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Benedek, Ludwig von

Ludwig von Benedek (lōōt´vĬkh fən bā´nədĕk´), 1804–81, Austrian general. Entering the army in 1822, he served in the suppression of the Polish insurrection of 1846, in the Austrian campaigns of 1848–49 in Italy and Hungary, and in the Italian War of 1859. In the Austro-Prussian War (1866), he reluctantly accepted, under imperial pressure, an appointment to command the army of the North, although he felt inadequately prepared to direct troops in the unfamiliar territory of Bohemia. He suffered a crushing defeat at Sadová (or Sadowa; also known as the battle of Königgrätz). After his court-martial was stopped by imperial command, von Benedek was permitted to retire to Graz, provided he would make no attempt to rehabilitate himself.

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"Benedek, Ludwig von." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Köchel, Ludwig von

Köchel, Ludwig von (b Stein, nr. Krems-on-the- Danube, 1800; d Vienna, 1877). Austrian botanist and mineralogist with immense admiration for music of Mozart. Compiled chronological thematic catalogue—Chronologisch-thematisches Verzeichnis—of Mozart's works, giving each a ‘Köchel number’ (e.g. K488) by which they are now universally identified. First pubd. Leipzig 1862. Various revs. have been pubd., one being by A. Einstein, 1937. 6th edn. 1964.

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"Köchel, Ludwig von." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Retrieved October 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/kochel-ludwig-von

Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Ludwig

Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Ludwig (b Munich, 1836; d Dresden, 1865). Ger. tenor. Opera début Karlsruhe 1855. Prin. tenor Karlsruhe 1858–60, Dresden Opera 1860–5. Wagner, having heard him sing Lohengrin, asked him to create role of Tristan at Munich, 1865, with his Danish wife Malvina Schnorr von Carolsfeld (b Copenhagen, 1825; d Karlsruhe, 1904) as Isolde. Ludwig died 6 weeks after Tristan première and Malvina became singing teacher.

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"Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Ludwig." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Retrieved October 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/schnorr-von-carolsfeld-ludwig

Carolsfeld, Ludwig Schnorr von

Carolsfeld, Ludwig Schnorr von. See Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Ludwig.

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"Carolsfeld, Ludwig Schnorr von." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Retrieved October 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/carolsfeld-ludwig-schnorr-von