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Hyman George Rickover

Hyman George Rickover

Hyman George Rickover (1900-1986) was an officer in the U.S. Navy who played a significant and controversial role in ushering the Navy into the nuclear age. On active duty for almost 60 years, Rickover greatly influenced many nuclear power technicians who later served in the nascent military and civilian nuclear power industries.

Hyman George Rickover was born on January 27, 1900 (1898 according to school records), in the village of Makow, then in the Russian Empire, some 50 miles north of Warsaw. His father, Abraham, a tailor, emigrated to New York at the turn of the century. Around 1904 the senior Rickover sent for his family, wife Rachel (née Unger), daughter Fanny, and Hyman. Four years later they moved to the Lawndale neighborhood of Chicago, where Hyman attended public schools while working at various jobs as he grew older. He entered the U.S. Naval Academy in 1918.

Accounts of his years at Annapolis stress that he was a loner, perhaps because of anti-Semitism, but more likely because he preferred to concentrate on his studies. Commissioned an ensign in 1922, Rickover put in four years of sea duty before studying engineering at the Naval Postgraduate School. He then completed requirements for a Master's degree in electrical engineering at Columbia University in 1928. Promoted to lieutenant while at Columbia, Rickover met Ruth Masters, a student in international law and subsequently a scholar of some distinction. The two carried on a correspondence courtship and in 1931 were married by an Episcopal minister. They had one son, Robert Masters Rickover. Two years after his wife's death in 1972, Rickover married Eleonore Bednowicz, a navy nurse who retired thereafter and who survived him.

Sea Commands Elude Rickover

Accepted into submarine school in 1929, Rickover spent the next four years of his career in that branch of the navy. By the time his tour as engineer officer and then executive officer of S-48 was completed in 1933 Rickover hoped to receive command of a submarine. Instead, he did a two-year tour at a naval facility in Philadelphia, after which he served two years in engineering on the battleship New Mexico. In 1937 Rickover was promoted to lieutenant commander and given command of the antiquated minesweeper Finch. His hard-driving ways seem to have caused resentment, and he was relieved after three months.

Convinced by his assignment to Finch that his aspirations for a conventional career of command at sea would not be fulfilled, Rickover had already requested a transfer to the status of "Engineering Duty Only." Since 1916 the navy had officially differentiated between unrestricted line officers and EDO officers. Line officers were trained to command ships, being rotated to a variety of duties at sea and on shore to familiarize them with many aspects of the navy. In contrast, an EDO officer could design, maintain, modernize, and repair ships but could not command one.

His first billet as an EDO was at the Cavite Navy Yard in the Philippines, where he spent nearly two years. From Cavite he returned to the United States for assignment to the Bureau of Engineering, consolidated with another shore establishment into the Bureau of Ships (BuShips) in 1940. The navy was expanding rapidly, and Rickover's duties as head of the Electrical Section of BuShips put him in a key post to develop and improve electrical apparatus. His style of command—which in time would become a major part of his public persona—was considered unconventional as he ignored rank among his section's personnel and thought nothing of working on Sundays and late into the evenings.

Rickover, after 1942 a (temporary) captain, appealed for duty in a combat zone and in 1945 went to Okinawa with orders to develop and operate a ship repair base. The war ended soon thereafter, and, like many other officers in a postwar navy due for retrenchment, Rickover's future was in doubt.

Father of the U.S. Nuclear Navy

Within a decade, however, Rickover was to become world-famous as the father of the nuclear navy. Although popular accounts credit Rickover alone with the founding of the nuclear navy, the idea of a nuclear-powered submarine had been batted around within the navy since 1939. His immediate superior, Admiral Earle Mills, was in favor of it, as were others. In 1946 Rickover was sent as one of a team of engineering officers to Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to learn about nuclear technology. Rickover then served as Mills' assistant for nuclear matters until 1948 when the navy made a firm commitment to develop nuclear propulsion. Rickover then received two choice assignments: head of the Nuclear Power Branch of BuShips and, in 1949, chief of the newly established Naval Reactors Branch of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC).

These dual posts gave Rickover a great deal of autonomy in that he could initiate action from either his naval billet or from his post in the civilian-run AEC chain of authority. He gathered around him a group of bright and loyal officers who worked diligently to overcome the myriad problems in harnessing a nuclear reactor for shipboard power. By the early 1950s Rickover, still a captain, had succeeded in making himself known to the media and to influential congressmen as an officer who got things done, presumably indispensable to the navy's nuclear propulsion program. Although he was twice passed over for promotion to rear admiral—meaning that by navy regulations he would have to retire—pressure from congressional leaders led the secretary of the navy to order a reconsideration of Rickover's status, and he was promoted to rear admiral in 1953. Two years later Nautilus, the world's first nuclear submarine, was launched, and Rickover was about to become a living institution, compared most frequently to J. Edgar Hoover of the Federal Bureau of Investigation as a master of bureaucratic ways.

