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Williamson, Fred 1937(?)–

WILLIAMSON, Fred 1937(?)–

(Fred "Hammer" Williamson, Fred "the Hammer" Williamson)

PERSONAL

Born March 5, 1937 (some sources cite 1938), in Gary, IN; married; wife's name, Linda. Education: Northwestern University, B.A., 1960; studied architecture.

Addresses: Agent—David Shapira and Associates, 15821 Ventura Blvd., Suite 235, Encino, CA 91436; Stephany Hurkos, 11935 Kling St., Suite 10, Valley Village, CA.

Career: Actor, director, producer, and writer. Po 'Boy Productions, founder, 1974. Judge of Miss Universe Pageant, 1976; appeared in commercials. Professional football player with the San Francisco Forty-Niners, 1960, Oakland Raiders, 1961–64, Kansas City Chiefs, 1965–67, and Montreal Allouettes; earned black belts in kenpo, shotokan karate, and tae kwon do.

Awards, Honors: All-American football player with Northwestern University, 1957, 1958, and 1959; Emmy Award nomination, c. 1976, for guest appearance in Police Story.

CREDITS

Film Appearances:

Beach boy, Tell Me That You Love Me, Junie Moon, Paramount, 1970.

Captain Oliver Harmon "Spearchucker" Jones, M∗A∗S∗H, Twentieth Century-Fox, 1970.

Charley, The Legend of Nigger Charley (also known as The Legend of Black Charley), Paramount, 1972.

Title role, Hammer (also known as B. J. Hammer), United Artists, 1972.

Charley, The Soul of Nigger Charley, Paramount, 1973.

Jefferson Bolt, That Man Bolt (also known as Thunderbolt and To Kill a Dragon), Universal, 1973.

Tommy Gibbs, Black Caesar (also known as The Godfather of Harlem), American International Pictures, 1973.

Tommy Gibbs, Hell Up in Harlem, American International Pictures, 1973.

Title role, Boss Nigger (also known as The Black Bounty Hunter, The Black Bounty Killer, and Boss), Dimension Films, 1974.

Jagger Daniels, Three the Hard Way, Allied Artists, 1974.

Joe Snake, Three Tough Guys (also known as Tough Guys, Les durs, and Uomini duri), Paramount, 1974.

Stone, Black Eye, Warner Bros., 1974.

Willy, Crazy Joe, Columbia, 1974.

Big Ben, Adios Amigo, Atlas, 1975.

Duke, Bucktown, American International Pictures, 1975.

Tyree, Take a Hard Ride (also known as La lunga cavalcata and La parola di un fuorilegge … e legge!), Twentieth Century-Fox, 1975.

Darktown, 1975.

Jesse Crowder, Death Journey, Unicorn Video, 1976.

Jesse Crowder, No Way Back, Atlas, 1976.

Title role, Joshua (also known as Black Rider, Joshua the Black Rider, and Revenge), Lone Star, 1976.

Title role, Mean Johnny Barrows, Atlas, 1976.

Title role, Mr. Mean (also known as Destinazione Roma), 1977.

Jesse Crowder, Blind Rage, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Home Video, 1978.

Hammer, Fist of Fear, Touch of Death (documentary; also known as The Dragon and the Cobra and Fist of Fear), Aquarius, 1980.

Fred, Counterfeit Commandoes (also known as Deadly Mission, G.I. Bro, Hell's Heroes, Inglorious Bastards, and Quel maledetto treno blindato), Aquarius, 1981.

John Dikson, Il cappotto di legno (also known as Fear in the City and Wooden Overcoat), 1981.

Cal, One Down, Two to Go, Almi, 1982.

Abdul, Rome, 2072 A.D. (also known as Fighting Centurions, The New Gladiators, Warriors of the Year 2072, and I guerrieri dell anno 2072), Media Home Entertainment, 1983.

Detective Frank Hooks, The Big Score, Almi, 1983.

Jesse Crowder, The Last Fight, Best Film and Video, 1983.

Lou, Deadly Impact (also known as Giant Killer and Impatto mortale), LIVE Home Video, 1983.

Nadir, The New Barbarians (also known as Metropolis 2000, Warriors of the Wasteland, I nuovi barbari, and 2019, I nuovi barbari), New Line Cinema, 1983.

