operation Condor (also known as Longxiong hudi, Feiying gaiwak, Armour of God II, Lunghing fudal tsuksap, Operation Condor, Operation Eagle, Project Eagle, Superfly, and Armour of God ), 1991.

(Uncredited) Inspector, Chu dao gui jing (also known as Master of Disaster, New Kids in Town, and New Killers in Town ), 1990.

Cameo, Xi zang xiao zi (also known as A Kid from Tibet ), 1992.

Ma Yau/Die Hard (John Ma/Boomer), Twin Dragons (also known as Shuang long hui, Brother vs. Brother, Double Dragon, Duel of Dragons, The Twin Dragons, and When Dragons Collide ), 1992.

Kevin Chan Ka Kui, Jing cha gu shi III: Chao ji jing cha (also known as Police Story 3 and Supercop ), 1992.

Ryo Saeba, Cheng shi lie ren (also known as City Hunter ), 1992.

Bruce Lee and Kung Fu Mania, 1992.

Inspector Eddie Chan, Zhong an zu (also known as Crime Story, New Police Story, Police Dragon, Police Story IV, and Serious Crimes Squad ), 1993.

Inspector Chan, Chao ji ji hua (also known as Once a Cop, Police Story 3: Part 2, Police Story 4: Project S, Police Story V, Projct S, Supercop, and Supercop 2 ), 1993.

Wong Feihung Drunken Master II (also known as Tsui Kun II, Drunken Fist II, The Legend of Drunken Master, Sui ken 2, and Zui guan II ), Miramax, 1994.

Cinema of Vengeance, 1994.

Eastern Heroes: The Video Magazine, 1995.

Thunderbolt, 1995.

Chan Foh To, Pi li huo (also known as Dead Heat ), 1995.

Ah Keung, Hong faan kui (also known as Gong fan ou, Red Bronx, Rumble in the Bronx, and Zizanie dans le Bronx ), 1996.

Jackie Chan Ka Kui, Jing cha gui shi IV: Jian dan ren wu (also known as First Strike, Jackie Chan's First Strike, Police Story 4, Police Story 4: First Strike, Police Story 4: Piece of Cake, Police Story 4: Story of the CIA, and Story of the CIA ), New Line Cinema, 1996.

Jackie, Yatgo ho yan (also known as Mr. Nice Guy, No More Mr. Nice Guy, SuperChef, and Yi ge hao ren ), 1997.

Himself, An Alan Smithee Film: Burn Hollywood Burn, 1997.

Himslf, The Making of Jackie Chan's "Mr. Nice Guy, " 1997.

Himself, Jackie Chan: My Story, 1998.

Himself, The Path of the Dragon, 1998.

Whoami, Ngo si sui (also known as Jackie Chan's Who Am I? and Who Am I? ), 1998.

Chief Inspector Lee, Rush Hour, 1998.

C. N. Chan, Bor lei jun (also known as Gorgeous and High Risk ), 1999.

Famous movie star, Choi kek ji wong (also known as The King of Comedy and Xi ji zhi wang ), 1999.

Poor fisherman, Tejing xinrenlei (also known as GenX Cops ), Columbia TriStar, 1999.

Himself, Jackie Chan: My Stunts, 1999.

(In archive footage) Bruce Lee: A Warrior's Journey (also known as A Warrior's Journey ), 2000.

Chon Wang, Shanghai Noon, Buena Vista, 2000.

Himself, Bruce Lee in G.O.D., 2000.

Top Fighter, 2000.

Buck Yuen, Dak miu mai shing (also known as The Accidental Spy and Te wu mi cheng ), Miramax, 2001.

Chief Inspector Lee, Rush Hour 2, New Line Cinema, 2001.

Himself, Making Magic Out of Mire, 2001.

(In archive footage) Wong Fei Hong, Ultimate Fights from the Movies, Flixmix, 2002.

Jimmy Tong, The Tuxedo, DreamWorks, 2002.

Chon Wang, Shanghai Knights, Buena Vista, 2003.

Jackie, Chin gei bin (also known as The Twins Effect ), Arclight Films, 2003.

Eddie Yang, The Medallion, Sony Pictures Releasing, 2003.

Passepartout, Aournd the World in 80 Days, Summit Entertainment, 2003.

Himself, Traces of a Dragon: Jackie Chan & His Lost Family, 2003.

Film Director:

San shi liu mi xing quan (also known as The 36 Crazy Fists, Blood Pact, Jackie Chan's Bloodpact, and Master and Boxer ), 1977.
The Fearless Hyena (also known as Hsaio chuan yi chao ), Alpha, 1979.
The Young Master (also known as Shi di chu ma ), Golden Harvest, 1979.

The Dragon Fist (also known as Dragon Lord, Young Master in Love, and Long Xiao Ye ), Alpha, 1980.

Long xiao ye (also known as Dragon Lord, Dragon Strike, and Young Master in Love ), 1982.

(Uncredited) The Fearless Hyena, Part II (also known as Long teng hu yue ), All Seasons, 1983.