As the navy added more nuclear submarines to the fleet, and then surface ships, Rickover was retained on active duty through a series of special two-year re-appointments that allowed him to serve long past the mandatory retirement age of 64. He was promoted to vice admiral in 1963 and a decade later to admiral. By insisting that safety considerations required him to personally approve officers of all nuclear-powered ships Rickover exerted influence far beyond his official position. As later assignments took these officers throughout the navy, Rickover's impact was felt in many quarters.

By no means was his reputation confined to the navy. His organization, with some private funding, developed the nation's first nuclear-powered electrical generating facility at Shippingport, Pennsylvania, in 1957. Rickover himself had little more to do with it following completion, but many men who learned their trade with the Naval Reactors Branch went on to become major figures in the growing nuclear power field in the 1960s. After the launching of Russia's Sputnik satellite called into doubt America's supremacy in science, Rickover for a while also gained recognition as an authority on American education. He wrote several books criticizing what he considered its shortcomings and calling for standards of excellence like those he had always imposed upon himself.

Not until 1981 was he retired from active duty, and even then he remained well-known, ironically making the news several times in 1984 when it was revealed that he had received—indeed requested—expensive gifts from many contractors he had dealt with. Regardless of those accusations—and Rickover did not deny them in their entirety—his naval career will rank as one of the most important and controversial of all time.

His detractors claim that by the 1960s Rickover had become a conservative force in the navy, hindering both innovation in submarine design and the adoption of gasturbine technology for surface ships by placing excessive emphasis on a comparatively few costly nuclear-powered ships at the expense of more numerous, less expensive, conventionally-powered ships which could perform many missions just as well. His admirers, however, were numerous and pointed to his role in ushering the navy into the nuclear age and his stress upon excellence at a time when laxness seemed to be pervading the armed forces and society as a whole. He summed up his own philosophy in the saying, "The more you sweat in peace the less you bleed in war."

Further Reading

Clay Blair, Jr.'s, The Atomic Submarine and Admiral Rickover (1954) is an interesting biography of Rickover, in part because it was written with his cooperation and because it presents an early version of what became the Rickover mystique. Other studies of Rickover, more balanced in approach, are Norman Polmar and Thomas B. Allen, Rickover (1982) and Eugene Lewis, Public Entrepreneurship: Toward a Theory of Bureaucratic Political Power (1980). For the navy's move into the nuclear age see Vincent P. Davis, Postwar Defense Policy and the U.S. Navy, 1943-46 (1962) and Richard B. Hewlett and Francis Duncan, Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962 (1974). The problem of gifts from contractors is discussed by Patrick Tyler in Running Critical: The Silent War, Rickover and General Dynamics (1986). Rickover authored several books. Perhaps the best known are the ones that deal with education: American Education (1963), Education and Freedom (1959), and Swiss Schools and Ours: Why Theirs Are Better (1962).

Additional Sources

Duncan, Francis, Rickover and the nuclear navy: the discipline of technology, Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1990.

Polmar, Norman, Rickover, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982.

Rockwell, Theodore, The Rickover effect: how one man made a difference, Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1992.

Rockwell, Theodore, The Rickover effect: the inside story of how Adm. Hyman Rickover built the nuclear Navy, New York: J. Wiley, 1995. □

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Rickover, Hyman G.

Rickover, Hyman G. (1900–1986), U.S. naval officer. Hyman George Rickover is generally known as the “father of the atomic submarine,” having been head of the U.S. Navy's nuclear submarine program from 1948 until his retirement in 1982.

Born in Makow (now Maków Mazowiecki), Poland, then a province of Czarist Russia, Rickover came to America at age four, his family settling in Chicago. A good student, he earned an appointment to the U.S. Naval Academy. Although Jewish in a highly prejudiced service, he was generally liked at the academy. (Later, would he renounce Judaism and became an Episcopalian.) He graduated in 1922 and as a young officer served in a destroyer and then a battleship. He received a postgraduate degree in electrical engineering and in 1929 entered the submarine service. Though qualified to command a submarine, Rickover was not given a command and in 1935 returned to surface ship duty.

For less than three months in 1937, he commanded a minesweeper operating in China. He then became a specialized engineering duty officer. Rickover was assigned to the Bureau of Ships in Washington, D.C., in August 1939, and remained there through World War II until mid‐1945, most of the time responsible for the electric equipment installed in navy ships.