Nick Coleman, Vigilante (also known as Street Gang), Film Ventures, 1983.

The ogre, 1990: The Bronx Warriors (also known as Bronx Warriors and 1990: I guerrieri del Bronx), United Film Distribution, 1983.

Noah, Vivre pour survivre (also known as White Fire), Trans-World Entertainment, 1984.

Henchman, Warrior of the Lost World (also known as Mad Rider, Il giustiziere della terra perduta, and I predatori dell'anno omega), Visto International/ADI, 1985.

Thomas Fox, Foxtrap, Snizzlefritz, 1986.

Detective Robert Malone, The Black Cobra (also known as Cobra nero), Trans-World Entertainment, 1987.

Feather, Eroi dell'inferno (also known as Hell's Heroes), 1987.

Jake Sebastian Turner, The Messenger (also known as Il messagaro and Kuryer), Starlight, 1987.

Curt Slate, Deadly Intent, Fries Distribution, 1988.

Captain Beck, Delta Force Commando, Vestron Video, 1989.

Lieutenant Robert Malone, The Black Cobra 2 (also known as Cobra nero 2), Hemdale Home Video, 1989.

Detective Robert Malone, Detective Malone (also known as Black Cobra 4 and Code-Name Insallah), 1990.

Lieutenant Robert Malone, Black Cobra 3: The Manila Connection (also known as Cobra nero 3), Hemdale Home Video, 1990.

Sergeant Soda Cracker, The Kill Reflex (also known as Soda Cracker), Columbia/TriStar Home Video, 1990.

Captain Sam Beck, Delta Force Commando 2: Priority Red One, LIVE Home Video, 1991.

John Steele, Steele's Law, Arista Films/Academy, 1991.

Brady, Deceptions, 1992.

Loomis, State of Mind, 1992.

Mack Derringer, South Beach (also known as Night Caller), Prism Entertainment, 1993.

Sheriff Mantee, Silent Hunter, New Line Home Video, 1995.

Frost, From Dusk till Dawn, Dimension Films, 1996.

John Bookman, Original Gangstas (also known as Hot City), Orion, 1996.

Casper's dream father, Ride (also known as I-95), Miramax/Dimension Films, 1998.

Himself, Full Tilt Boogie, Miramax, 1998.

Paulie Solano, Whatever It Takes, Columbia, 1998.

Sheriff Skaggs, Children of the Corn: Field of Screams (also known as Children of the Corn 5 and Children of the Corn V: Fields of Terror), Dimension Films, 1998.

Captain Reynolds, Active Stealth, New City Releasing, 1999.

Captain Masters, Submerged, New City Releasing, 2000.

Dakota "Dak" Smith, Down 'n Dirty, Blockbuster Video, 2000.

Himself, The Independent, Arrow Releasing, 2000.

Dakota "Dak" Smith, The Rage Within, Amsell Entertainment, 2001.

Jake, Deadly Rhapsody (also known as Rhapsody), EnterTech Media Group, 2001.

Sam, Shadow Fury, Phaedra Cinema, 2001.

Dakota "Dak" Smith, On the Edge, 2002.

(As Fred "Hammer" Williamson) Himself, Jim Brown All American (documentary), HBO Sports, 2002.

Vegas Vamps, Appling Pictures/CMX Pictures/Pittmobile Entertainment, 2002.

Gabriel, Fighting Words, 2003.

Captain Doby, Starsky & Hutch, Warner Bros., 2004.

Willie Brownlee Davis, Lexie, York Entertainment, 2004.

Paxton, Soft Target, Gorilla Pictures, 2005.

Henry Kissinger, Black Kissinger, Odessa Filmworks, 2006.

Film Director and Producer:

Adios Amigo, Atlas, 1975.

Death Journey, Unicorn Video, 1976.

Mean Johnny Barrows, Atlas, 1976.

No Way Back, Atlas, 1976.

Mr. Mean (also known as Destinazione Roma), 1977.

One Down, Two to Go, Almi, 1982.

Foxtrap, Snizzlefritz, 1986.

(Producer with Pier Luigi Ciriaci) The Messenger (also known as Il messagaro and Kuryer), Starlight, 1987.