Project A (also known as Jackie Chan's Project A, Pirate Patrol, "A " gai waak, "A " ji hua, and Operazione pirati ), Alpha, 1984.
The Protector (also known as Wei long meng tan ), 1985.

Ging chaat goo si (also known as Jackie Chan's Police Force, Jackie Chan's Police Story, Jing cha gu shi, Police Force, and Police Story ), 1985.

Long xiong hudi (also known as Operation Condor 2: The Armour of Gods and The Armour of God ), TohoTowa/Target International/Video Programme Distributors, 1986.

"A " gai waak juk jaap (also known as "A " ji hua xu ji, Jackie Chan's Project A2, Project A II, Project A Sequel, Project A, Part II, and Project B ), 1987.

The Brothers (also known as The Brother ), 1987.

Ging chaat goo si juk jaap (also known as Jackie Chan's Police Story, Jing cha gu shi xu ji, Kowloon's Eye, Police Force II, Police Story 2, and Police Story Sequel ), 1988.

(As Wellson Chin) Ba wong fa (also known as Ba wang hua, Inspector Wears Skirts, Inspector Wears a Skirt, Inspectors Wear Skirts, Lady Enforcers, Top Squad, and Tyrant Flower ), 1988.

(As Wellson Chin) Shen yong fei hu ba wang hua (also known as Inspectors Wear Skirts 2 and Top Squad 2 ), 1989.
Qiji (also known as Black Dragon, Miracle, Miracles: The Canton Godfather, and Mr. Canton and Lady Rose ), 1989.

The Armour of God II: Operation Condor (also known as Longxiong hudi, Feiying gaiwak, Armour of God II, Lunghing fudal tsuksap, Operation Condor, Operation Eagle, Project Eagle, Superfly, and Armour of God ), 1991.

(Uncredited) Zhong an zu (also known as Crime Story, New Police Story, Police Dragon, Police Story IV, and Serious Crime Squad ), 1993.

(Uncredited) Drunken Master II (also known as Tsui Kun II, Jui kuen II, Drunken Fist II, The Legend of Drunken Master, Legend of Drunken Master, Sui ken 2, and Zui quan II ), Miramax, 1994.

Ngo si sui (also known as Jackie Chan's Who Am I? and Who Am I? ), 1998.

Jackie Chan: My Story, 1998.

Jackie Chan: My Stunts, 1999.

Film Producer:

Nui ji za pai jun (also known as Naughty Boys ), 1986.

Yin ji kau (also known as Rouge and Yan zhi kou ), 1987.

Ba wong fa (also known as Ba wang hua, Inspector Wears Skirts, Inspector Wears a Skirt, Inspectors Wear Skirts, Lady Enforcers, Top Squad, and Tyrant Flower ), 1988.

Shen yong fei hu ba wang hua (also known as Inspectors Wear Skirts 2 and Top Squad 2 ), 1989.

Wu tai jie mei (also known as Stage Door Johnny ), 1990.

Huo bao lang zi (also known as Angry Ranger ), 1991.

Yuen Lingyak (also known as The Actress, Centre Stage, The New China Woman, and Ruan Ling Yu ), 1992.

Wei xian qing ren (also known as The Shootout ), 1992.

Jackie Chan: My Story, 1998.

Waan ying dak gung (also known as Hot War and Huan yin te gong ), 1998.

Bor lei jun (also known as Gorgeous and High Risk ), 1999.

Jackie Chan: My Stunts, 1999.

Dak miu mai shing (also known as The Accidental Spy and Te wu mi cheng ), Miramax, 2001.


Film Executive Producer:

(With Willie Chan and Raymond Chow) Jingcha Gushi (also known as Police Story and Jackie Chan Police Story ), Cinema Group Entertainment/Golden Way/Palace, 1985.

(Wth Chan and Leonard Ho) Inji kau (also known as Yanzhi Kov and The Legend of Flowers ), Golden Communications, 1988.

Supercop: Police Story III (also known as Jing cha gu shi III: Chao ji jing cha, Police Story 3, and Supercop ), Golden Harvest, 1992.

Pi li huo (also known as Dead Heat ), 1995.

Tejing xinrenlei (also known as GenX Cops ), Columbia TriStar, 1999.

Shanghai Noon, Buena Vista, 2000.

Shanghai Knights, Buena Vista, 2003.

The Medallion, Sony Pictures Releasing, 2003.


Film Stunt Performer:

Jing wu men (also known as The Chinese Connection, The Iron Hand, and School for Chivalry ), 1972.

Hapkido (also known as Lady Kung Fu ), 1972.

(Uncredited) Enter the Dragon (also known as The Deadly Three, Long zheung hu dou, and Operation Dragon ), 1973.

Fists of the Double K (also known as Fist to Fist and Hong Kong FaceOff ), 1974.

Ging chaat goo si (also known as Jackie Chan's Police Force, Jackie Chan's Police Story, Jing cha gu shi, Police Force, and Police Story ), 1985.

(Uncredited) Jing cha gu shi IV: Jian dan ren wu (also known as First Strike, Jackie Chan's First Strike, Police Story 4, Police Story 4: First Strike, Police Story 4: Piece of Cake, Police Story 4: Story of the CIA, and Story of the CIA ), 1996.