After the war, Rickover was one of several naval officers and civilian engineers sent to Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to study nuclear energy. Returning to Washington, he was assigned to the navy's nuclear propulsion program (begun as early as 1939). On 4, August 1948, Rickover was named head of the nuclear power branch in the Bureau of Ships. The following February, he was also appointed director of naval reactors in the new Atomic Energy Commission, making him “double‐hatted” in naval terminology.

Under Rickover's direction, the navy developed the world's first nuclear propulsion plant, which was installed in the submarine Nautilus. She got underway for the first time on 3 January 1955, and in 1958 became the first ship to reach the North Pole (traveling submerged under the arctic ice pack). Rickover subsequently directed a large number of nuclear submarine and surface ship projects.

After being passed over for selection to rear admiral by navy selection boards, Rickover used the press and his congressional contacts to force his selection to rear admiral (1953). He was subsequently promoted to vice admiral (1958), and when he reached the statutory age for retirement, he was retained on active duty by order of the secretary of the navy. He was later promoted to full admiral (1973).

Rickover took exclusive control of the selection and training of all officers for nuclear‐propelled submarines and of engineers for surface ships. His interviews became notorious, often pitting a four‐star admiral against a midshipman or junior officer in his twenties. The admiral was frequently bombastic and rude as he sought to determine what made the candidate “tick.” Answerable to no one because of his support in Congress, the admiral attacked his peers when their programs threatened funding for his own; he also attacked members of the administration, seniors in the Department of Defense, and even officials of the shipyards that built the nuclear fleet.

His efforts resulted in a high degree of safety in the U.S. submarine force and, initially, a high degree of innovation as new designs and concepts were developed and innovative nuclear submarines were built. Rickover‐trained officers and enlisted men were soon in high demand by America's nuclear power industry. His close relationship with members of Congress who had submarine shipyards, submarine bases, or nuclear facilities in their states led to extensive support and funding of navy nuclear programs.

Under Rickover's direction the United States initially led the world in nuclear submarine development. However, in the 1960s, following the loss of the U.S. nuclear submarine Thresher, Rickover became increasingly conservative in his approach to submarine design. Subsequently, the Soviet Union overtook the United States in numbers of submarines and in many areas of submarine technology.

Rickover's self‐centered, petulant, and tactless attitudes earned him the contempt of many naval officers and officials of the government. After the retirement of most of his congressional supporters, the Reagan administration in 1981 ended Rickover's tenure. He left active duty on 31 January 1982 after sixty‐four years of naval service.

Rickover received numerous citations for his efforts in the field of nuclear propulsion. He was awarded a Gold Medal by Congress (1959), was the first nonengineer to receive the prestigious Enrico Fermi Award from the Atomic Energy Commission (1965), and was a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1980), as well as numerous military decorations, including the Legion of Merit for his wartime work in the Bureau of Ships. The main engineering building at the Naval Academy is named Rickover Hall (1974) and a nuclear‐propelled submarine is named the Hyman G. Rickover (1983).
[See also Atomic Scientists; Navy, U.S.: 1899–1945; Navy, U.S.: Since 1946; Navy Combat Branches: Submarine Forces.]

Bibliography

Richard G. Hewlett and and Francis Duncan , Nuclear Navy, 1946–1962, 1974.
Elmo R. Zumwalt, Jr. , On Watch, 1976.
Norman Polmar and and Thomas B. Allen , Rickover: Controversy and Genius, 1982.
Francis Duncan , Rickover and the Nuclear Navy, 1982.
Theodore Rockwell , The Rickover Effect, 1992.

Norman Polmar

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Rickover, Hyman George

Hyman George Rickover, 1900–1986, American admiral, b. Russia. In World War II he served as head of the electrical section of the navy's Bureau of Ships. After the war he was assigned (1946) to the atomic submarine project at Oak Ridge, Tenn., and helped convince the navy that nuclear sea power was feasible. Rickover directed the planning and construction of the world's first atomic-powered submarine, the Nautilus, launched in 1954, and other of the U.S. navy's nuclear-powered ships. Rickover later became chief of the Naval Reactors Branch of the Atomic Energy Commission and was in charge of the nuclear propulsion division of the navy's Bureau of Ships. His naval career was marked by a certain amount of controversy because of his outspoken opinions and unorthodox methods, traits which interfered with promotion until pressure was brought to bear from supporters in Congress. He was finally promoted to rear admiral (1953), vice admiral (1958), and admiral (1973). He was on active duty until 1981; in 1982 he retired.

See biography by N. Polmar and T. P. Allen (1982).

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