The Kill Reflex (also known as Soda Cracker), Columbia/TriStar Home Video, 1990.

Steele's Law, Arista Films/Academy, 1991.

(Producer with Krishma Shah) South Beach (also known as Night Caller), Prism Entertainment, 1993.

Down 'n Dirty, Blockbuster Video, 2000.

Jim Brown All American (documentary), HBO Sports, 2002.

Film Director:

The Big Score, Almi, 1983.

The Last Fight, Best Film and Video, 1983.

(Uncredited) Warrior of the Lost World (also known as Mad Rider, Il giustiziere della terra perduta, and I predatori dell'anno omega), Visto International/ADI, 1985.

Critical Action, 1991.

Silent Hunter, New Line Home Video, 1995.

On the Edge, 2002.

Vegas Vamps, Appling Pictures/CMX Pictures/Pittmobile Entertainment, 2002.

Lexie, York Entertainment, 2004.

Film Producer:

(With Jack Arnold) Boss Nigger (also known as The Black Bounty Hunter, The Black Bounty Killer, and Boss), Dimension Films, 1974.

Taxi Killer, 1988.

Original Gangstas (also known as Hot City), Orion, 1996.

Television Appearances; Series:

Steve Bruce, Julia, NBC, 1970–71.

Commentator, Monday Night Football (also known as N.F.L. Monday Night Football), ABC, 1974.

Chester Long, Half-Nelson, NBC, 1985.

Lowell Carter, Fast Track, Showtime, 1997–98.

Tim Hastings, "Black Jack" from John Woo (also known as Blackjack and John Woo's "Blackjack"), USA Network and Canadian television, beginning 1998.

Television Appearances; Miniseries:

Leonard Wingate, Wheels (also known as Arthur Hailey's "Wheels"), NBC, 1979.

Television Appearances; Movies:

Williams, "Deadlock," The Bold Ones: The Protectors, NBC, 1969.

Calvin "Cal" Sims, 3 Days to a Kill, HBO, 1992.

Dakota "Dak" Smith, Night Vision (also known as Subway Kids, Beck 2—spaar I moerker, and Spor I moerket), HBO, 1999.

(Uncredited; in archive footage) Himself, A Huey P. Newton Story, Black Starz!, 2001.

Lou, Carmen: A Hip Hopera (musical; also known as Carmen Brown and Hip Hopera: Carmen), MTV, 2001.

Television Appearances; Specials:

Hollywood Goes to Hell, 2000.

Remembering MASH: The 30th Anniversary Cast and Crew Reunion, Fox Movie Channel, 2001.

(In archive footage) The N-Word, Trio, 2004.

Television Appearances; Episodic:

Sergeant La Peer, "Sergeant Mike," Ironside, NBC, 1968.

Anka, "The Cloud Minders," Star Trek, NBC, 1969.

Dave Boyd, "Dancer in the Dark," Julia, NBC, 1969.

Randall, "The Flip Side," The Outsider, NBC, 1969.

Guest, Soul Train, syndicated, 1972, 1974.

Snake McKay, "Dangerous Games," Police Story, NBC, 1973.

Johnny Barrows, "Johnny Lost His Gun," The Rookies, ABC, 1974.

Sergeant Bunny Green, "Thanksgiving," Police Story, NBC, 1976.

Al Roberts, "Express to Terror," Supertrain, NBC, 1979.

Jackson Malone, "The Pug/Class of '69," Fantasy Island, ABC, 1979.

Ty, "Roller Disco: Parts 1 & 2," CHiPs, NBC, 1979.

Crusher Carter, "Violence," Lou Grant, CBS, 1981.

Lieutenant Mason Warren, "Back Home," The Equalizer, CBS, 1985.

Lieutenant Mason Warren, "Reign of Terror," The Equalizer, CBS, 1985.

Barnet Thompson, "Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow?," Amen, NBC, 1988.

Jean Luc Leveaux, "Way Down Yonder in New Orleans," Renegade, syndicated, 1994.

(As Fred "the Hammer" Williamson) "Colors of the Rainbow," Arli$$, HBO, 1996.

Fred Milton Degenova, "The Kiss," Psi Factor: Chronicles of the Paranormal (also known as Psi Factor), CanWest Global Television and syndicated, 1998.

