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Bruchac, Joseph 1942-

Bruchac, Joseph 1942-

(Joseph Bruchac, III)

Personal

Surname pronounced "brew-shack"; born October 16, 1942, in Saratoga Springs, NY; son of Joseph E., Jr. (a taxidermist and publisher) and Marion (a homemaker and publisher; maiden name, Bowman) Bruchac; married Carol Worthen (director of a nonprofit organization), June 13, 1964; children: James Edward, Jesse Bowman. Ethnicity: "Native American (Abenaki)/Slovak/ English." Education: Cornell University, A.B., 1965; Syracuse University, M.A., 1966; graduate study at State University of New York—Albany, 1971-73; Union Institute of Ohio Graduate School, Ph.D., 1975. Politics: Liberal Democrat. Religion: "Methodist and Native-American spiritual traditions." Hobbies and other interests: Gardening, music, martial arts.

Addresses

Home and office—Greenfield Review Press, P.O. Box 308, Greenfield Center, NY 12833. Agent—Barbara Kouts Agency, P.O. Box 560, Bellport, NY 11713. E-mail—nudatlog@earthlink.net.

Career

Keta Secondary School, Ghana, West Africa, teacher of English and literature, 1966-69; Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, instructor in creative writing and African and black literatures, 1969-73; University without Walls, coordinator of college program at Great Meadow Correctional Facility, 1974-81; writer and storyteller, 1981—. Greenfield Review Press, Greenfield Center, NY, publisher and editor of Greenfield Review, 1969-87; Greenfield Review Literary Center, director, 1981—; musician with Dawn Land Singers, recording stories and music on Abenaki Cultural Heritage and Alnobak, Good Mind Records. Member of adjunct faculty at Hamilton College, 1983, 1985, 1987, and State University of New York—Albany, 1987-88; storyteller-in-residence at CRC Institute for Arts in Education, 1989-90, and at other institutions, including Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute, St. Regis Mohawk Indian School, Seneca Nation School, Onondaga Indian School, Institute of Alaska Native Arts, and Annsville Youth Facility; featured storyteller at festivals and conferences; presents workshops, poetry readings, and storytelling programs. Print Center, member of board of directors, 1975-78; Returning the Gift, national chairperson, 1992; judge of competitions, including PEN Prison Writing Awards, 1977, National Book Award for Translation, 1983, and National Book Award for Poetry, 1995; past member of literature panels, Massachusetts Arts Council, Vermont State Arts Council, Illinois Arts Council, and Ohio Arts Council.

Member

Poetry Society of America, PEN, National Storytelling Association (member of board of directors, 1992-94), Native Writers Circle of the Americas (chairperson, 1992-95), Wordcraft Circle of Native Writers and Storytellers, Hudson Valley Writers Guild, Black Crow Network.

Awards, Honors

Poetry fellow, Creative Artists Public Service, 1973, 1982; fellow, National Endowment for the Arts, 1974; editors' fellow, Coordinating Council of Literary Magazines, 1980; Rockefeller fellow, 1982; PEN Syndicated Fiction Award, 1983; American Book Award, 1984, for Breaking Silence; Yaddo residency, 1984, 1985; Cherokee Nation Prose Award, 1986; fellow, New York State Council on the Arts, 1986; Benjamin Franklin Audio Award, Publishers Marketing Association, 1992, for The Boy Who Lived with the Bears, and Person of the Year Award, 1993; Hope S. Dean Memorial Award for Notable Achievement in Children's Literature, 1993; Mountains and Plains Award, 1995, for A Boy Called Slow; Knickerbocker Award, 1995; Paterson Children's Book Award, 1996, for Dog People; Boston Globe/ Horn Book Honor Award, 1996, for The Boy Who Lived with the Bears; Writer of the Year Award, and Storyteller of the Year Award, Wordcraft Circle of Native Writers and Storytellers, both 1998; Lifetime Achievement Award, Native Writers Circle of the Americas, 1999; Independent Publishers Outstanding Book of the Year designation, 2003, for Our Stories Remember; Sequoyah Book Award, Oklahoma Library Association, 2004, for Skeleton Man; Parent's Choice Award; Skipping Stones Honor Award for Multicultural Children's Literature; Virginia Hamilton Literary Award, 2005; Young Adult Award, American Indian Library Association, 2006, for Hidden Roots.

Writings

RETELLER; FOLK-TALE COLLECTIONS

Turkey Brother and Other Iroquois Folk Tales, Crossing Press (Trumansburg, NY), 1975.

Stone Giants and Flying Heads: Adventure Stories of the Iroquois, Crossing Press (Trumansburg, NY), 1978.

Iroquois Stories: Heroes and Heroines, Monsters and Magic, Crossing Press (Trumansburg, NY), 1985.

The Wind Eagle, Bowman Books, 1985.

The Faithful Hunter, and Other Abenaki Stories, Bowman Books, 1988.

Return of the Sun: Native American Tales from the Eastern Woodlands, Crossing Press (Trumansburg, NY), 1990.

Native American Stories, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1991.

Hoop Snakes, Hide-Behinds, and Sidehill Winders, Crossing Press (Trumansburg, NY), 1991.

(With Jonathan London) Thirteen Moons on Turtle's Back: A Native American Year of Moons, Philomel (New York, NY), 1992.

Flying with the Eagle, Racing the Great Bear: Stories from Native North America, Bridgewater (New York, NY), 1993.

Native American Animal Stories, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1993.

The Native American Sweat Lodge, Crossing Press (Trumansburg, NY), 1993.

(With Gayle Ross) The Girl Who Married the Moon: Stories from Native North America, BridgeWater (New York, NY), 1994.

Dog People: Native Dog Stories, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1995.

Native Plant Stories, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1995.

The Boy Who Lived with the Bears, and Other Iroquois Stories, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 1995.

Between Earth and Sky: Legends of Native-American Sacred Places, illustrated by Thomas Locker, Harcourt (San Diego, CA), 1996.

The Circle of Thanks, BridgeWater (New York, NY), 1996.

Four Ancestors: Stories, Songs, and Poems, BridgeWater (New York, NY), 1996.

(Reteller, with son, James Bruchac) When the Chenoo Howls: Native-American Tales of Terror, illustrated by William Sauts Netamu'xwe Bock, Walker (New York, NY), 1998.

(With James Bruchac) Native American Games and Stories, illustrated by Kayeri Akwek, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 2000.

Foot of the Mountain, and Other Stories, Holy Cow! Press (Duluth, MN), 2002.

PICTURE BOOKS

(Reteller) The First Strawberries, illustrated by Anna Vojtech, Dial (New York, NY), 1993.

Fox Song, illustrated by Paul Morin, Philomel (New York, NY), 1993.

(Reteller) The Great Ball Game, illustrated by Susan L. Roth, Dial (New York, NY), 1994.

A Boy Called Slow: The True Story of Sitting Bull, illustrated by Rocco Baviera, Philomel (New York, NY), 1995.

Gluskabe and the Four Wishes, illustrated by Christine Shrader, Cobblehill Books (Boston, MA), 1995.

(With Gayle Ross) The Story of the Milky Way, illustrated by Virginia A. Stroud, Dial (New York, NY), 1995.

The Maple Thanksgiving, illustrated by Anna Vojtech, Celebration (Nobleboro, ME), 1996.

(With Melissa Fawcett) Makiawisug: Gift of the Little People, Little People (Warsaw, IN), 1997.

Many Nations: An Alphabet of Native America, Troll Publications (Mahwah, NJ), 1997.

Crazy Horse's Vision, illustrated by S.D. Nelson, Lee & Low Books (New York, NY), 2000.

Squanto's Journey: The Story of the First Thanksgiving, illustrated by Greg Shed, Silver Whistle (San Diego, CA), 2000.

