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Palladianism

Palladianism. Classical style based on the architecture of the C16 Italian architect Andrea Palladio, disseminated primarily by his Quattro Libri dell'Architettura (The Four Books of Architecture—1570), which contained illustrations of his designs, described them and his ideas, and promoted his work. The first Palladian Revival was instigated by Inigo Jones in England in the reigns of James I and VI (1603–25) and Charles I (1625–49), having studied Palladio's buildings in Vicenza and its vicinity in 1613–14 as well as his publications, notably Le antichità di Roma (1554). Key buildings were the Queen's House, Greenwich (1616–35), the Banqueting House, Whitehall, London (1619–22), and the Queen's Chapel, St James's (1623–5). Certain features derived from Palladio's buildings appeared in the works of van Campen in The Netherlands (e.g. the plan reminiscent of Italian villas at the Mauritshuis, The Hague (1633–5)), and Holl in Germany (e.g. the restrained severity of the Town Hall, Augsburg (1615–20)), but the main source for these architects seems to have been Scamozzi. The second Palladian Revival of the early C18 began in Venetia (where it was evident in ecclesiastical and secular buildings) and in England (where it was mostly overt in domestic architecture, especially the grand country-house). The key figures of the English Revival were Colen Campbell and Lord Burlington, who also promoted a reappraisal of the first Revival led by Jones. As the high-priest of English Palladianism, Burlington not only designed exemplary buildings but promoted the interests of architects sympathetic to the cause and encouraged publications that established the architectural vocabulary and language that were to dominate (even tyrannize) taste for most of the century. Important in disseminating such elements as the temple-front and the serliana were Vitruvius Britannicus (1715–25) and Leoni's The Architecture of A. Palladio (1715–20) which remained the standard text-book until Ware's more scholarly tome of 1738. English Palladian ideals were exported, notably to Prussia (Knobelsdorff's Opera House on the Unter den Linden, Berlin (from 1741—based on Campbell's Wanstead House, Essex), was a fine example, although, influenced by Algarotti, Potsdam acquired variants on the Palazzi Thiene and Valmarana in 1750), Anhalt (Erdmannsdorff's Schloss Wörlitz (1769–73— very similar to L. Brown and Holland's Claremont House, Esher, Surrey)), Russia (the architecture of Cameron and Quarenghi), and the USA (the influence of Jefferson).

Bibliography

Ackerman (1966, 1967);
Boucher (1998);
J. Harris (1981, 1994);
Köster (1990);
Palladio (1570, 1965, 1997);
Parissien (1994);
Rykwert (1999);
Summerson (ed.) (1993);
Tavernor (1991);
Whitehill & and F. Nichols (1976);
Wittkower (1974a, 1998);
Worsley (1995)

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"Palladianism." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Palladianism." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 23, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/palladianism

"Palladianism." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved October 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/palladianism

Palladianism

Palladianism. A simple, harmonious, classical style of architecture derived from the works of Andrea Palladio, the Italian Renaissance architect. The first British architect to employ this style was Inigo Jones, designer to James I and Charles I. Little of his work survived the Civil War, but the Queen's House at Greenwich and the Banqueting House in Whitehall remained as ideals of classicism. The great revival of British Palladianism came during the first half of the 18th cent. with Colen Campbell, Richard Boyle ( Lord Burlington), and William Kent. Campbell, the architect of Houghton Hall (Norfolk), the home of Robert Walpole, published his Vitruvius Britannicus in 1715, in reaction to the baroque style of Vanbrugh and Hawksmoor. He inspired Lord Burlington, described by Horace Walpole as ‘The Apollo of arts’, who commissioned Campbell to remodel Burlington House in London (1718–19). With William Kent, his protégé, friend, and collaborator, Burlington was responsible, as architect, patron, and arbiter of taste, for the development of English neo-classicism in the 18th cent. His designs include Chiswick House (London) with interiors by Kent and his masterpiece, the Assembly Rooms in York.

June Cochrane

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"Palladianism." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Palladian

Palladian of, relating to, or denoting the neoclassical style of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–80), who led a revival of classical architecture, in particular promoting the Roman ideals of harmonic proportions and symmetrical planning. Palladian is used in particular with reference to the phase of English architecture from c.1715, when there was a revival of interest in Palladio and his English follower, Inigo Jones, and a reaction against the baroque.