(Uncredited) Shanghai Noon, Buean Vista, 2000.


Film Stunt Choreographer:

The Young Master, Golden Harvest, 1979.

Shuang long hui (also known as Brother vs. Brother, Double Dragon, Duel of Dragons, Twin Dragons, The Twin Dragons, and When Dragons Collide ), 1992.

Pi li huo (also known as Dead Heat ), 1995.

First Strike, New Line Cinema, 1996.

Ngo si sui (also known as Jackie Chan's Who Am I? and Who Am I? ), 1998.

Rush Hour, 1998.

Dak miu mai shing (also known as The Accidental Spy and Te wu mi cheng ), Miramax, 2001.


Film Martial Arts Director:

Tie wa (also known as Attack of the Kung Fu Girls, The Heroine, and Kung Fu Girl ), 1973.

Snake and Crane Arts of Shaolin (also known as She Hao Ba Bu ), All Seasons, 1978.

Dian zhi gong fu gan chian chan (also known as Half a Loaf of Kung Fu ), 1980.

Chuan lu (also known as Dance of Death and The Eternal Conflict ), 1980.

Hong faan kui (also known as Gong fan ou, Red Bronx, Rumble in the Bronx, and Zizanie dans le Bronx ), 1996.


Film Work; Other:

Action choreographer, Tie han rou qing (also known as Ninja Kids and The Young Dragons ), 1974.

Action director, Fists of the Double K (also known as Fist to Fist and Hong Kong FaceOff ), 1974.

(With KeAn Fung and Yuen Kuni) Martial arts choreographer, The Dragon Fist (also known as Dragon Lord, Young Master in Love, and Long xiao ye ), Alpha, 1980.

Action director, Shi di chu ma (also known as The Young Master ), 1980.

Fight choreographer, Ging chaat goo si (also known as Jackie Chan's Police Force, Jackie Chan's Police Story, Jing cha gu shi, Police Force, and Police Story ), 1985.

Production supervisor, Fei lung maang jeung (also known as 3 Brothers, Cyclone Z, Dragons Forever, Fei long meng jiang, and Flying Dragon Fierce Challenge ), 1987.

Martial arts choreographer, Jui kuen II (also known as Drunken Fist II, Drunken Master II, The Legend of Drunken Master, Legend of Drunknen Master, Sui ken 2, and Zui quan II ), 1994.

Coeditor, Bontoc Eulogy, 1995.

Stunt director, Hong faan kui (also known as Gong fan ou, Red Bronx, Rumble in the Bronx, and Zizanie dans le Bronx ), 1996.

Action choreographer, Bor lei jun (also known as Gorgeous and High Risk ), 1999.

Action choreographer, Shanghai Knights, Buena Vista, 2003.


Television Appearances; Series:

Himself (liveaction epilogue), Jackie Chan Adventures (animated), The WB, 2000.


Television Appearances; Specials:

Oops! The World's Funniest Outtakes, Fox, 1997.

Canned Ham: Rush Hour, Comedy Central, 1998.

Himself, Masters of the Martial Arts Presented by Wesley Snipes, Martial Networks, 1998.

Himself, The Art of Influence, Bravo, 1998.

Reel Comedy: Rush Hour 2, Comedy Central, 2001.

Jackie Chan, Bravo, 2001.

Himself, Hong Kong Superstars, 2001.

Himself, The 100 Greatest Movie Stars, 2003.


Television Appearances; Awards Presentations:

Presenter, The 68th Annual Academy Awards, 1996.

The 1998 MTV Video Music Awards, MTV, 1998.

The 1999 MTV Movie Awards, MTV, 1999.

Himself, The 2000 Blockbuster Entertainment Awards, Fox, 2000.

Himself, International Indian Film Awards (also known as IIFA Awards ), 2000.

Himself, The 2000 MTV Movie Awards, MTV, 2000.

Himself, The 2001 MTV Movie Awards, MTV, 2001.

Nickelodeon's 14th Annual Kids' Choice Awards, Nickelodeon, 2001.

Himself, The 2002 ABC World Stunt Awards, ABC, 2002.

Himself, Brit Awards 2003, 2003.


Television Appearances; Episodic:

Himself, "I Saw Gina Kissing Santa Claus," Martin, 1992.

Himself, Smap x Smap, 1996.

Himself, "Scrooge," Martin, 1996.

Late Show with David Letterman, CBS, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000.

Himself, Saturday Night Live, NBC, 2000.

Die Harald Schmidt Show, 2000.

Himself #3, "25 Toughest Stars," E! Rank, 2001.

The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, NBC, 2001, 2002, 2003.

Himself, The Priory, 2001.

Himself, The Big Breakfast, Channel 4, 2001.

Himself, Mad TV, Fox, 2002.

Himself, The View, ABC, 2002.

Himself, "Nick Cannon Takes Over the Mall," The Nick Cannon Show, Nickelodeon, 2002.

Himself, "Medallion," Player$, 2003.

Himself, Extra, syndicated, 2003.

