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Campbell (Scottish noble family)

Campbell (kăm´bəl), Scottish noble family, the head of which is the duke of Argyll. The Campbells of Lochow (Lochawe) rose to power in W Scotland in the later Middle Ages. In 1445, Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochow (d. 1453) received the title of Baron Campbell, and his grandson Colin Campbell (d. 1493), 2d Baron Campbell, was created 1st earl of Argyll in 1457. In the succeeding century the earls of Argyll played an ever more prominent role in Scottish affairs. Archibald Campbell (d. 1558), 4th earl of Argyll, became one of the leading Protestant lords of the congregation. Even more important, however, was his son Archibald Campbell, 5th earl of Argyll, also a lord of the congregation, who was deeply involved in the upheavals of the reign of Mary Queen of Scots. He was succeeded by his half-brother, Colin Campbell (d. 1584), 6th earl of Argyll, who was in turn succeeded by his son Archibald Campbell (1575–1638), 7th earl of Argyll. The 7th earl became a Roman Catholic and in 1619 surrendered management of his estates to his son Archibald Campbell, 8th earl and 1st marquess of Argyll. The 8th earl and his son Archibald Campbell, 9th earl of Argyll, were the most powerful Presbyterian nobles in Scotland during the tumultuous events of the 17th cent.; both were executed for treason. Archibald Campbell, the 10th earl, finally managed to regain the family estates and was created (1701) 1st duke of Argyll. He and, more especially, his kinsman John Campbell, 1st earl of Breadalbane, have been blamed (possibly unjustly) for the massacre (1692) of the MacDonalds of Glencoe by Campbell soldiers. John Campbell, 2d duke of Argyll, and his brother Archibald Campbell, 3d duke of Argyll, kept the family in the forefront of Scottish affairs. The 3d duke, however, died without legitimate issue, and the succession passed to a cadet branch of the family, the Campbells of Mamore. Of subsequent holders of the title the most prominent were George Douglas Campbell (1823–1900), 8th duke of Argyll, who held a series of cabinet positions, the most important as secretary of state for India in William Gladstone's first ministry (1868–74); and John Douglas Sutherland Campbell (1845–1914), 9th duke of Argyll, who married Princess Louise, daughter of Queen Victoria, and was governor-general of Canada (1878–83).

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Campbell family

Campbell family. Originating in Argyll, the Campbells first came to prominence under Robert I (1306–29), already aiding the crown against other Highland families. From 1457, led by the Campbell earls of Argyll, they expanded their power in the south-western Highlands and Islands with royal approval, filling the vacuum left by the forfeiture of the MacDonald lord of the Isles (1493). The family successfully balanced its role in the Highlands with Lowland political aspirations, and branches spread to Breadalbane, Ayrshire, Nairnshire, Fife, and Angus. In the 16th cent. they became indispensable royal proxies in the Highlands for a crown unable to govern directly. Such power eventually produced problems—by the 17th cent. some saw the Campbell clan as little better than those they supplanted. As leaders of the covenanters, and strong supporters of the Scottish kirk, they came into conflict with Charles I and James VII. In the 18th cent. the Campbells were once more crown agents, associated with the Glencoe massacre (1692), the Act of Union (1707), opposition to the Jacobites (1745–6), and the Highland clearances. Often criticized, the family's consistent ability over seven centuries made it one of the most successful Scottish dynasties.

Roland Tanner

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"Campbell family." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Campbell (city, United States)

Campbell, city (1990 pop. 36,048), Santa Clara co., W Calif., in the fertile Santa Clara valley; founded 1885, inc. 1952. The city's economy, formerly tied to fruit and vegetable processing, is now based on the computer industry.

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Campbell

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