(Reteller, with James Bruchac) How Chipmunk Got His Stripes, illustrated by José Aruego and Ariane Dewey, Dial (New York, NY), 2001.

Seasons of the Circle: A Native-American Year, illustrated by Robert F. Goetzel, BridgeWater (New York, NY), 2002.

(Reteller, with James Bruchac) Turtle's Race with Beaver: A Traditional Seneca Story, illustrated by José Aruego and Ariane Dewey, Dial Books for Young Readers (New York, NY), 2003.

(Reteller, with James Bruchac) Raccoon's Last Race: A Traditional Abenaki Story, illustrated by José Aruego and Ariane Dewey, Dial Books for Young Readers (New York, NY), 2004.

FICTION; FOR CHILDREN

Children of the Longhouse, Dial (New York, NY), 1996.

Eagle Song (chapter book), Dial (New York, NY), 1997.

The Arrow over the Door (chapter book), illustrated by James Watling, Dial (New York, NY), 1998.

The Heart of a Chief, Dial (New York, NY), 1998.

Sacajawea: The Story of Bird Woman and the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Silver Whistle (San Diego, CA), 2000.

Skeleton Man, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 2001.

The Journal of Jesse Smoke: A Cherokee Boy ("My Name Is America" series), Scholastic (New York, NY), 2001.

The Winter People, Dial (New York, NY), 2002.

Pocahontas (young-adult novel), Silver Whistle (Orlando, FL), 2003.

The Warriors, Darby Creek (Plain City, OH), 2003.

Hidden Roots (novel), Scholastic (New York, NY), 2004.

Dark Pond, illustrated by Sally Wern Comport, Harper-Collins (New York, NY), 2004.

Whisper in the Dark, illustrated by Sally Wern Comport, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 2005.

Code Talker: A Novel about the Navajo Marines of World War II (young-adult novel), Dial Books (New York, NY), 2005.

Wabi: A Hero's Tale (young-adult novel), Dial (New York, NY), 2006.

Geronimo (young-adult novel), Scholastic (New York, NY), 2006.

Bearwalker, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 2007.

The Way, Darby Creek (Plain City, OH), 2007.

FICTION; FOR ADULTS

The Road to Black Mountain (short stories), Thorp Springs Press (Austin, TX), 1976.

The Dreams of Jesse Brown (short stories), Cold Mountain Press, 1978.

The White Moose (short stories), Blue Cloud Quarterly, 1988.

Turtle Meat, and Other Stories (short stories), Holy Cow! Press (Minneapolis, MN), 1992.

Dawn Land (novel), Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1993.

Long River (sequel to Dawn Land), Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1995.

The Waters Between: A Novel of the Dawn Land, University Press of New England (Hanover, NH), 1998.

POETRY

Indian Mountain, Ithaca House (Ithaca, NY), 1971.

The Buffalo in the Syracuse Zoo, Greenfield Review Press (Greenfield Center, NY), 1972.

Great Meadow, Dustbooks (Paradise, CA), 1973.

The Manabozho, Blue Cloud Quarterly, 1973.

Flow, Cold Mountain Press, 1975.

This Earth Is a Drum, Cold Mountain Press, 1976.

There Are No Trees inside the Prison, Blackberry Press, 1978.

Mu'ndu Wi Go, Blue Cloud Quarterly, 1978.

Entering Onondaga, Cold Mountain Press, 1978.

The Good Message of Handsome Lake, Unicorn Press (Greensboro, NC), 1979.

Translators' Son, Cross-Cultural Communications (Merrick, NY), 1980.

Ancestry, Great Raven (Fort Kent, ME), 1981.

Remembering the Dawn, Blue Cloud Quarterly, 1983.

Walking with My Sons, Landlocked Press, 1985.

Tracking, Ion Books, 1985.

Near the Mountains, White Pine (Buffalo, NY), 1986.

Langes Gedachtnis/Long Memory, OBEMA (Osnabruck, Germany), 1988.

The Earth under Sky Bear's Feet, illustrated by Thomas Locker, Philomel (New York, NY), 1995.

No Borders, Holy Cow! Press (Duluth, MN), 1999.

Above the Line, West End Press (Albuquerque, NM), 2003.

NONFICTION

The Poetry of Pop, Dustbooks (Paradise, CA), 1973.

How to Start and Sustain a Literary Magazine, Provision (Austin, TX), 1980.

Survival This Way: Interviews with American Indian Poets, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987.

(With Michael Caduto) Keepers of the Earth: Native American Stories and Environmental Activities for Children, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1989.

(With Michael Caduto) Keepers of the Animals: Native American Stories and Wildlife Activities for Children, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1990.

(With Michael Caduto) Keepers of the Night: Native American Stories and Nocturnal Activities for Children, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1994.

(With Michael Caduto) Keepers of Life: Discovering Plants through Native American Stories and Earth Activities for Children, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1994.

Native Wisdom, HarperSanFrancisco (San Francisco, CA), 1995.

Roots of Survival: Native American Storytelling and the Sacred, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1996.

(With Michael Caduto) Native American Gardening, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1996.

Bowman's Store (autobiography), Dial (New York, NY), 1997.

Lasting Echoes: An Oral History of Native American People, Harcourt (New York, NY), 1997.

Tell Me a Tale: A Book about Storytelling, Harcourt (New York, NY), 1997.

Buffalo Boy (biography), illustrated by Baviera, Silver Whistle Books (San Diego, CA), 1998.

Seeing the Circle (autobiography), photographs by John Christian Fine, R.C. Owen (Katonah, NY), 1999.

The Trail of Tears (chapter book), illustrated by Diana Magnuson, Random House (New York, NY), 1999.

Trails of Tears, Paths of Beauty, National Geographic Society (Washington, DC), 2000.

Navajo Long Walk: The Tragic Story of a Proud People's Forced March from Their Homeland, illustrated by Shonto Begay, National Geographic Society (Washington, DC), 2002.

Our Stories Remember: American Indian History, Culture, and Values through Storytelling, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 2003.

Jim Thorpe's Bright Path (biography; for children), illustrated by S.D. Nelson, Lee & Low Books (New York, NY), 2004.

(With James Bruchac) Rachel Carson: Preserving a Sense of Wonder (biography; for children), Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 2004.

At the Edge of Ridge Road (memoir), Milkweed (Minneapolis, MN), 2005.

Jim Thorpe: The Original All-American (biography; for children), Dial (New York, NY), 2006.

OTHER

Pushing up the Sky: Seven Native American Plays for Children, illustrated by Teresa Flavin, Dial (New York, NY), 2000.

Also editor of anthologies, including The Last Stop: Prison Writings from Comstock Prison, 1973; Words from the House of the Dead: Prison Writing from Soledad, 1974; Aftermath: Poetry in English from Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean, 1977; The Next World: Thirty-two Third World American Poets, 1978; Songs from Turtle Island: Thirty-two American Indian Poets, [Yugoslavia], 1982; Songs from This Earth on Turtle's Back: Contemporary American Indian Poetry, 1983; Breaking Silence: Contemporary Asian-American Poets, 1983; The Light from Another Country: Poetry from American Prisons, 1984; North Country: An Anthology of Contemporary Writing from the Adirondacks and the Upper Hudson Valley, 1986; New Voices from the Longhouse: Contemporary Iroquois Writing, 1989; Raven Tells Stories: Contemporary Alaskan Native Writing, 1990; Singing of Earth, 1993; Returning the Gift, 1994; Smoke Rising, 1995; and Native Wisdom, 1995. Audiotapes include Iroquois Stories, Alnobak, Adirondack Tall Tales, and Abenaki Cultural Heritage, all Good Mind Records; and Gluskabe Stories, Yellow Moon Press. Work represented in more than a hundred anthologies, including Carriers of the Dream Wheel; Come to Power; For Neruda, for Chile; New Worlds of Literature; Paris Review Anthology, and Sports Shorts: An Anthology of Short Stories, 2005. Contributor of more than three hundred stories, poems, articles, and reviews to magazines, including American Poetry Review, Akwesasne Notes, Beloit Poetry Journal, Chariton Review, Kalliope, Mid-American Review, Nation, Poetry Northwest, River Styx, and Virginia Quarterly Review. Editor, Trojan Horse, 1964, Prison Writing Review, 1976-85, and Studies in American Indian Literature, 1989—. Member of editorial board, Cross-Cultural Communications, Parabola, Storytelling Journal, MELUS, and Obsidian. Translator from Abenaki, Ewe, Iroquois, and Spanish.

