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Gross Motor Skills

Gross Motor Skills

Definition

Gross motor skills encompass the abilities required to control the large muscles of the body for walking, running, sitting, crawling, and other activities. The muscles required to perform gross motor skills are generally found in the arms, legs, back, abdomen, and torso.

Description

Motor skills are deliberate and controlled movements requiring both muscle development and maturation of the central nervous system. In addition, the skeletal system must be strong enough to support the movement and weight involved in any new activity. Once these conditions are met, children learn new physical skills by practicing them until each skill is mastered.

Gross motor skills involve control of the extremities (arms, legs, hands, and feet) and torso. There is an orderly sequence for development of these muscles. Although norms for motor development have been charted in great detail by researchers and clinicians over the past 50 years, the pace of development varies considerably from one child to the next. As skills become more complex, the degree of variation increases among normal children. The normal age for learning to walk has a range of several months, while the age range for turning one's head, a simpler skill that occurs much earlier, is considerably shorter. In addition to variations among children, an individual child' rate of progress varies as well, often including rapid spurts of development and frustrating periods of delay. Although rapid motor development in early childhood is often a good predictor of coordination and athletic ability later in life, no strong correlation has been demonstrated between a child's rate of motor development and intelligence. In most cases, a delay in mastering a specific motor skill is temporary and does not indicate a serious problem. However, medical advice should be sought when children lag significantly behind their peers in motor development or if they regress and lose previously acquired skills.

Function

Gross motor skills develop over a relatively short period of time. Most development occurs during childhood. However, soldiers, some athletes, and others who engage in activities requiring high degrees of endurance may spend years improving their level of muscle and body coordination and gross motor skills.

Infancy and toddler period

The sequence of gross motor development is determined by two developmental principles that also govern physical growth. The cephalo-caudal pattern, or head-to-toe development, refers to the way the upper parts of the body, beginning with the head, develop before the lower ones. Thus, infants can lift their heads and shoulders before they can sit up, which, in turn, precedes standing and walking. The other pattern of both development and maturation is proximal-distal, or trunk to extremities. One of the first things an infant achieves is head control. Although they are born with virtually no head or neck control, most infants can lift their heads to a 45-degree angle by the age of four to six weeks, and they can lift both their heads and chests at an average age of eight weeks. Most infants can turn their heads to both sides within 16 to 20 weeks and lift their heads while lying on their backs within 24 to 28 weeks. By about 36 to 42 weeks, or nine to ten months, most infants can sit up unassisted for substantial periods of time with both hands free for playing.

One of the major tasks in gross motor development is locomotion, or the ability to move from one place to another. Infants progress gradually from rolling (eight to ten weeks) to creeping on their stomachs and dragging their legs behind them (six to nine months) to actual crawling (seven months to a year). While infants are learning these temporary means of locomotion, they are gradually becoming able to support increasing amounts of weight while in a standing position. In the second half year of life, babies begin pulling themselves up on furniture and other stationary objects. By the ages of 28 to 54 weeks, on average, they begin "cruising," or navigating a room in an upright position by holding on to the furniture to keep their balance. Eventually, they are able to walk while holding on to an adult with both hands, and then requiring only one adult hand. They usually take their first uncertain steps alone between the ages of 36 and 64 weeks and are competent walkers by the ages of 52 to 78 weeks. By the age of two years, children have begun to develop a variety of gross motor skills. They can run fairly well and negotiate stairs holding on to a banister with one hand and putting both feet on each step before going on to the next one. Most infants this age climb (some very actively) and have a rudimentary ability to kick and throw a ball.

Preschool

During a child's first two years, most parents consider gross motor skills a very high priority. A child's first steps are the most universally celebrated developmental milestone. By the time a child is a preschooler, however, many parents shift the majority of their attention to the child's cognitive development in preparation for school. In addition, gross motor activity at these ages requires increasing amounts of space, equipment, and supervision. However, gross motor skills remain very important to a child's development, and maintaining a youngster's instinctive love of physical activity can make an important contribution to future fitness and health.

By the age of three, children walk with good posture and without watching their feet. They can also walk backwards and run with enough control for sudden stops or changes of direction. They can hop, stand on one foot, and negotiate the rungs of a jungle gym. They can walk up stairs alternating feet but usually still walk down putting both feet on each step. Other achievements include riding a tricycle and throwing a ball, although they have trouble catching it because they hold their arms out in front of their bodies independently of the direction of the ball. Four-year-olds can typically balance or hop on one foot, jump forward and backward over objects, and climb and descend stairs alternating feet. They can bounce and catch balls and throw with accuracy. Some four-year-olds can also skip. Children this age have gained an increased degree of self-consciousness about their motor activities that leads to increased feelings of pride and success when they master a new skill. However, it can also create feelings of inadequacy when they think they have failed. This concern with success can also lead them to try daring activities beyond their abilities, so they need to be very carefully monitored.

School-age

School-age children who are not going through the rapid, unsettling growth spurts of early childhood or adolescence are quite skilled at controlling their bodies and are generally good at a wide variety of physical activities, although the ability varies on the level of maturation and the physique of each child. Motor skills are approximately equal in boys and girls at this stage, except that boys have more forearm strength and girls have greater flexibility. Five-year-olds can skip, jump rope, catch a bounced ball, walk on their tiptoes, balance on one foot for more than eight seconds, and engage in beginning acrobatics. Many can even ride a small two-wheeler bicycle. Eight- and nine-year-olds typically can ride a bicycle, swim, roller-skate, ice-skate, jump rope, scale fences, use a saw, hammer, and garden tools, and play a variety of sports. However, many of the sports prized by adults, often scaled down for play by children, require higher levels of distance judgment and hand-eye coordination, as well as quicker reaction times, than are reasonable for middle childhood. Games that are well suited to the motor skills of elementary school-age children include kick ball, dodge ball, and team relay races.