Himself, Intimate Portrait: Pam Grier, Lifetime, 1999.

Himself, "Super Ego," The Jamie Foxx Show, The WB, 2000.

Himself, "Gary Busey," Biography (also known as A&E Biography: Gary Busey), Arts and Entertainment, 2001.

Coach Stax, "Guide to: Day Dreaming & Gym," Ned's Declassified School Survival Guide, Nickelodeon, 2005.

Television Appearances; Pilots:

Chester Long, Half-Nelson, NBC, 1985.

Lowell Carter, Fast Track, Showtime, 1997.

Tim Hastings, "Black Jack" from John Woo (also known as Blackjack and John Woo's "Blackjack"), USA Network and Canadian television, 1998.

Television Work; Movies:

Director and producer, 3 Days to a Kill, HBO, 1992.

Producer, Night Vision (also known as Subway Kids, Beck 2—spaar I moerker, and Spor I moerket), HBO, 1999.

RECORDINGS

Videos:

Himself, Baadasssss Cinema, New Video Group, 2002.

WRITINGS

Screenplays:

Boss Nigger (also known as The Black Bounty Hunter, The Black Bounty Killer, and Boss), Dimension Films, 1974.

Adios Amigo, Atlas, 1975.

Joshua (also known as Black Rider, Joshua the Black Rider, and Revenge), Lone Star, 1976.

No Way Back, Atlas, 1976.

The Last Fight, Best Film and Video, 1983.

Steele's Law, Arista Films/Academy, 1991.

Vegas Vamps, Appling Pictures/CMX Pictures/Pittmobile Entertainment, 2002.

Screenplays; Stories for Films:

Joshua (also known as Black Rider, Joshua the Black Rider, and Revenge), Lone Star, 1976.

Foxtrap, Snizzlefritz, 1986.

The Messenger (also known as Il messagaro and Kuryer), Starlight, 1987.

Teleplays; Movies:

(And story) 3 Days to a Kill, HBO, 1992.

OTHER SOURCES

Periodicals:

Empire, issue 93, p. 46.

Premiere, April, 1996, p. 43; May, 1996, p. 104.

Total Film, April, 1997, pp. 66-70.

TV Guide, January 24, 2004, p. 12.

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"Williamson, Fred 1937(?)–." Contemporary Theatre, Film and Television. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Williamson, Fred 1937(?)–." Contemporary Theatre, Film and Television. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/williamson-fred-1937

"Williamson, Fred 1937(?)–." Contemporary Theatre, Film and Television. . Retrieved May 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/williamson-fred-1937

Williamson, Fred

Fred Williamson

1938—

Actor, filmmaker, professional football player

Fred Williamson is an actor and former professional football player who developed a successful film career by writing, producing, and directing many of the films in which he performed. After several seasons as a defensive player on such teams as the Oakland Raiders and the Kansas City Chiefs during the 1960s, Williamson won a role in the groundbreaking television series Julia and in such films as M*A*S*H. He worked steadily in the United States and abroad, becoming known for black action films during the 1970s, and he built a thriving production company outside of mainstream Hollywood. Looking back on his career in 1996, Williamson told Entertainment Weekly, "My career never stopped. I learned the business of the business, and I was able to continue doing the things I wanted to do."

Played Professional Football

Williamson was born on March 5, 1938, in Gary, Indiana. He was a talented athlete in his youth and played football for Froebel High School, performing well enough to win offers to play for a number of collegiate teams. Williamson chose to attend Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, where he became a star player under the leadership of coach Ara Parseghian, while completing a degree in architectural engineering. After graduation in 1960, Williamson was drafted by the San Francisco 49ers of the National Football League but was traded before the start of the season to the Pittsburgh Steelers.

From 1961 through 1964 Williamson played for the Oakland Raiders of the American Football League, where he became one of the team's leading defensive backs and was given the nickname "Hammer" for his tackling ability. Williamson also gained media attention for his custom-tailored uniform and signature white shoes. "Back in football, I was the first player to wear white shoes," Williamson said in an interview with Mal Vincent in the Virginian-Pilot. "When I got the nickname ‘The Hammer,’ I had a hammer painted on my arm. They fined me $500 a game for promoting violence. I knew what I was doing. All that is marketing."