Adaptations

Several of Bruchac's books have been recorded on audiocassette, including Keepers of the Earth, Keepers of the Animals, Keepers of Life, and Dawn Land, all released by Fulcrum; and The Boy Who Lived with the Bears, released by Caedmon/Parabola.

Sidelights

According to Publishers Weekly contributor Sybil Steinberg, Joseph Bruchac ranks as "perhaps the best-known contemporary Native American storyteller." Bruchac draws on his ethnic heritage for his critically acclaimed collections, including Flying with the Eagle, Racing the Great Bear: Stories from Native North America and The Girl Who Married the Moon: Stories from Native North America. These stories also influence Bruchac's novels, such as Dawn Land and its sequels Long Land and The Waters Between: A Novel of the Dawn Land, a series about the Abenaki living in the American northeast prior to the arrival of Columbus. "His stories," Steinberg concluded, "are often poignant, funny, ironic—and sometimes all three at once." In addition to his original novels, picture books, poetry, and nonfiction, Bruchac's work as an editor and publisher has brought many other acclaimed Native American authors into the public eye. For example, he published early books by Leslie Marmon Silko and Linda Hogan, whose voices have since become well known in the field of Native-American literature. He is also a nationally known live storyteller, and his performances have been recorded on audiocassette.

Dawn Land, Bruchac's first novel, introduces readers to Young Hunter, a character who returns in 1995's Long River, as he battles both a wooly mammoth and an evil giant. In Dawn Land and Long River, as well as the concluding novel of the sequence, The Waters Between, Bruchac incorporates actual myths from his own Abenaki heritage. His children's stories, like his novels, entertain and educate young readers by interweaving Native American history and myth. The biography A Boy Called Slow, for example, recounts the story of the Lakota boy who would grow up to become Sitting Bull. Bruchac's ability to "gently correct" stereotypes of Native-American culture was noted by Carolyn Polese in School Library Journal. In The Great Ball Game he relates the importance of ball games in Native-American tradition as a substitute for war, tying neatly together history and ethics lessons in "an entertaining tale," commented Polese. He combines several versions of a Native-American tale in Gluskabe and the Four Wishes.

Bruchac writes prolifically in several genres, including fiction, poetry, and nonfiction. Several of his nonfiction titles for adults explain the value of storytelling. In Our Stories Remember: American Indian History, Culture, and Values through Storytelling he retells stories from many different Native-American nations to illustrate core values and culture. Writing in School Library Journal, S.K. Joiner noted that, "part cultural lesson, part history, and part autobiography, the book contains a wealth of information." Booklist contributor Deborah Donovan dubbed Our Stories Remember a "thoughtprovoking work, enriched with valuable annotated reading lists."

Bruchac's nonfiction titles for young people include biographies of Native Americans as well as of pivotal figures in the environmental movement. In Rachel Carson: Preserving a Sense of Wonder he presents a biography of the author of Silent Spring, a book credited with inspiring the environmental movement in the 1960s. Writing in Booklist, Carolyn Phelan noted that "Bruchac writes lyrically about [Carson's] … love of nature, particularly the ocean, and concludes with an appreciation of her impact on the environment." The picture-book biography Jim Thorpe's Bright Path recounts the life of the famed Native-American athlete. School Library Journal contributor Liza Graybill noted that Bruchac's "theme of overcoming personal and societal obstacles to reach success is strongly expressed."

Not all of Bruchac's picture books are nonfiction; many of his books for the very young are based on traditional Native-American tales. The First Strawberries, his first picture book, is based on a Cherokee tale, while Raccoon's Last Race is a story drawn from the Abenaki tradition. The latter tale explains how Raccoon, once tall and fast, became the squat, slow creature he is today. Noting that Raccoon's Last Race is one of several collaborations between Bruchac, son James Bruchac, and husband-and-wife illustration team José Aruego and Ariane Dewey, a Kirkus Reviews contributor wrote: "Readers will hope this foursome keeps on rolling." Horn Book reviewer Kitty Flynn noted that "the Bruchacs' well-paced retelling is alive with sound, … making the story well suited for reading aloud."

In The Dark Pond Bruchac revisits a genre he previously explored in Skeleton Man: the young-adult thriller. In The Dark Pond Arnie, a half-Shawnee student at an all-white prep school, is drawn to a mysterious dark pool in the woods. He senses that something is lurking there, and his fears are confirmed when he discovers that Native-American groundskeeper Mitch Sabattis believes a gigantic worm lives in the pond. Mitch is determined to kill the creature, and Arnie, remembering the traditional tales of his family, decides to do what he can to help slay this monster. The Dark Pond "is a creepy, fast-moving tale that will appeal to fans of horror stories, with a message about self-discovery neatly tucked in as well," wrote Paula Rohrlick in Kliatt. B. Allison Gray noted in School Library Journal that Bruchac's "eerie story skillfully entwines Native American lore, suspense, and the realization that people are not always what they seem."

Another teen thriller, Whisper in the Dark, wraps Narragansett legend around an all-too-real modern danger as Maddie confronts the mystery of a seemingly supernatural stalker. "Bruchac interweaves suspense with Indian folklore endlessly," commented Claire Rosser in Kliatt, while Wendi Hoffenberg wrote in School Library Journal that "Maddie's narration is swirl and spare, creating a mood of terror tempered by Narragansett words and chants of courage."

Bruchac draws on history for many of his novels for teens. Code Talker: A Novel about the Navajo Marines of World War II, for example, gives readers an inside perspective on the role Navajo Marines played in sending vital encoded messages during World War II. Told from the perspective of sixteen-year-old Ned Begay, who is technically too young to be in the military, the story reveals how the Navajo language, once a tongue the U.S. government attempted to eliminate, now becomes valued highly by the U.S. military. "The narrative pulls no punches about war's brutality and never adopts an avuncular tone," noted Booklist contributor Carolyn Phelan. As Kliatt reviewer Paula Rohrlick commented, "readers unfamiliar with the fascinating story of the code talkers will come away impressed by their achievements." In Geronimo, Bruchac relates the story of the famous Native-American leader through the eyes of the man's adopted grandson. "Fans of history, or of themes of survival and freedom, will find it fascinating— certainly different from other fare about the man," wrote Nina Lindsay in School Library Journal.

Other novels by Bruchac draw solely on legend. Wabi: A Hero's Tale is the story of an owl who learns a secret about his people: he can shape shift and take human form. He falls in love with a local tribal woman, but her people banish him when they discover his true identity. In order to save his love's people, he must go on a dangerous quest. "Bruchac's storytelling skills are on full display in this tale," wrote a Publishers Weekly contributor, and Lisa Prolman suggested in School Library Journal: "Give this novel to … anyone who enjoys reading about journeys of self-discovery." A critic for Kirkus Reviews maintained of Wabi that "readers won't be able to turn the pages fast enough."