TRL, MTV, 2003.


Also appeared as himself, "Jackie Chan," The Incredibly Strange Film Show; guest, Jin ye bu she fang (also known as Celebrity Talk Show ).


Television Work; Series:

Executive producer, Jackie Chan Adventures (animated), The WB, 2000.


RECORDINGS


Video Games:

Voice of himself, Jackie Chan Stuntmaster, 2000.


Video Games; as Stunt Person:

Jackie Chan Stuntmaster, 2000.


Music Videos:

Appeared in "Yeah, Yeah, Yeah" by Uncle Kracker.


Albums:

With One All's Heart, 2002.


WRITINGS


Screenplays:

The Young Master (also known as Shi Di Chu Ma ), Golden Harvest, 1979.

The Dragon Fist (also known as Dragon Lord, Young Master in Love, Dragon Strike, and Long xiao ye ), Alpha, 1980.
Project A (also known as Pirate Patrol, "A " gai waak, "A " ji hua, A Jackie Chan's Project, and Operazione pirati ), Alpha, 1984.
Longxiong hudi (also known as Armour of God and Operation Condor 2: The Armour of Gods ), 1986.

"A " gai waak juk jaap (also known as "A " ji hua xu ji, Jackie Chan's Project A2, Project A II, Project A Sequel, Project A, Part II, and Project B ), 1987.

Ging chaat goo si juk jaap (also known as Jackie Chan's Police Story, Jing cha gu shi xu ji, Kowloon's Eye, Police Force II, Police Story 2, and Police Story Sequel ), 1988.
Qiji (also known as Black Dragon, Miracle, Miracles: The Canton Godfather, and Mr. Canton and Lady Rose ), 1989.
Feiying gaiwak (also known as Armour of God II, Armour of God II: Operation Condor, Lunghing fudal tsukap, Operation Condor, Operation Eagle, Project Eagle, and Superfly ), 1990.
Ngo si sui (also known as Jackie Chan's Who Am I? and Who Am I? ), 1998.
Bor lei jun (also known as Gorgeous and High Risk ), 1999.

Autobiography:

(With Jeff Yang) I Am Jackie Chan: My Life in Action, Pan, 1999.


OTHER SOURCES

Books:

Corcoran, John, The Unauthorized Jackie Chan Encyclopedia: From "Project A " to "Shanghai Noon " and Beyond, McGrawHill/Contemporary Books, 2002.

Gentry, Clyde, Jackie ChanInside the Dragon, Taylor Publishing Company, 1997.

International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers, Volume 3: Actors and Actresses, St. James Press, 1996.

Rovin, Jeff, and Kathleen Tracy, The Essential Jackie Chan Sourcebook, Pocket Books, 1997.


Periodicals:

Forbes, April 22, 1996.

Interview, March, 1996.

New York Times Magazine, January 21, 1996.

Parade Magazine, July 29, 2001, p. 4.

People Weekly, March 11, 1996.

Time, February 13, 1995.

Variety, May 6, 1996; December 3, 2001, pp. A1, A8, A12.

Wall Street Journal, March 5, 1996.

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"Chan, Jackie 1954(?)– (Jacky Chan, Wellson Chin, Chan Yuan Lung, Cheng Lung)." Contemporary Theatre, Film and Television. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Chan, Jackie 1954(?)– (Jacky Chan, Wellson Chin, Chan Yuan Lung, Cheng Lung)." Contemporary Theatre, Film and Television. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/chan-jackie-1954-jacky-chan-wellson-chin-chan-yuan-lung-cheng-lung

"Chan, Jackie 1954(?)– (Jacky Chan, Wellson Chin, Chan Yuan Lung, Cheng Lung)." Contemporary Theatre, Film and Television. . Retrieved August 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/chan-jackie-1954-jacky-chan-wellson-chin-chan-yuan-lung-cheng-lung

Chan, Jackie

Jackie Chan

Hong Kong martial arts film star Jackie Chan (born 1954) is one of the most recognizable cinematic personalities in the world. His mixture of literally death-defying stunts and genial, self-deprecating comedy gained a massive following first in Hong Kong, then over much of Asia, and finally, beginning in the late 1990s, in the United States.

Chan has been famous for doing his own stunts on film, largely without the aid of special effects, and the closing credits of his more recent releases feature a comic but brutal background montage of stunts gone wrong. The list of body parts Chan has injured while filming includes his head (it has a deep dent into which he will sometimes allow reporters to stick their fingers), eye, mouth, teeth, throat, neck, arm, shoulder, legs, foot, nose, ears, cheekbone, chin, hand, back, chest, pelvis, and knee. Yet the comic side of Chan's film persona has been as important as his action skills, acquired through ten years of rigorous training in Chinese opera. It was comedy that set Chan apart from other kung fu and action stars, including the hard-to-top Bruce Lee. "When Bruce Lee punched someone, he kept going like it didn't hurt," Chan told Gregory Cerio of People. "I shake my hand and go, 'Ow!'"