Williamson was traded to the Kansas City Chiefs in 1965, and he remained with the team for four years. Among the highlights of Williamson's football career was his participation in the first Super Bowl in 1967, where he was instrumental in generating media hype for the contest, now one of the cornerstones of sports broadcasting.

Acted in Television Series Julia

With a degree in architectural engineering, Williamson decided, after his professional football career was winding down, that he would pursue a career in architecture. He took a job at Bechtel Corporation but found the transition to a traditional profession difficult. "Well, 9 to 5 just didn't suit me," he told interviewer Rebecca Murray of About.com. "Once I stopped playing football, an hour for lunch, 9 to 5, couldn't handle it."

Williamson made his acting debut in 1968 in an episode of the television series Ironside and found that he enjoyed the creative challenge and the lifestyle of acting. Williamson next landed a recurring role as the boyfriend of Diahann Carroll on the television series Julia. "One night I was watching TV and saw the Julia show. I noticed the guest star was always her boyfriend," Williamson told Murray. "I said, ‘I'm better looking than those guys.’ So I drove to Hollywood." Williamson convinced the producers of Julia that the audience did not want to see Carroll with a new love interest every week and sold himself as a candidate to play the boyfriend. Williamson appeared in the series until it was cancelled in 1971, by which time he was being offered additional roles in film.

In 1970 Williamson performed in Robert Altman's classic film M*A*S*H, as Captain "Spearchucker" Jones, a role that allowed him to showcase his comedic talent. That same year he appeared in Tell Me You Love Me, Junie Moon alongside Liza Minnelli and had the opportunity to work with legendary director Otto Preminger. Williamson would later credit his experiences with Preminger and Altman as his inspiration to pursue his own production projects, beginning in the 1970s.

Starred in Blaxploitation Films

In the early 1970s a new genre emerged in Hollywood aimed at urban, African-American audiences and later known as "blaxploitation" for its often stereotypical depictions of African Americans as criminals and pimps. Despite the somewhat derisive nature of the blaxploitation fad, hundreds of African-American actors found work during the 1970s and 1980s thanks to the popularity of the genre, which began with the release of the 1971 film Shaft, starring Richard Roundtree. During the early 1970s Williamson became one of the most recognizable actors in the genre, appearing first in the 1972 action film The Legend of Nigger Charley. Over the next ten years, Williamson appeared in more than a dozen low-budget action films, including Hell Up in Harlem in 1973, Take a Hard Ride in 1975, and 1990: The Bronx Warriors in 1983.

In 1974 Williamson and his wife, Linda, formed their own production company, Po' Boy Productions. After spending time studying the technical aspects of film-making and directing, Williamson began a new stage of his career as a director and producer, starting with the 1975 action film Boss Nigger. The following year Williamson scored a minor hit with the comedy western Adiós Amigo, which also featured Richard Pryor and James Brown.

In the mid-1980s the market for low-budget action films declined in the United States, but Williamson shifted his operations to Europe and continued to write and produce films in which he starred. "When the so-called ‘black exploitation’ movies came to an end in the United States, I went to the European market," Williamson told Vincent in 1996. "I've been there ever since."

At a Glance …

Born March 5, 1938, in Gary, Indiana; married, wife's name Linda; children: five sons and one daughter. Education: Northwestern University, BA, architectural engineering, 1960.

Career: Pittsburgh Steelers, defensive back, 1960; Oakland Raiders, defensive back, 1961-64; Kansas City Chiefs, defensive back, 1965-69; film and television actor, director, screenwriter, producer, 1968—.

Addresses: Agent—David Shapira and Associates, 15821 Ventura Blvd., Ste. 235, Encino, CA 91436; Agent—Stephany Hurkos, 11935 Kling St., Ste 10, Valley Village, CA 91607.

Achieved Success as Independent Filmmaker

Williamson produced films in the United Kingdom, Italy, and Canada, teaming with other production companies and releasing his films to a worldwide video rental audience. While American audiences saw Williamson as a blaxploitation actor, Williamson told Vincent the situation was different in Europe. "In Europe, my films play wherever Stallone and Schwarzenegger movies play," he said. "Here, they go directly to video, and do quite well. I find that they don't have to play in theaters first in order to do well."

