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Newcastle, William Cavendish, duke of

William Cavendish Newcastle, duke of, 1593?–1676, English soldier and politician. Of great wealth, Cavendish became (1638) governor of the prince of Wales and a privy councilor. During the civil war he supplied financial and military aid to the royalist cause, raising, maintaining, and leading troops in the northern counties. He was at first successful, but part of his force was defeated at Winceby by Oliver Cromwell in 1643, and after his defeat with Prince Rupert at Marston Moor in 1644 he retired to the Continent. He returned to England with Charles II at the Restoration, having expended nearly £1 million in the royalist cause. His estates were restored, and he was created duke of Newcastle in 1665. He engaged little in politics thereafter. Newcastle wrote several plays and books on horsemanship and was a lifelong patron of writers, among others Ben Jonson (who wrote two masques for the entertainment of Charles I at Newcastle's Welbeck estate in 1633 and 1634) and, later, John Dryden. His second wife, Margaret (Lucas) Cavendish, duchess of Newcastle, 1623?–1673, achieved contemporary notice for her poems, plays, essays, scientific treatises, letters, orations, and fantasies. Her biography of her husband (1667) was edited by C. H. Firth (1906).

See H. T. E. Perry, The First Duchess of Newcastle and Her Husband as Figures in Literary History (1918); D. Grant, Margaret the First (1957).

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"Newcastle, William Cavendish, duke of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Newcastle, William Cavendish, duke of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/newcastle-william-cavendish-duke

Newcastle, William Cavendish, 1st duke of

Newcastle, William Cavendish, 1st duke of (1593–1676). Newcastle was one of the leading royalist commanders during the Civil War. A man of vast estates in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, he made spectacular progress up the peerage ladder, moving from viscount (1620), to earl (1628), marquis (1643), and finally duke in 1665. As lord-lieutenant of Nottinghamshire from 1626 to 1642, he entertained Charles I lavishly at Welbeck in 1633 and at Bolsover in 1634. He was an almost automatic choice as commander in the north when war came and had considerable success, gaining control of most of Yorkshire through his victory at Adwalton Moor in June 1643. In 1644 he was forced back to York by the advance of the Scottish army and Rupert's attempt at relief ended in the shattering defeat of Marston Moor, where Newcastle watched his own regiment of Whitecoats cut to pieces. He left at once for the continent and did not return until the Restoration. Clarendon thought his conduct inexcusable and, though granting him ‘invincible courage’, wrote severely: ‘he liked the pomp and absolute authority of a general well, but the substantial part and fatigue of a general, he did not in any degree understand.’ A cultivated man, Newcastle wrote books and treatises, corresponded with Thomas Hobbes, and was the subject of a memorable biography by his wife, published nine years before he died.

J. A. Cannon

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"Newcastle, William Cavendish, 1st duke of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Newcastle, William Cavendish, 1st duke of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 23, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/newcastle-william-cavendish-1st-duke

"Newcastle, William Cavendish, 1st duke of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved June 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/newcastle-william-cavendish-1st-duke