Parents Held Embassy Jobs

Jackie Chan was born Chan Kong-Sang (in Chinese usage the family name, Chan, is written first) in Hong Kong on April 7, 1954. Press accounts and his own website state that his parents were poor but steadily employed Hong Kong residents who worked at the French embassy, his father Charles as a cook and his mother Lily (or Lee-Lee) as a housekeeper. Chan's parents, however, had a colorful past, revealed in the 2003 documentary Traces of a Dragon. Chan's father was a spy for China's pre-World War II Nationalist government and later a member of Shanghai's organized crime underworld who was forced to flee to Hong Kong after the Communist takeover of mainland China in 1949. His mother was a stage performer and occasional opium dealer whom Charles Chan arrested as part of his intelligence duties but released and then later married.

Jackie Chan was apparently physically powerful even as an infant; his weight at birth has been reported as anywhere from nine to 12 pounds, and his parents nicknamed him "Shandong Cannon." When he was seven, his parents moved to Australia so that Charles Chan could take a job as head cook at the American embassy there. They decided that Jackie should stay in Hong Kong, and enrolled him at a boarding school there, a strict but world-class institution called the China Drama Academy. Among Chan's classmates at the school were Sammo Hung and Yuen Biao, both of whom went on to careers as major martial arts stars.

At the school, Chan studied traditional Chinese opera, a mix of singing, stagecraft, martial arts, and difficult acrobatics. Chan had to get up in the morning at 5 a.m., often working until midnight. Errors were punished with physical abuse. "I was beaten every day," Chan told Cerio. "I was very angry." Even as a student, however, Chan had small roles in several films, and by the time he graduated at 17, in 1971, he had acquired formidable stunt skills. He found work in Hong Kong's growing film industry, appearing in martial arts films, and even had an uncredited role as an extra in the greatest international action success of them all, Bruce Lee's film Enter the Dragon (1973).

For a few years in the early 1970s, the film work petered out and Chan was forced to move in with his parents in Australia. He did construction work, acquiring the nickname "Jackie" (at first it was "Little Jack") from a co-worker named Jack who found his Chinese name hard to pronounce. In 1976 Chan, at the invitation of a talent promoter named Willie Chan (no relation), returned to Hong Kong to give his career another try. He began to bill himself as Sing Lung, which means "to become the dragon," and he became one of a host of young martial artists hoping to fill the shoes of Bruce Lee, who had died in 1973. Several action films, including Shaolin Chamber of Death (1976) and Fist of Death (1977), met with limited success.

Introduced Comedic Element

Chan's fortunes improved when he began to experiment with comic characterizations. The switch brought a fresh perspective to a genre whose original principles Lee had taken to their limits, and allowed Chan to take advantage of the acting skills he had learned at the opera school. Chan parodied traditional martial arts storylines in such films as Snake in the Eagle's Shadow (1977), where instead of modeling his art on the fighting skills of the animals named in the film's title, he emulates his pet cat. In Half a Loaf of Kung Fu (1978) he learns martial arts not from a revered master but from a pair of street people.

His breakthrough came in 1978 with Drunken Master, a historical tale of a young kung fu student who learns a style in which the fighter appears to be drunk. Drunken Master became a hit in Asia and an art house success in the United States, spawning a sequel and eventually a restored American reissue, as Chan's popularity finally crossed the Pacific. Chan's performance was a virtuoso blend of action and perfectly controlled (and often highly comic) false-drunken choreography.

In the early 1980s Chan made his first attempt to break into the American market. His desire to do so was natural enough, but Jeff Rovin and Kathy Tracy, in The Essential Jackie Chan Sourcebook, reported that he might also have been motivated by death threats from members of the Chinese underworld who had backed his earlier films. His U.S. experiment failed initially, as Chan took straight action roles in films helmed by directors who failed to appreciate the unique nature of his talents. Two films in which he starred, The Big Brawl (1980) and The Protector (1985, opposite Danny Aiello), went nowhere, but his face did become implanted in the minds of American audiences as a result of his small role in the hit Cannonball Run (1981). Back in Hong Kong, Chan honed his comedic persona in such films as the dizzyingly paced slapstick action comedy Project A (1983), in which, borrowing a prop from American silent-film comic Harold Lloyd, he took a headfirst plunge off a giant clock face.

Thanks to the sheer energy of such films, Chan began to acquire a following among American cult film enthusiasts. In Asia, his success had more dramatic financial implications; audiences flocked to see him top himself with newly inventive stunts in each successive release. Police Story (1985) contained an especially dangerous pole-sliding stunt that nearly paralyzed Chan after a fall in which he broke two vertebrae in his spine. In Operation Condor (1990) he rode a motorcycle off a river dock and jumped off, catching, in midair, a net attached to a nearby crane. His kung fu scenes might use an amazing variety of weapons, including a hat rack and fans of various kinds. Chan's films became slicker as his box office numbers increased—1992's Twin Dragons was a flashy comedic take on European action star Jean-Claude van Damme's Double Impact, with an awe-inspiring final chase through a Toyota auto-testing facility. But his stunts were always his own, and his everyman comic gift remained endearing. Sometimes Chan's character would be a young man who bumbled through a film's early scenes but had the chance to redeem himself in the end.