"I was born in 1942, in Saratoga Springs, New York, during October, that month the Iroquois call the Moon of Falling Leaves," Bruchac once told SATA. "My writing and my interests reflect my mixed ancestry, Slovak on one side and Native American (Abenaki) and English on the other. Aside from attending Cornell University and Syracuse and three years of teaching in West Africa, I've lived all of my life in the small Adirondack foothills town of Greenfield Center in a house built by my grandfather.

"Much of my writing and my life relates to the problem of being an American. While in college I was active in civil rights work and in the anti-war movement…. I went to Africa to teach—but more than that, to be taught. It showed me many things. How much we have as Americans and take for granted. How much our eyes refuse to see because they are blinded to everything in a man's face except his color. And, most importantly, how human people are everywhere—which may be the one grace that can save us all.

"I write poetry, fiction, and some literary criticism and have been fortunate enough to receive recognition in all three areas. After returning from Ghana in 1969, my wife, Carol, and I started the Greenfield Review and the Greenfield Review Press. Since 1975, I've been actively involved in storytelling, focusing on northeastern Native-American tales and the songs and traditions of the Adirondack Mountains of upstate New York, and I am frequently a featured performer at storytelling gatherings. I've also done a great deal of work in teaching and helping start writing workshops in American prisons. I believe that poetry is as much a part of human beings as is breath—and that, like breath, poetry links us to all other living things and is meant to be shared.

"My writing is informed by several key sources. One of these is nature, another is the Native-American experience (I'm part Indian)…. I like to work outside, in the earthmother's soil, with my hands … but maintain my life as an academic for a couple of reasons: it gives me time to write (sometimes) and it gives me a chance to share my insights into the beautiful and all-too-fragile world of human life and living things we have been granted. Which is one of the reasons I write—not to be a man apart, but to share."

In an interview with Eliza T. Dresang for the Cooperative Children's Book Center Web site, Bruchac noted that he does not expect to run out of things to write about. He told Dresang: "The last thirty years of my life in particular have been blessed with so many … experiences and by the generosity of so many Native people who have shared their stories and their understanding of their land with me that I know I can never live long enough to share everything I've learned. But I'll try."

Biographical and Critical Sources

PERIODICALS

Alaska, December, 1992, p. 74.

Albany Times Union, June 1, 1980.

Booklist, February 15, 1993, p. 1075; July, 1993, p. 1969; October 15, 1993, p. 397; November 15, 1993, p. 632; December 15, 1993, p. 749; August, 1994, p. 2017; September, 1994, p. 55; October 15, 1994, p. 377; December 15, 1994, p. 756; September 1, 1997, p. 69; September 15, 1997, pp. 234, 237; December 5, 1997, p. 688; February 15, 1998; October 1, 2002, Heather Hepler, review of Seasons of the Circle: A Native-American Year, p. 316, and GraceAnne A. DeCandido, review of The Winter People, p. 322; April 15, 2003, Deborah Donovan, review of Our Stories Remember: American Indian History, Culture, and Values through Storytelling, p. 1444; September 15, 2003, John Peters, review of Turtle's Race with Beaver, p. 244, and Ed Sullivan, review of Pocahontas, p. 229; July, 2004, Carolyn Phelan, review of Rachel Carson: Preserving a Sense of Wonder, p. 1838; August, 2004, Todd Morning, review of The Dark Pond, p. 1932, and Stephanie Zvirin, review of Jim Thorpe's Bright Path, p. 1938; February 15, 2005, Carolyn Phelan, review of Code Talker:: A Novel about the Navajo Marines of World War II, p. 1078; September 1, 2005, Holly Koelling, review of Whisper in the Dark, p. 131; November 15, 2005, Anna Rich, audiobook review of Crazy Horse's Vision, p. 64; March 15, 2006, GraceAnne A. DeCandido, review of Geronimo, p. 43.

Bulletin, April, 1995, p. 265.

English Journal, January, 1996, p. 87.

Horn Book, January-February, 1994, p. 60; March-April, 1994, p. 209; November-December, 1994, p. 738; March-April, 1995, p. 203; September-October, 1995, p. 617; January-February, 2005, Kitty Flynn, review of Raccoon's Last Race, p. 102.

Kirkus Reviews, March 15, 1996, p. 445; May 1, 1996, p. 685; December 1, 1996, p. 1734; January 1, 2004, review of Hidden Roots, p. 34; October 15, 2004, review of Raccoon's Last Race, p. 1002; January 15, 2005, review of Code Talker, p. 117; July 1, 2005, review of Whisper in the Dark, p. 732; September, 2005, Paula Rohrlick, review of The Dark Pond, p. 25; February 1, 2006, review of Wabi: A Hero's Tale, p. 128.

Kliatt, July, 2004, Paula Rohrlick, review of The Dark Pond, p. 7; March, 2005, Paula Rohrlick, review of Code Talker, p. 8; July, 2005, Claire Rosser, review of Whisper in the Dark, p. 8; January, 2006, Edna Boardman, review of Foot of the Mountain, and Other Stories, p. 26; March, 2006, Paula Rohrlick, review of Geronimo, p. 6.

Publishers Weekly, March 15, 1993, p. 68; June 28, 1993, p. 76; July 19, 1993, pp. 254, 255; August 29, 1994, p. 79; January 9, 1995, p. 64; July 31, 1995, p. 68; July 14, 1997, p. 83; September 8, 1997, p. 78; November 24, 1997, p. 75; May 31, 2004, review of Jim Thorpe's Bright Path, p. 76; May 1, 2006, review of Wabi, p. 64.

School Library Journal, March, 1993, p. 161; August, 1993, p. 205; September, 1993, pp. 222, 238; February, 1994, p. 78; November, 1994, p. 112; December, 1994, p. 96; February, 1995, p. 104; October, 1995, Carolyn Polese, review of A Boy Called Slow, p. 145; July, 2002, Anne Chapman Callaghan, review of Navajo Long Walk: The Tragic Story of a Proud Peo- ple's Forced March from Their Homeland, p. 131; November, 2002, Rita Soltan, review of The Winter People, p. 154; July, 2003, S.K. Joiner, review of Our Stories Remember, p. 155; February, 2004, Alison Follos, review of Hidden Roots, p. 141; May, 2004, Sean George, review of Pocahontas, p. 140; June, 2004, Liza Graybill, review of Jim Thorpe's Bright Path, p. 124; August, 2004, B. Allison Gray, review of The Dark Pond, p. 115; December, 2004, Catherine Threadgill, review of Raccoon's Last Race, p. 127; February, 2005, B. Allison Gray, audiobook review of Skeleton Man, p. 75; May, 2005, Patricia Manning, review of Code Talker, p. 24; August, 2005, review of Code Talker, p. 50, and Wendi Hoffenberg, review of Whisper in the Dark, p. 121; October, 2005, review of Code Talker, p. S67; November, 2005, Alison Follos, review of Sports Shorts: An Anthology of Short Stories, p. 128; April, 2006, Lisa Prolman, review of Wabi, and Nina Lindsay, review of Geronimo, both p. 134.

Silver Whistle, spring-summer, 2000, p. 67.

Teacher Librarian, February, 2005, Betty Winslow, review of The Journal of Jesse Smoke, p. 14.

Voice Literary Supplement, November, 1991, p. 27.

Voice of Youth Advocates, February, 2006, Tracy Piombo, review of At the End of Ridge Road, p. 508.

Wilson Library Bulletin, June, 1993, p. 103; September, 1993, p. 87; April, 1995, p. 110.

ONLINE

Children's Literature Web site,http://www.childrenslit.com/ (June 22, 2006), "Joseph Bruchac."

Cooperative Children's Book Center Web site,http://www.education.wisc.edu/ccbc/ (October 22, 1999), Eliza T. Dresang, interview with Bruchac.