In adolescence, children develop increasing coordination and motor ability. They also gain greater physical strength and prolonged endurance. Adolescents are able to develop better distance judgment and hand-eye coordination than their younger counterparts. With practice, they can master the skills necessary for adult sports.

For some persons, the development of gross motor ability and endurance continues into adulthood. Athletes and members of the military routinely engage in activities designed to further enhance their gross motor development.

Role in human health

Encouraging gross motor skills requires a safe, open play space, peers to interact with, and some adult supervision.

Promoting the development of gross motor abilities is considerably less complicated than developing fine motor skills. Helping a child succeed in gross motor tasks requires patience and opportunities for a child to practice desired skills. Parents and other persons must understand the level of development before assisting a child to master gross motor skills. Children reach developmental milestones at different rates. Pushing a child to perform a task which is impossible due to development status promotes frustration and disappointment. Children should be allowed to acquire gross motor skills at their own rates.

Common diseases and disorders

There are a range of diseases and disorders that affect gross motor skill development and skills. Among young persons, developmental problems such as genetic disorders, muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, and some neurological conditions adversely impact gross motor skill development. Among older persons, arthritis is a common condition. Arthritis affects the joints of the hands and feet, thus impairing the ability of muscles to perform desired movements. Stroke can impair gross motor coordination. Parkinson's disease affects motor movements. Alcoholism and drug use and withdrawal each cause motor problems.

KEY TERMS

Fine motor skill— The abilities required to control the smaller muscles of the body for writing, playing an instrument, artistic expression and craft work. The muscles required to perform fine motor skills are generally found in the hands, feet and head.

Locomotion— Movements such as walking.

Motor— A term referring to muscles and movement.

Proximal-distal— Direction from the center of a body to the tips of the extremities.

Resources

BOOKS

Hernandez, Kimberly T. Kid's Play. Laporte, PA: Quest Publishing, 2001.

Katzen-Luchenta, Jan. Awakening Your Toddler's Love of Learning. Phoenix, AZ: Emunah Publishing, 1999.

Needleman, Robert D. "Growth and development." In Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 16th ed., edited by Richard E. Behrman et al., Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 2000, 23-66.

Payne, V. Gregory, and Larry D. Isaacs. Human Motor Development: A Lifespan Approach, 4th ed. New York, NY: Mayfield Publishing, 1998.

PERIODICALS

Palisano, R.J., et al. "Gross motor function of children with down syndrome: Creation of motor growth curves." Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 82, no. 4 (2001): 494-500.

Reeves, L., et al. "Relationship of fitness and gross motor skills for five- to six-yr.-old children." Perceptual and Motor Skills 89, no. 3 Pt 1 (1999): 739-747.

Rine, R.M., et al. "Evidence of progressive delay of motor development in children with sensorineural hearing loss and concurrent vestibular dysfunction." Perceptual and Motor Skills 90, no. 3 Pt 2 (2000): 1101-1112.

Schindler, A.M., and C.C. Hausman. "Do we need to reassess normal gross motor milestones?" Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 155, no. 1 (2001): 96-97.

Simons, C.J., et al. "Assessment of motor development in very low birth weight infants." Journal of Perinatology 20, no. 3 (2000): 172-175.

Stieh J., et al. "Gross and fine motor development is impaired in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease." Neuropediatrics 30, no. 2 (1999): 77-82.

Wiart L., and J. Darrah. "Review of four tests of gross motor development." Developmental and Medical Child Neurology 43, no. 4 (2001): 279-285.

ORGANIZATIONS

American Academy of Pediatrics. 141 Northwest Point Boulevard, Elk Grove Village, IL 60007-1098. (847) 434-4000. Fax: (847) 434-8000. 〈http://www.aap.org/default.htm〉. kidsdoc@aap.org.

American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. One IBM Plaza, Suite 2500, Chicago, IL 60611-3604. (312) 464-9700. (312) 464-0227. 〈http://www.aapmr.org/consumers/public/amputations.htm〉. info@aapmr.org.

Coping.org. 6319 Chauncy Street, Tampa, FL 33647. (813) 631-5176. Fax: (813) 631-1119. 〈http://www.coping.org〉. jjmess@tampabay.rr.com.

OTHER

Apraxia Kids. 〈http://apraxia-kids.org/links/linksot.html〉.

BabyCentre (UK). 〈http://www.babycentre.co.uk/expert/6562.html〉.

Flinders University of South Australia School of Education. 〈http://wwwed.sturt.flinders.edu.au/DLT/2000/FINAL/grossmotors.htm〉.

Freed-Hardeman University School of Education. 〈http://teach.fhu.edu/technology/PSY306/grossmotor.html〉.

Gallaudet University. 〈http://clerccenter.gallaudet.edu/SupportServices/ot/activities.html〉.

Health on the Net Foundation. 〈http://www.hon.ch/Dossier/MotherChild/postnatal/motor_skills.html〉.

Mesa (AZ) Community College. 〈http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/academic/psychology/dev/Spg2001/Preschool/skills.html〉.

Michigan State University. 〈http://www.cem.msu.edu/∼leej/development-prewriting.html〉.

National Fragile X Foundation. 〈http://www.fragilex.org/characteristics/motor/motor.htm〉.

Test Universe. 〈http://www.testuniverse.com/mothers/mothers-hdr-350.html〉.

University of Scranton. 〈http://www.academic.uofs.edu/student/DACORTAR2/motor.html〉.

Wabash University. 〈http://www.wabash.edu/depart/psych/Courses/Psych20/LABNET_2000/gross.html〉.

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