Kept Marriage Secret

By the early 1990s Chan was perhaps the top marquee attraction on the Asian continent. He had some success as a singer, later expressing a wish to remake the classic film The Sound of Music, and his carefully guarded personal life was the stuff of tabloid headlines. One of his legion of female fans was reportedly driven to suicide by rumors that he was actually involved with another woman, and those rumors turned out to be true; in 1982 Chan married Taiwanese actress Lin Feng-Jiao. He also has a son, Jaycee. Chan revealed the marriage only in his 1998 autobiography, I Am Jackie Chan.

Despite his success, Chan's lack of success in the American market still rankled. With strong underground buzz culminating in a 1995 lifetime achievement nod at the MTV Movie Awards, presented by director Quentin Tarantino, Hollywood distributors resolved to give Chan another try. His first new American effort, Rumble in the Bronx, was a dubbed version of an earlier Cantonese-language Hong Kong release, but it did well enough to pave the way for subsequent Chan releases stateside. Chan hit paydirt with Rush Hour (1998) and Shanghai Noon (2000), both genre films featuring American stars (Chris Tucker and Owen Wilson, respectively) with whom Chan could establish comic chemistry. Both films spawned successful sequels, but Chan's original Asian audience was cool to them. Rush Hour, Shanghai Noon, and Rush Hour 2 collectively took in some $50 million in Asian theaters, while two contemporaneous Cantonese-language releases, Gorgeous and The Accidental Spy earned $90 million or more.

By the mid-2000s, even with the benefits reaped from a lifetime of physical conditioning, Chan faced the problem of where to go next with his career. "I am not so good at healing now," he admitted to People. Chan appeared in films beyond the action genre such as the ensemble adventure Around the World in 80 Days, a big-budget family film that failed to meet box office expectations. And he gradually expanded his production activities. He starred in and executive-produced the 2005 Hong Kong film The Myth, a period adventure in which he portrayed an archaeologist. Chan diversified beyond direct involvement with films, opening a string of restaurants in Southeast Asia (and one in Honolulu, Jackie's Kitchen). He also attached his name to lines of shoes, clothes, golf clubs, skin-care products, and table tennis balls. He considered the idea of opening a school for aspiring stunt specialists.

Chan also began to devote time to humanitarian activities, serving as an ambassador for the UNICEF/UNAIDS children's organization. Still, his energy remained devoted mostly to films. He felt a commitment to continue working in Hong Kong, where film profits had deteriorated under the twin pressures of Communist Chinese oversight of the former British colony and rampant video piracy in Chan's home Asian market. He provided dialogue for an animated television series, Jackie Chan Adventures, on the Kids' WB cable network. As of 2006, an American release of Chan's Cantonese-language New Police Story was under consideration, and Rush Hour 3 was in production.

Books

Chan, Jackie, with Jeff Yang, I Am Jackie Chan: My Life in Action, Ballantine, 1998.

International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers, Volume 3: Actors and Actresses, 4th ed., St. James, 2000.

Rovin, Jeff, and Kathy Tracy, The Essential Jackie Chan Sourcebook, Pocket Books, 1997.

Periodicals

Entertainment Weekly, February 16, 1996; November 3, 2000.

People, March 11, 1996; June 28, 2004.

Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN), February 18, 1996.

Time, February 13, 1995; June 5, 2000.

Variety, December 3, 2001; February 4, 2002; February 17, 2003; August 9, 2004; September 26, 2005.

Online

"About Jackie," Jackie Chan Official Website, http://www.jackiechan.com (December 12, 2006).

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Chan, Jackie

CHAN, Jackie



Pseudonym: Known to Chinese audiences as Sing Lung, meaning "to become a dragon." Nationality: Hong Kong. Born: Chan Kong-Sang in Hong Kong, 7 April 1954. Education: Studied at Peking Opera School, Hong Kong, 1961–71. Career: 1962—screen debut in the Cantonese film Huang Tian Ba, subsequently appeared as child actor in more than 20 films; 1972–73—worked as film stuntman and martial artist; 1976—contracted as lead actor by Lo Wei Film Company; 1978—first real success with two films for Ng See-Yuen's Seasonal Film Corporation; 1979—directed himself for the first time in The Fearless Hyena; 1980—made first film for major Golden Harvest company; mid-1980s—co-founder, Golden Way production company; 1995—received first widespread North American attention with Rumble in the Bronx.