Joseph Bruchac Home Page, http://www.josephbruchac. com (April 2, 2007).

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Bruchac, Joseph 1942–

Bruchac, Joseph 1942–

(Joseph Bruchac III)

Personal

Surname pronounced "brew-shack"; born October 16, 1942, in Saratoga Springs, NY; son of Joseph E., Jr. (a taxidermist and publisher) and Marion (a homemaker and publisher; maiden name, Bowman) Bruchac; married Carol Worthen (director of a nonprofit organization), June 13, 1964; children: James Edward, Jesse Bowman. Ethnicity: "Native American (Abenaki)/Slo-vak/English." Education: Cornell University, A.B., 1965; Syracuse University, M.A., 1966; graduate study at State University of New York—Albany, 1971–73; Union Institute of Ohio Graduate School, Ph.D., 1975. Politics: Liberal Democrat. Religion: "Methodist and Native-American spiritual traditions." Hobbies and other interests: Gardening, music, martial arts.

Addresses

Home and office—Greenfield Review Press, P.O. Box 308, Greenfield Center, NY 12833. Agent—Barbara Kouts Agency, P.O. Box 560, Bellport, NY 11713. E-mail—nudatlog@earthlink.net.

Career

Keta Secondary School, Ghana, West Africa, teacher of English and literature, 1966–69; Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, instructor in creative writing and African and black literatures, 1969–73; University without Walls, coordinator of college program at Great Meadow Correctional Facility, 1974–81; writer and storyteller, 1981–. Greenfield Review Press, Greenfield Center, NY, publisher and editor of Greenfield Review, beginning 1969; Greenfield Review Literary Center, di-rector, 1981–; musician with Dawn Land Singers, recording stories and music on Abenaki Cultural Heritage and Alnobak, Good Mind Records. Member of adjunct faculty at Hamilton College, 1983, 1985, 1987, and State University of New York—Albany, 1987–88; storyteller-in-residence at CRC Institute for Arts in Education, 1989–90, and at other institutions, including Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute, St. Regis Mohawk Indian School, Seneca Nation School, Onondaga Indian School, Institute of Alaska Native Arts, and Annsville Youth Facility; featured storyteller at festivals and conferences; presents workshops, poetry readings, and storytelling programs. Print Center, member of board of directors, 1975–78; Returning the Gift, national chairperson, 1992; judge of competitions, including PEN Prison Writing Awards, 1977, National Book Award for Translation, 1983, and National Book Award for Poetry, 1995; past member of literature panels, Massachusetts Arts Council, Vermont State Arts Council, Illinois Arts Council, and Ohio Arts Council.

Member

Poetry Society of America, PEN, National Storytelling Association (member of board of directors, 1992–94), Native Writers Circle of the Americas (chairperson, 1992–95), Wordcraft Circle of Native Writers and Storytellers, Hudson Valley Writers Guild, Black Crow Network.

Awards, Honors

Poetry fellow, Creative Artists Public Service, 1973, 1982; fellow, National Endowment for the Arts, 1974; editors' fellow, Coordinating Council of Literary Magazines, 1980; Rockefeller fellow, 1982; PEN Syndicated Fiction Award, 1983; American Book Award, 1984, for Breaking Silence; Yaddo residency, 1984, 1985; Cherokee Nation Prose Award, 1986; fellow, New York State Council on the Arts, 1986; Benjamin Franklin Audio Award, Publishers Marketing Association, 1992, for The Boy Who Lived with the Bears, and Person of the Year Award, 1993; Hope S. Dean Memorial Award for Notable Achievement in Children's Literature, 1993; Mountains and Plains Award, 1995, for A Boy Called Slow; Knickerbocker Award, 1995; Paterson Children's Book Award, 1996, for Dog People; Boston Globe/Horn Book Honor Award, 1996, for The Boy Who Lived with the Bears; Writer of the Year Award, and Storyteller of the Year Award, Wordcraft Circle of Native Writers and Storytellers, both 1998; Lifetime Achievement Award, Native Writers Circle of the Americas, 1999; Independent Publishers Outstanding Book of the Year designation, 2003, for Our Stories Remember; Parent's Choice Award; Skipping Stones Honor Award for Multicultural Children's Literature; Virginia Hamilton Literary Award, 2005.

Writings

RETELLER; FOLK-TALE COLLECTIONS

Turkey Brother and Other Iroquois Folk Tales, Crossing Press (Trumansburg, NY), 1975.

Stone Giants and Flying Heads: Adventure Stories of the Iroquois, Crossing Press (Trumansburg, NY), 1978.

Iroquois Stories: Heroes and Heroines, Monsters and Magic, Crossing Press (Trumansburg, NY), 1985.

The Wind Eagle, Bowman Books, 1985.

The Faithful Hunter and Other Abenaki Stories, Bowman Books, 1988.

Return of the Sun: Native American Tales from the Eastern Woodlands, Crossing Press (Trumansburg, NY), 1990.

Native American Stories, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1991.

Hoop Snakes, Hide-Behinds, and Sidehill Winders, Crossing Press (Trumansburg, NY), 1991.

(With Jonathan London) Thirteen Moons on Turtle's Back: A Native American Year of Moons, Philomel (New York, NY), 1992.

Flying with the Eagle, Racing the Great Bear: Stories from Native North America, Bridgewater (New York, NY), 1993.

Native American Animal Stories, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1993.

The Native American Sweat Lodge, Crossing Press (Trumansburg, NY), 1993.

(With Gayle Ross) The Girl Who Married the Moon: Stories from Native North America, Bridge Water (New York, NY), 1994.

Dog People: Native Dog Stories, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1995.

Native Plant Stories, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1995.

The Boy Who Lived with the Bears, and Other Iroquois Stories, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 1995.

Between Earth and Sky: Legends of Native-American Sacred Places, illustrated by Thomas Locker, Harcourt (San Diego, CA), 1996.

The Circle of Thanks, Bridge Water (New York, NY), 1996.

Four Ancestors: Stories, Songs, and Poems, Bridge Water (New York, NY), 1996.

(Reteller, with son, James Bruchac) When the Chenoo Howls: Native-American Tales of Terror, illustrated by William Sauts Netamu'xwe Bock, Walker (New York, NY), 1998.

(With James Bruchac) Native American Games and Stories, illustrated by Kayeri Akwek, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 2000.

Foot of the Mountain and Other Stories, Holy Cow! Press (Duluth, MN), 2002.

PICTURE BOOKS

(Reteller) The First Strawberries, illustrated by Anna Vojtech, Dial (New York, NY), 1993.

Fox Song, illustrated by Paul Morin, Philomel (New York, NY), 1993.

(Reteller) The Great Ball Game, illustrated by Susan L. Roth, Dial (New York, NY), 1994.

A Boy Called Slow: The True Story of Sitting Bull, illustrated by Rocco Baviera, Philomel (New York, NY), 1995.

Gluskabe and the Four Wishes, illustrated by Christine Shrader, Cobblehill Books (Boston, MA), 1995.

(With Gayle Ross) The Story of the Milky Way, illustrated by Virginia A. Stroud, Dial (New York, NY), 1995.

The Maple Thanksgiving, illustrated by Anna Vojtech, Celebration (Nobleboro, ME), 1996.

(With Melissa Fawcett) Makiawisug: Gift of the Little People, Little People (Warsaw, IN), 1997.

Many Nations: An Alphabet of Native America, Troll Publications (Mahwah, NJ), 1997.

Crazy Horse's Vision, illustrated by S.D. Nelson, Lee & Low Books (New York, NY), 2000.

Squanto's Journey: The Story of the First Thanksgiving, illustrated by Greg Shed, Silver Whistle (San Diego, CA), 2000.