In 1996 directors Quentin Tarantino and Robert Rodriguez invited Williamson to play a major role in the horror/action film From Dusk till Dawn alongside George Clooney, Juliette Lewis, and Harvey Keitel. Although some considered the film a comeback performance for Williamson, he maintained that his career was simply changing rather than beginning again, and pointed to a catalog of more than thirty films as evidence that he had never left the industry.

Shortly after the release of From Dusk till Dawn, Williamson teamed with a number of stars from the blaxploitation films of the 1970s, including Jim Brown and Pam Grier, for Original Gangstas. Williamson later criticized the work of director Larry Cohen on the film, though it was a moderate commercial success and helped Williamson to publicize his production efforts. Williamson continued directing and producing action films throughout the 1990s and performed in works by others, including the 1998 film Blackjack, directed by the legendary Japanese action filmmaker John Woo. In 2004 Williamson featured his comedic talents in the film Starsky & Hutch alongside Snoop Dogg, Ben Stiller, and Owen Wilson.

Through the course of his career Williamson diverged very little from his roots, preferring to remain focused on the action genre. He made prescient business and marketing decisions that allowed him to remain relevant in an evolving media market. As of 2008 Williamson's production company had released more than forty films. From being one of the most colorful players in professional sports to a film veteran, Williamson helped to define a generation of African-American entertainment.

Selected works

Films; as actor unless otherwise indicated

M*A*S*H, 1970.

Tell Me That You Love Me, Junie Moon, 1970.

The Legend of Nigger Charley, 1972.

Hammer, 1972.

Black Caesar, 1973.

Hell Up in Harlem, 1973.

The Soul of Nigger Charley, 1973.

(And producer, screenwriter) Boss Nigger, 1975.

Take a Hard Ride, 1975.

(And director, producer, screenwriter) Adiós Amigo, 1976.

(And screenwriter) Joshua, 1976.

(And director, producer, screenwriter) No Way Back, 1976.

(And director, producer, screenwriter) Mr. Mean, 1977.

(As himself) Fist of Fear, Touch of Death (documentary), 1980.

(And director, producer) One Down, Two to Go, 1982.

(And director) The Big Score, 1983.

1990: The Bronx Warriors, 1983.

(And director, screenwriter) The Last Fight, 1983.

(And director, producer) Foxtrap, 1986.

(And director, producer, screenwriter) The Messenger, 1986.

The Black Cobra, 1987.

Delta Force Commando, 1989.

Delta Force Commando 2: Priority Red One, 1991.

(And director, producer, screenwriter) Steele's Law, 1991.

(And director, producer) South Beach, 1992.

From Dusk till Dawn, 1996.

(And producer) Original Gangstas, 1996.

Ride, 1998.

Full Tilt Boogie, 1998.

Whatever It Takes, 1998.

(And director, producer) Down 'n Dirty, 2000.

The Rage Within, 2001.

(And director) On the Edge, 2002.

(And director, screenwriter) Vegas Vampires, 2003.

Starsky & Hutch, 2004.

Soft Target, 2006.

Fighting Words, 2007.

Television

Julia, 1970-71.

(As himself) Monday Night Football, 1974.

Wheels (miniseries), 1979.

Half-Nelson, 1985.

Fast Track, 1997-98.

(As himself) Jim Brown All-American (documentary), 2002.

Sources

Periodicals

Entertainment Weekly, May 10, 1996, p. 45.

Virginian-Pilot (Hampton Roads, VA), January 24, 1996, p. E1.

Online

"Fred Williamson Biography," Stephany Hurkos Online,http://www.stephanyhurkos.com/fred_biography.htm (accessed April 8, 2008).

Murray, Rebecca, "Interviews with Starsky & Hutch's Fred Williamson and Brande Roderick," About.com, http://movies.about.com/cs/starskyandhutch/a/sthtbr22604.htm (accessed April 8, 2008).

Other

Additional information for this interview was conducted through an interview with Williamson's manager, Stephany Hurkos, on March 19, 2008.

—Micah L. Issitt

Cite this article
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"Williamson, Fred." Contemporary Black Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Williamson, Fred." Contemporary Black Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/williamson-fred

"Williamson, Fred." Contemporary Black Biography. . Retrieved May 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/williamson-fred