Films as Actor: (films as child actor not included)

1971

Little Tiger from Canton

1973

Enter the Dragon (The Deadly Three) (Clouse)

1975

Countdown in Kung Fu (Hand of Death) (Woo)

1976

Xin Ching-Wu Men (New Fist of Fury) (Lo Wei) (as Ai Long); Shaolin Wooden Men (36 Wooden Men; Shaolin Chamber of Death) (Ch'en Chih-Hua and Lo Wei); The Killer Meteors (Lo Wei)

1977

Snake and Crane Arts of Shaolin (Ch'en Chih-Hua)

1978

To Kill with Intrigue (Lo Wei); Magnificent Bodyguards (Lo Wei); Snake in the Eagle's Shadow (The Eagle's Shadow) (Yuen Woo-ping); Spiritual Kung-Fu (Karate Ghostbuster) (Lo Wei)

1979

Dragon Fist (In Eagle Dragon Fist) (Lo Wei); Drunken Master (Drunken Monkey in a Tiger's Eye; The Story of Drunken Master) (Yuen Woo-ping) (as Huang Fei-hong)

1980

The Big Brawl (Battle Creek Brawl) (Clouse) (as Jerry); Half a Loaf of Kung Fu (Ch'en Chi-Hua) (+ martial arts director)

1981

The Cannonball Run (Needham) (as Subaru driver no. 1); Snake Fist Fighter

1983

Winners and Sinners (Samo Hung); The Fearless Hyena: Part 2 (Chuen Chan)

1984

Cannonball Run 2 (Needham) (as Jackie); Meals on Wheels (Samo Hung); Eagle's Shadow (Yuen Woo-ping)

1985

My Lucky Stars (Samo Hung) (as Muscles); Twinkle, Twinkle, Lucky Stars (Samo Hung); First Mission; The Protector (Glickenhaus) (as Billy Wong); Ninja Thunderbolt (Ho)

1986

Heart of the Dragon (The First Mission) (Samo Hung)

1987

Dragons Forever (Samo Hung); Fist of Death

1990

The Deadliest Art: The Best of the Martial Arts Films (Weintraub—compilation)

1992

City Hunter (Jing Wong) (as Ryu Saeba); Supercop: Police Story III (Stanley Tong) (as Chan Chia-chu); Twin Dragons (Ringo Lam and Hark Tsui) (as John Ma/Boomer)

1993

Police Story 4: Project S (Once a Cop; Project S; Supercop 2) (Stanley Tong); Crime Story (Kirk Wong) (as Inspector Eddie Chan)

1995

Hong Faan Kui (Rumble in the Bronx) (Stanley Tong) (as Ah Keung, + martial arts director); Thunderbolt

1996

Rumble in the Bronx (Tong) (as Keung); Supercop 3 (Tong) (as Detective Kevin Chan/Fu Sheng)

1998

Rush Hour (Ratner) (as Detective Inspector Lee)

1999

Gorgeous (Kok) (as C.N. Chan); The King of Comedy (Chow, Lee); Tejing xinrenlei (Chan)

2000

Shanghai Noon (Dey) (as Chong Wang)



Films as Actor and Director:

1979

Siukun gwaitsiu (The Fearless Hyena) (co-d)

1980

Sidai cheutma (The Young Master) (+ co-sc)

1982

Lung siuye (Dragon Lord; Young Master in Love) (+ co-sc, martial arts choreographer)

1983

A gaiwak (Project A) (as Dragon Ma, + co-sc)

1985

Gingchat gusi (Police Story; Police Force; Jackie Chan's Police Story; Jackie Chan's Police Force) (+ co-sc)

1986

Lunghing fudai (The Armour of God) (+ co-sc)

1987

A gaiwatsuktsap (Project A: Part II) (+ co-sc)

1988

Gingchat gusi tsuktsap (Police Story Part II) (+ co-sc)

1989

Keitsik (Miracle; Black Dragon; Miracles: The Canton Godfather; Mr. Canton and Lady Rose) (as Kuo Cheng-wah/Mr. Canton, + co-sc)

1990

Lunghing fudai tsuktsap (The Armour of God II: Operation Condor) (as Jackie/"Condor," + sc); Island on Fire (Island of Fire; The Prisoner)

1994

Tsui Kun II (Drunken Master II) (as Huang Fei-hong)



Publications


By CHAN: articles—

Interview with Tony Rayns and C. Tesson, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), September 1984.

"Jackie Chan, American Action Hero?," interview with Jaime Wolf, in New York Times Magazine, 21 January 1996.

Interview with Michael Kitson, in Cinema Papers (Abbotsford), June 1996.


On CHAN: book—

Rayns, Tony, The Mind Is a Muscle: An Appreciation of Jackie Chan, London, 1987.

On CHAN: articles—

Film Review (London), November 1980.

Ciné Revue (Paris), November 1987.

Kehr, Dave, "Chan Can Do," in Film Comment (New York), May/June 1988.

"Jackie Chan's Big Dilemma: How Long Can He Keep It Up?," in Variety (New York), 1 February 1989.

"Hong Kong Focus," in London Film Festival Programme, 1990.

Ingram, Bruce, "Fast-Moving Jackie Chan's Slow on the Set," in Variety (New York), 18 March 1991.

Elley, Derek, "More Than 'The Next Bruce Lee'," Variety (New York), 23 January 1995.

Corliss, Richard, "Jackie Can!," in Time (New York), 13 February 1995.

Dannen, Fredric, "Hong Kong Babylon," in New Yorker, 7 August 1995.

Straus, Neil, "Higher Style from Hong Kong's Masters," in New York Times, 18 February 1996.

Gallagher, Mark, "Masculinity in Translation: Jackie Chan's Transcultural Star Text," in Velvet Light Trap (Austin), Spring 1997.