(Reteller, with James Bruchac) How Chipmunk Got His Stripes, illustrated by José Aruego and Ariane Dewey, Dial (New York, NY), 2001.

Seasons of the Circle: A Native-American Year, illustrated by Robert F. Goetzel, BridgeWater (New York, NY), 2002.

(Reteller, with James Bruchac) Turtle's Race with Beaver: A Traditional Seneca Story, illustrated by José Aruego and Ariane Dewey, Dial Books for Young Readers (New York, NY), 2003.

(Reteller, with James Bruchac) Raccoon's Last Race: A Traditional Abenaki Story, illustrated by José Aruego and Ariane Dewey, Dial Books for Young Readers (New York, NY), 2004.

FICTION; FOR CHILDREN

Children of the Longhouse, Dial (New York, NY), 1996.

Eagle Song (chapter book), Dial (New York, NY), 1997.

The Arrow over the Door (chapter book), illustrated by James Watling, Dial (New York, NY), 1998.

The Heart of a Chief, Dial (New York, NY), 1998.

Sacajawea: The Story of Bird Woman and the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Silver Whistle (San Diego, CA), 2000.

Skeleton Man, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 2001.

The Journal of Jesse Smoke: A Cherokee Boy ("My Name Is America" series), Scholastic (New York, NY), 2001.

The Winter People, Dial (New York, NY), 2002.

Pocahontas (young-adult novel), Silver Whistle (Orlando, FL), 2003.

Hidden Roots (novel), Scholastic (New York, NY), 2004.

Dark Pond, illustrated by Sally Wern Comport, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 2004.

Whisper in the Dark, illustrated by Sally Wern Comport, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 2005.

Code Talker: A Novel about the Navajo Marines of World War II (young-adult novel), Dial Books (New York, NY), 2005.

Wabi: A Hero's Tale (young-adult novel), Dial (New York, NY), 2006.

Geronimo (young-adult novel), Scholastic (New York, NY), 2006.

The Return of Skeleton Man, illustrated by Sally Wern Comport, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 2006.

FICTION; FOR ADULTS

The Road to Black Mountain (short stories), Thorp Springs Press (Austin, TX), 1976.

The Dreams of Jesse Brown (short stories), Cold Mountain Press, 1978.

The White Moose (short stories), Blue Cloud Quarterly, 1988.

Turtle Meat, and Other Stories (short stories), Holy Cow! Press (Minneapolis, MN), 1992.

Dawn Land (novel), Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1993.

Long River (sequel to Dawn Land), Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1995.

The Waters Between: A Novel of the Dawn Land, University Press of New England (Hanover, NH), 1998.

POETRY

Indian Mountain, Ithaca House (Ithaca, NY), 1971.

The Buffalo in the Syracuse Zoo, Greenfield Review Press (Greenfield Center, NY), 1972.

Great Meadow, Dustbooks (Paradise, CA), 1973.

The Manabozho, Blue Cloud Quarterly, 1973.

Flow, Cold Mountain Press, 1975.

This Earth Is a Drum, Cold Mountain Press, 1976.

There Are No Trees inside the Prison, Blackberry Press, 1978.

Mu'ndu Wi Go, Blue Cloud Quarterly, 1978.

Entering Onondaga, Cold Mountain Press, 1978.

The Good Message of Handsome Lake, Unicorn Press (Greensboro, NC), 1979.

Translators' Son, Cross-Cultural Communications (Merrick, NY), 1980.

Ancestry, Great Raven (Fort Kent, ME), 1981.

Remembering the Dawn, Blue Cloud Quarterly, 1983.

Walking with My Sons, Landlocked Press, 1985.

Tracking, Ion Books, 1985.

Near the Mountains, White Pine (Buffalo, NY), 1986.

Langes Gedachtnis/Long Memory, OBEMA (Osnabruck, Germany), 1988.

The Earth under Sky Bear's Feet, illustrated by Thomas Locker, Philomel (New York, NY), 1995.

No Borders, Holy Cow! Press (Duluth, MN), 1999.

Above the Line, West End Press (Albuquerque, NM), 2003.

NONFICTION

The Poetry of Pop, Dustbooks (Paradise, CA), 1973.

How to Start and Sustain a Literary Magazine, Provision (Austin, TX), 1980.

Survival This Way: Interviews with American Indian Poets, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987.

(With Michael Caduto) Keepers of the Earth: Native American Stories and Environmental Activities for Children, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1989.

(With Michael Caduto) Keepers of the Animals: Native American Stories and Wildlife Activities for Children, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1990.

(With Michael Caduto) Keepers of the Night: Native American Stories and Nocturnal Activities for Children, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1994.

(With Michael Caduto) Keepers of Life: Discovering Plants through Native American Stories and Earth Activities for Children, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1994.

Native Wisdom, HarperSanFrancisco (San Francisco, CA), 1995.

Roots of Survival: Native American Storytelling and the Sacred, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1996.

(With Michael Caduto) Native American Gardening, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 1996.

Bowman's Store (autobiography), Dial (New York, NY), 1997.

Lasting Echoes: An Oral History of Native American People, Harcourt (New York, NY), 1997.

Tell Me a Tale: A Book about Storytelling, Harcourt (New York, NY), 1997.

Buffalo Boy (biography), illustrated by Baviera, Silver Whistle Books (San Diego, CA), 1998.

Seeing the Circle (autobiography), photographs by John Christian Fine, R.C. Owen (Katonah, NY), 1999.

The Trail of Tears (chapter book), illustrated by Diana Magnuson, Random House (New York, NY), 1999.

Trails of Tears, Paths of Beauty, National Geographic Society (Washington, DC), 2000.

Navajo Long Walk: The Tragic Story of a Proud People's Forced March from Their Homeland, illustrated by Shonto Begay, National Geographic Society (Washington, DC), 2002.

Our Stories Remember: American Indian History, Culture, and Values through Storytelling, Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 2003.

Jim Thorpe's Bright Path (biography; for children), illustrated by S.D. Nelson, Lee & Low Books (New York, NY), 2004.

(With James Bruchac) Rachel Carson: Preserving a Sense of Wonder (biography; for children), Fulcrum Press (Golden, CO), 2004.

At the Edge of Ridge Road (memoir), Milkweed (Minneapolis, MN), 2005.

Jim Thorpe: The Original All-American (biography; for children), Dial (New York, NY), 2006.

OTHER

Pushing up the Sky: Seven Native American Plays for Children, illustrated by Teresa Flavin, Dial (New York, NY), 2000.

Also editor of anthologies, including The Last Stop: Prison Writings from Comstock Prison, 1973; Words from the House of the Dead: Prison Writing from Soledad, 1974; Aftermath: Poetry in English from Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean, 1977; The Next World: Thirty-two Third World American Poets, 1978; Songs from Turtle Island: Thirty-two American Indian Poets, [Yugoslavia], 1982; Songs from This Earth on Turtle's Back: Contemporary American Indian Poetry, 1983; Breaking Silence: Contemporary Asian-American Poets, 1983; The Light from Another Country: Poetry from American Prisons, 1984; North Country: An Anthology of Contemporary Writing from the Adirondacks and the Upper Hudson Valley, 1986; New Voices from the Longhouse: Contemporary Iroquois Writing, 1989; Raven Tells Stories: Contemporary Alaskan Native Writing, 1990; Singing of Earth, 1993; Returning the Gift, 1994; Smoke Rising, 1995; and Native Wisdom, 1995. Audiotapes include Iroquois Stories, Alnobak, Adirondack Tall Tales, and Abenaki Cultural Heritage, all Good Mind Records; and Gluskabe Stories, Yellow Moon Press. Work represented in more than a hundred anthologies, including Carriers of the Dream Wheel; Come to Power; For Neruda, for Chile; New Worlds of Literature; Paris Review Anthology, and Sports Shorts: An Anthology of Short Stories, 2005. Contributor of more than three hundred stories, poems, articles, and reviews to magazines, including American Poetry Review, Akwesasne Notes, Beloit Poetry Journal, Chariton Review, Kalliope, Mid-American Review, Nation, Poetry Northwest, River Styx, and Virginia Quarterly Review. Editor, Trojan Horse, 1964, Greenfield Review, 1969–87, Prison Writing Review, 1976–85, and Studies in American Indian Literature, 1989–. Member of editorial board, Cross-Cultural Communications, Parabola, Storytelling Journal, MELUS, and Obsidian. Translator from Abenaki, Ewe, Iroquois, and Spanish.