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Palladianism

Palladianism Architectural style especially popular in England, derived from the work of Andrea Palladio. Based on Roman Classicism, it emphasized symmetrical planning and harmonic proportions. Inigo Jones introduced Palladianism to England after visiting Italy. There was a revival of interest in Palladianism in the early 18th century. See also neo-classicism

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"Palladianism." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Palladianism." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved October 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/palladianism

Palladian

Palladian pert. to the school of the It. architect Antonio Palladio (1518–80), who imitated ancient Roman architecture. XVIII. See -IAN.

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"Palladian." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Palladian." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved October 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/palladian-1

Palladian

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Tennysonian, Tobagonian, Washingtonian •Cameroonian, communion, Mancunian, Neptunian, Réunion, union •Hibernian, Saturnian •Campion, champion, Grampian, rampion, tampion •thespian • Mississippian • Olympian •Crispian •Scorpian, scorpion •cornucopian, dystopian, Ethiopian, Salopian, subtopian, Utopian •Guadeloupian •Carian, carrion, clarion, Marian •Calabrian, Cantabrian •Cambrian • Bactrian •Lancastrian, Zoroastrian •Alexandrian • Maharashtrian •equestrian, pedestrian •agrarian, antiquarian, apiarian, Aquarian, Arian, Aryan, authoritarian, barbarian, Bavarian, Bulgarian, Caesarean (US Cesarean), centenarian, communitarian, contrarian, Darien, disciplinarian, egalitarian, equalitarian, establishmentarian, fruitarian, Gibraltarian, grammarian, Hanoverian, humanitarian, Hungarian, latitudinarian, libertarian, librarian, majoritarian, millenarian, necessarian, necessitarian, nonagenarian, octogenarian, ovarian, Parian, parliamentarian, planarian, predestinarian, prelapsarian, proletarian, quadragenarian, quinquagenarian, quodlibetarian, Rastafarian, riparian, rosarian, Rotarian, sabbatarian, Sagittarian, sanitarian, Sauveterrian, sectarian, seminarian, septuagenarian, sexagenarian, topiarian, totalitarian, Trinitarian, ubiquitarian, Unitarian, utilitarian, valetudinarian, vegetarian, veterinarian, vulgarian •Adrian, Hadrian •Assyrian, Illyrian, Syrian, Tyrian •morion • Austrian •Dorian, Ecuadorean, historian, Hyperborean, Nestorian, oratorian, praetorian (US pretorian), salutatorian, Salvadorean, Singaporean, stentorian, Taurean, valedictorian, Victorian •Ugrian • Zarathustrian •Cumbrian, Northumbrian, Umbrian •Algerian, Cancerian, Chaucerian, Cimmerian, criterion, Hesperian, Hitlerian, Hyperion, Iberian, Liberian, Nigerian, Presbyterian, Shakespearean, Siberian, Spenserian, Sumerian, valerian, Wagnerian, Zairean •Arthurian, Ben-Gurion, centurion, durian, holothurian, Khachaturian, Ligurian, Missourian, Silurian, tellurian •Circassian, Parnassian •halcyon • Capsian • Hessian •Albigensian, Waldensian •Dacian • Keatsian •Cilician, Galician, Lycian, Mysian, Odyssean •Leibnizian • Piscean • Ossian •Gaussian • Joycean • Andalusian •Mercian • Appalachian • Decian •Ordovician, Priscian •Lucian •himation, Montserratian •Atlantean, Dantean, Kantian •bastion, Erastian, Sebastian •Mozartian • Brechtian • Thyestean •Fortean • Faustian • protean •Djiboutian •fustian, Procrustean •Gilbertian, Goethean, nemertean •pantheon •Hogarthian, Parthian •Lethean, Promethean •Pythian • Corinthian • Scythian •Lothian, Midlothian •Latvian • Yugoslavian •avian, Batavian, Flavian, Moldavian, Moravian, Octavian, Scandinavian, Shavian •Bolivian, Maldivian, oblivion, Vivian •Chekhovian, Harrovian, Jovian, Pavlovian •alluvion, antediluvian, diluvian, Peruvian •Servian • Malawian • Zimbabwean •Abkhazian • Dickensian •Caucasian, Malaysian, Rabelaisian •Keynesian •Belizean, Cartesian, Indonesian, Milesian, Salesian, Silesian •Elysian, Frisian, Parisian, Tunisian •Holmesian •Carthusian, Malthusian, Venusian

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