* * *

Jackie Chan emerged out of the ranks of martial arts stuntmen and bit players in the mid-1970s as the most talented of those hoping for the international megastardom Bruce Lee had achieved before his death in 1973. In 1976, Lo Wei introduced Chan in a sequel to one of Lee's more popular films, Fist of Fury (The Chinese Connection), called New Fist of Fury, in which Chan imitates Lee's fighting style for the most part. Throughout his career, Chan has been haunted by comparisons with Lee. Despite his huge popularity in Asia, evidenced by the box-office records films such as Police Story and Project A: Part II have broken, Chan still aspires to break into the European and American market the way Lee was able to with his Enter the Dragon. To date, Chan's English-language vehicles, The Big Brawl and The Protector, have failed to appeal to most audiences in the West, and Chan is perhaps still most often recognized outside of Asia from his cameo role as the comic Chinese racer in The Cannonball Run series. In 1995, he makes another attempt at winning the American audience with Rumble in the Bronx, filmed "on location" in Vancouver. Although Chan has enjoyed a certain amount of critical attention since his films have been hailed at several international festivals as artistic "masterpieces," popular appeal, outside the Asian community, eludes him.

Comparisons to Lee and failure to win over the Western mass audience are both understandable and unfortunate. Although publicized as a "new Bruce Lee" and encouraged to imitate Lee very early in his film career, Chan, in fact, can best be appreciated as Lee's polar opposite in terms of performance persona and martial arts style. Whereas Lee was fascinated by Western boxing, Philippine stick fighting, and European fencing, which all became part of his very eclectic style, Chan has stuck more to the acrobatic movements associated with the traditional Chinese opera he studied as a young man. A significant part of this involves comic pantomime, and, unlike the more serious and intense Lee, who only occasionally threw in a humorous bit for comic relief, Chan excels at the lighter aspects of the operatic tradition in which his martial skills are rooted. This gift for both acrobatics and comedy has led some critics to compare Chan to Harold Lloyd or Buster Keaton. Conscious of the comparison, Chan has recreated Lloyd's daredevil clock tower stunt and Keaton's infamous falling house stunt in his own films (Project A: Parts I and II). Like his silent Hollywood film heroes, Chan prides himself on doing his own stunts, and he has had a number of brushes with death as a result (the most serious a head injury when filming Armour of God). In the closing credits of his more recent films, outtakes show the bloody results of failed stunts, adding an element of machismo to his star persona missing from the insouciant characters he typically portrays.

With his wide, almost bulbous nose, sparkling eyes and mischievous smile, Chan's boyish ebullience and remarkable physical prowess seem best put to use in the costume martial arts comedies he made in the late 1970s and early 1980s. During this phase of his career, Chan began to choreograph his own fighting, act as martial arts instructor, and, eventually, direct his own features. As a result, a characteristic Chan star persona really began to emerge, displaying Chan's acrobatic and martial skills to their best advantage.

In most of these films, Chan plays reluctant students who excel at kung fu in spite of themselves. With the exception of Dragon Lord, they all feature scenes that display Chan's physical prowess in training as well as combat. The Chan character is repeatedly tortured by eccentric masters (exemplified by the "drunken master" played by Simon Yuen in Drunken Master and Snake in the Eagle's Shadow), who casually drink or smoke while Chan sweats blood and plots to escape from kung-fu practice. Set in the past, all these films make use of traditional costumes and weaponry as well as such Chinese arts as lion dancing and calligraphy, and allude to (indeed mildly satirize) established Chinese customs and institutions. In Drunken Master, for example, Chan portrays a young, impudent and impulsive Huang Fei-hong, in sharp contrast to Jet Li's more sober portrayal of the same folk hero in the Once upon a Time in China series. Scenes with expressly Chinese content, however, might explain the cool reception Chan has been given outside the Asian community in the West.

Chan's most recent films mark a significant break with his earlier successes. These later films are set in the present or the more recent past. Unlike the earlier films which delight in Chinese traditions, archaic weaponry, and the arcane aspects of Chinese kung fu, these films have a more Western orientation with gun play, automobile chases, shopping malls, cops, and gangsters replacing rival kung-fu schools, drunken masters, and operatic swordplay. Although Chan continues to play an affable hero, more attention is given to the action-adventure aspects of the plot and to the spectacular, often noncombative stunts than to Chinese martial artistry or acrobatics. No longer the troublesome pupil, Chan has matured into Asia's best-loved comic action hero.

With his own production unit at Hong Kong's Golden Harvest studios, Chan has artistic and a great deal of economic control over his current projects. More than just a kung-fu superstar, Chan has also become a shrewd film producer and promoter. His recent films place Hong Kong and its citizens on the world stage, as players in their own right, with an identity separate from mainland China. In City Hunter, Chan plays a Japanese detective, partly as a tribute to his loyal Japanese fans and partly as a means of looking beyond the confines of Hong Kong. As Rumble in the Bronx brings him back to North America, Chan embodies the fantasy of the Chinese global citizen, acting outside the strictures of a vacillating national identity.

—Gina Marchetti

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