Adaptations

Several of Bruchac's books have been recorded on audiocassette, including Keepers of the Earth, Keepers of the Animals, Keepers of Life, and Dawn Land, all released by Fulcrum; and The Boy Who Lived with the Bears, released by Caedmon/Parabola.

Sidelights

According to Publishers Weekly contributor Sybil Steinberg, Joseph Bruchac ranks as "perhaps the best-known contemporary Native American storyteller." Bruchac draws on his heritage for his critically acclaimed collections, including Flying with the Eagle, Racing the Great Bear: Stories from Native North America and The Girl Who Married the Moon: Stories from Native North America. These stories also influence Bruchac's novels, such as Dawn Land and its sequels Long Land and The Waters Between: A Novel of the Dawn Land, a series about the Abenaki living in the American northeast prior to the arrival of Columbus. "His stories," Steinberg concluded, "are often poignant, funny, ironic—and sometimes all three at once." In addition to his original novels, picture books, poetry, and nonfiction, Bruchac's work as an editor and publisher has brought many other acclaimed Native American authors into the public eye. He published early books by Leslie Marmon Silko and Linda Hogan, whose voices have since become well known in the field of Native-American literature. He is also a nationally known live storyteller, and his performances have been recorded on audiocassette.

Dawn Land, Bruchac's first novel, introduces readers to the character of Young Hunter, and in 1995's Long River, Young Hunter's adventures continue as he battles a wooly mammoth and an evil giant. In Dawn Land and Long River, as well as the concluding novel The Waters Between Bruchac incorporates actual myths from his own Abenaki heritage. His children's stories, like his novels, entertain and educate young readers by interweaving Native American history and myth. The biography A Boy Called Slow, for example, recounts the story of the Lakota boy who would grow up to become Sitting Bull. Bruchac's ability to "gently correct" stereotypes of Native-American culture was noted by Carolyn Polese in School Library Journal. In The Great Ball Game he relates the importance of ball games in Native-American tradition as a substitute for war, tying neatly together history and ethics lessons in "an entertaining tale," commented Polese. He combines several versions of a Native-American tale in Gluskabe and the Four Wishes.

Bruchac writes prolifically in several genres, including fiction, poetry, and nonfiction. Several of his nonfiction titles for adults explain the value of storytelling. In Our Stories Remember: American Indian History, Culture, and Values through Storytelling he relates stories from many different Native-American nations to illustrate their core values and culture. Writing in School Library Journal, S.K. Joiner noted that, "Part cultural lesson, part history, and part autobiography, the book contains a wealth of information," while Booklist contributor Deborah Donovan dubbed it a "thought-provoking work, enriched with valuable annotated reading lists."

Bruchac's nonfiction titles for young people include several biographies of Native Americans and pivotal figures in the environmental movement. In Rachel Carson: Preserving a Sense of Wonder he presents a biography of the author of Silent Spring, a book credited with inspiring the environmental movement in the 1960s. Writing in Booklist, Carolyn Phelan noted that "Bruchac writes lyrically about [Carson's] … love of nature, particularly the ocean, and concludes with an appreciation of her impact on the environment." The picture-book biography Jim Thorpe's Bright Path recounts the life of the famed Native-American athlete. School Library Journal contributor Liza Graybill noted that Bruchac's "theme of overcoming personal and societal obstacles to reach success is strongly expressed."

Not all of Bruchac's picture books are nonfiction; many of his books for the very young are based on traditional Native-American tales. The First Strawberries, his first picture book, is based on a Cherokee tale, while Raccoon's Last Race is a story drawn from the Abenaki tradition. The latter tale explains how Raccoon, once tall and fast, became the squat, slow creature he is today. Noting that Raccoon's Last Race is one of several collaborations between Bruchac, his son, James Bruchac, and husband-and-wife illustration team José Aruego and Ariane Dewey, a Kirkus Reviews contributor noted: "Readers will hope this foursome keeps on rolling." Horn Book reviewer Kitty Flynn noted that "the Bruchacs' well-paced retelling is alive with sound,… making the story well suited for reading aloud."

In The Dark Pond Bruchac revisits the genre he previously explored in Skeleton Man: thrillers for young readers. In The Dark Pond Arnie, a half-Shawnee student at an all-white prep school, is drawn to a mysterious dark pool in the woods. He senses that something is lurking there, and his fears are confirmed when he discovers that Native-American groundskeeper Mitch Sabattis believes a gigantic worm lives in the pond and is determined to kill the creature. Arnie, remembering the traditional tales of his family, decides to do what he can to help slay this monster. "This is a creepy, fast-moving tale that will appeal to fans of horror stories, with a message about self-discovery neatly tucked in as well," wrote Paula Rohrlick in Kliatt. B. Allison Gray noted in School Library Journal that Bruchac's "eerie story skillfully entwines Native American lore, suspense, and the realization that people are not always what they seem." Whisper in the Dark wraps Narragansett legend around an all-too-real modern danger as Maddie confronts the mystery of a seemingly supernatural stalker. "Bruchac interweaves suspense with Indian folklore endlessly," commented Claire Rosser in Kliatt, while Wendi Hof-fenberg wrote in School Library Journal that "Maddi's narration is swirl and spare, creating a mood of terror tempered by Narragansett words and chants of courage."

Bruchac draws on history for many of his novels. His young-adult novel Code Talker: A Novel about the Na-vajo Marines of World War II, for example, gives readers an inside perspective on the role Navajo Marines played in sending vital encoded messages during World War II. Told from the perspective of sixteen-year-old Ned Begay, who is technically too young to be in the military, the story reveals how the Navajo language, once a tongue the U.S. government attempted to eliminate, was now valued highly by the U.S. military. "The narrative pulls no punches about war's brutality and never adopts an avuncular tone," noted Booklist contributor Carolyn Phelan. As Kliatt reviewer Paula Rohr-lick commented, "readers unfamiliar with the fascinating story of the code talkers will come away impressed by their achievements." In Geronimo, Bruchac relates the story of the famous Native-American leader through the eyes of the man's adopted grandson. "Fans of history, or of themes of survival and freedom, will find it fascinating—certainly different from other fare about the man," wrote Nina Lindsay in School Library Journal.

Other novels by Bruchac draw solely on legend. Wabi: A Hero's Tale is the story of an owl who learns a secret about his people: he can shape shift and take human form. He falls in love with a local tribal woman, but her people banish him when they discover his true identity. In order to save his love's people, he must go on a dangerous quest. "Bruchac's storytelling skills are on full display in this tale," wrote a Publishers Weekly contributor. Lisa Prolman, in School Library Journal, suggested: "Give this novel to … anyone who enjoys reading about journeys of self-discovery," while a critic for Kirkus Reviews maintained that "readers won't be able to turn the pages fast enough."

