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Morris, Roger

Morris, Roger (1695–1749). London-born architect, an important figure in the history of Palladianism, the Gothic Revival, and Castle style. A kinsman of Robert Morris, he was associated with Colen Campbell and Henry Herbert, 9th Earl of Pembroke, functioning as the last's amanuensis and interpreter of his architectural designs. He appears to have assisted Campbell, notably on the designs for Goodwood House, Sussex, before collaborating with Herbert on a number of projects including Marble Hill, Twickenham, Mddx (1724–9), the White Lodge, Richmond New Park (1727–8), the Column of Victory, Blenheim Palace, Oxon. (1730–1), the Palladian Bridge at Wilton, Wilts. (1736–7), and Westcombe House, Blackheath, Kent (c.1730—demolished). He enlarged Adderbury House, Oxon. (1831), for the 2nd Duke of Argyll (1678–1743), designed the stable-block at Althorp House, Northants. (c.1732–3), with a Tuscan portico based on Inigo Jones's St Paul's, Covent Garden, London (itself derived from Palladio), and produced his masterpiece, Inveraray Castle, Argyll (1745–60), for the 3rd Duke of Argyll (1682–1761). Earlier, he built Clearwell Castle, Glos. (c.1728) in a castellated Gothic style, but Inveraray was the precedent for a series of symmetrical Georgian ‘castles’, and may itself be derived from a sketch by Vanbrugh.

Bibliography

Colvin (1995);
E. Kaufmann (1955);
L&C (1973);
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004);
Summerson (ed.) (1993)

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Morris, Roger

Roger Morris, 1727–94, Loyalist in the American Revolution, b. Yorkshire, England. He came (1755) to America as aide-de-camp to Gen. Edward Braddock and fought under James Wolfe at Quebec. After his service in the British army he settled (1764) in New York City with his wife, Mary Philipse. They lived in the famous Morris Mansion (later the Jumel Mansion). At the outbreak of the American Revolution, Morris was sympathetic to the British but refused to fight against the patriots. His wife, Mary Philipse Morris, 1730–1825, inherited her wealth from her father, Frederick Philipse. Handsome and imperious, she is said to have attracted numerous suitors, among them George Washington. After her marriage (1758) her property holdings—including a large estate in Putnam co., N.Y.—were passed on to Roger Morris. Soon after the outbreak of the American Revolution the family's property was confiscated by an act of attainder of the New York state legislature. Subsequently, she left (1783) for England with her husband and four children. Her heirs (who by Mary Philipse's marriage settlement had a right to those estates and had not themselves been attainted) sold their reversionary interests to John Jacob Astor for £20,000. To this the British government added £17,000 in compensation for Morris's losses incurred by New York state's confiscation.

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