"I was born in 1942, in Saratoga Springs, New York, during October, that month the Iroquois call the Moon of Falling Leaves," Bruchac once told SATA. "My writing and my interests reflect my mixed ancestry, Slovak on one side and Native American (Abenaki) and English on the other. Aside from attending Cornell University and Syracuse and three years of teaching in West Africa, I've lived all of my life in the small Adirondack foothills town of Greenfield Center in a house built by my grandfather.

"Much of my writing and my life relates to the problem of being an American. While in college I was active in civil rights work and in the anti-war movement…. I went to Africa to teach—but more than that, to be taught. It showed me many things. How much we have as Americans and take for granted. How much our eyes refuse to see because they are blinded to everything in a man's face except his color. And, most importantly, how human people are everywhere—which may be the one grace that can save us all.

"I write poetry, fiction, and some literary criticism and have been fortunate enough to receive recognition in all three areas. After returning from Ghana in 1969, my wife, Carol, and I started the Greenfield Review and the Greenfield Review Press. Since 1975, I've been actively involved in storytelling, focusing on northeastern Native-American tales and the songs and traditions of the Adirondack Mountains of upstate New York, and I am frequently a featured performer at storytelling gatherings. I've also done a great deal of work in teaching and helping start writing workshops in American prisons. I believe that poetry is as much a part of human beings as is breath—and that, like breath, poetry links us to all other living things and is meant to be shared.

"My writing is informed by several key sources. One of these is nature, another is the Native-American experience (I'm part Indian)…. I like to work outside, in the earthmother's soil, with my hands … but maintain my life as an academic for a couple of reasons: it gives me time to write (sometimes) and it gives me a chance to share my insights into the beautiful and all-too-fragile world of human life and living things we have been granted. Which is one of the reasons I write—not to be a man apart, but to share."

In an interview with Eliza T. Dresang on the Cooperative Children's Book Center Web site, Bruchac noted that he does not expect to run out of things to write about. He told Dresang: "The last thirty years of my life in particular have been blessed with so many … experiences and by the generosity of so many Native people who have shared their stories and their understanding of their land with me that I know I can never live long enough to share everything I've learned. But I'll try."

Biographical and Critical Sources

PERIODICALS

Alaska, December, 1992, p. 74.

Albany Times Union, June 1, 1980.

Booklist, February 15, 1993, p. 1075; July, 1993, p. 1969; October 15, 1993, p. 397; November 15, 1993, p. 632; December 15, 1993, p. 749; August, 1994, p. 2017; September, 1994, p. 55; October 15, 1994, p. 377; December 15, 1994, p. 756; September 1, 1997, p. 69; September 15, 1997, pp. 234, 237; December 5, 1997, p. 688; February 15, 1998; October 1, 2002, Heather Hepler, review of Seasons of the Circle: A Native-American Year, p. 316, and GraceAnne A. DeCandido, review of The Winter People, p. 322; April 15, 2003, Deborah Donovan, review of Our Stories Remember: American Indian History, Culture, and Values through Storytelling, p. 1444; September 15, 2003, John Peters, review of Turtle's Race with Beaver, p. 244, and Ed Sullivan, review of Pocahontas, p. 229; July, 2004, Carolyn Phelan, review of Rachel Carson: Preserving a Sense of Wonder, p. 1838; August, 2004, Todd Morning, review of The Dark Pond, p. 1932, and Stephanie Zvirin, review of Jim Thorpe's Bright Path, p. 1938; February 15, 2005, Carolyn Phelan, review of Code Talker: A Novel about the Navajo Marines of World War II, p. 1078; September 1, 2005, Holly Koelling, review of Whisper in the Dark, p. 131; November 15, 2005, Anna Rich, audiobook review of Crazy Horse's Vision, p. 64; March 15, 2006, GraceAnne A. DeCan-dido, review of Geronimo, p. 43.

Bulletin, April, 1995, p. 265.

English Journal, January, 1996, p. 87.

Horn Book, January-February, 1994, p. 60; March-April, 1994, p. 209; November-December, 1994, p. 738; March-April, 1995, p. 203; September-October, 1995, p. 617; January-February, 2005, Kitty Flynn, review of Raccoon's Last Race, p. 102.

Kirkus Reviews, March 15, 1996, p. 445; May 1, 1996, p. 685; December 1, 1996, p. 1734; January 1, 2004, review of Hidden Roots, p. 34; October 15, 2004, review of Raccoon's Last Race, p. 1002; January 15, 2005, review of Code Talker, p. 117; July 1, 2005, review of Whisper in the Dark, p. 732; September, 2005, Paula Rohrlick, review of The Dark Pond, p. 25; February 1, 2006, review of Wabi: A Hero's Tale, p. 128.

Kliatt, July, 2004, Paula Rohrlick, review of The Dark Pond, p. 7; March, 2005, Paula Rohrlick, review of Code Talker, p. 8; July, 2005, Claire Rosser, review of Whisper in the Dark, p. 8; January, 2006, Edna Board-man, review of Foot of the Mountain, and Other Stories, p. 26; March, 2006, Paula Rohrlick, review of Geronimo, p. 6.

Publishers Weekly, March 15, 1993, p. 68; June 28, 1993, p. 76; July 19, 1993, pp. 254, 255; August 29, 1994, p. 79; January 9, 1995, p. 64; July 31, 1995, p. 68; July 14, 1997, p. 83; September 8, 1997, p. 78; November 24, 1997, p. 75; May 31, 2004, review of Jim Thorpe's Bright Path, p. 76; May 1, 2006, review of Wabi, p. 64.

School Library Journal, March, 1993, p. 161; August, p. 205; September, 1993, pp. 222, 238; February, 1994, p. 78; November, 1994, p. 112; December, p. 96; February, 1995, p. 104; October, 1995, Carolyn Polese, review of A Boy Called Slow, p. 145; July, 2002, Anne Chapman Callaghan, review of Navajo Long Walk: The Tragic Story of a Proud People's Forced March from Their Homeland, p. 131; November, 2002, Rita Soltan, review of The Winter People, p. 154; July, 2003, S.K. Joiner, review of Our Stories Remember, p. 155; February, 2004, Alison Follos, review of Hidden Roots, p. 141; May, 2004, Sean George, review of Pocahontas, p. 140; June, 2004, Liza Graybill, review of Jim Thorpe's Bright Path, p. 124; August, 2004, B. Allison Gray, review of The Dark Pond, p. 115; December, 2004, Catherine Threadgill, review of Raccoon's Last Race, p. 127; February, 2005, B. Allison Gray, audiobook review of Skeleton Man, p. 75; May, 2005, Patricia Manning, review of Code Talker, p. 24; August, 2005, review of Code Talker, p. 50, and Wendi Hoffenberg, review of Whisper in the Dark, p. 121; October, 2005, review of Code Talker, p. S67; November, 2005, Alison Follos, review of Sports Shorts: An Anthology of Short Stories, p. 128; April, 2006, Lisa Prolman, review of Wabi, and Nina Lindsay, review of Geronimo, both p. 134.

Silver Whistle, spring-summer, 2000, p. 67.

Teacher Librarian, February, 2005, Betty Winslow, review of The Journal of Jesse Smoke, p. 14.

Voice Literary Supplement, November, 1991, p. 27.

Voice of Youth Advocates, February, 2006, Tracy Piombo, review of At the End of Ridge Road, p. 508.

Wilson Library Bulletin, June, 1993, p. 103; September, 1993, p. 87; April, 1995, p. 110.

ONLINE

Children's Literature Web site, http://www.childrenslit.com/ (June 22, 2006).

Cooperative Children's Book Center Web site, http://www.education.wisc.edu/ccbc/ (October 22, 1999), Eliza T. Dresang, interview with Bruchac.

Joseph Bruchac Home Page, http://www.josephbruchac.com (June 22, 2006).

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"Bruchac, Joseph 1942–." Something About the Author. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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