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Tetracyclines

Tetracyclines

Definition

Tetracyclines are medicines that kill bacteria, which are one-celled disease-causing microorganisms that commonly multiply by cell division. Tetracyclines are also used to treat infections caused by such subcategories of bacteria as rickettsiae and spirochetes.

Tetracyclines are classified as antibiotics , which are chemical substances produced by a microorganism that are able to kill other microorganisms without being toxic to the person, animal, or plant being treated. Some tetracyclines are derived directly from a bacterium known as Streptomyces coelicolor ; others are made in the laboratory from chlortetracycline or oxytetracycline.


Purpose

Tetracyclines are called "broad-spectrum" antibiotics, because they can be used to treat a wide variety of infections. Physicians may prescribe these drugs to treat eye infections, pneumonia, gonorrhea, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, urinary tract infections, Lyme disease, and other infections caused by bacteria. These drugs are also used to treat acne. The tetracyclines will not work, however, for colds, flu, and other infections caused by viruses.


Description

Tetracyclines are available only with a physician's prescription. They are sold in capsule, tablet, liquid, and injectable forms. Some commonly used medicines in this group are tetracycline (Achromycin V, Sumycin), demeclocycline (Declomycin), minocycline (Minocin), oxytetracycline (Terramycin), and doxycycline (Doryx, Vibramycin, Vivox).

Tetracyclines have been used for treatment of gum infections in dental surgery. In orthopedic surgery they have been used as markers to identify living bone. The patient is given a tetracycline antibiotic for several weeks prior to surgery. Some of the tetracycline is absorbed into the bone during this period. Since tetracyclines glow under ultraviolet light, this absorption helps the surgeon distinguish the living bone from the dead tissue that must be removed.

Tetracycline may also be mixed with bone cement for prevention of infection in bone surgery. In nasal surgery, tetracycline ointments are used to help prevent postsurgical infections.


Recommended dosage

The recommended dosage depends on the specific tetracycline, its strength, and the disease agent and severity of infection for which it is being taken. Patients should check with the physician who prescribed the drug or the pharmacist who filled the prescription for the correct dosage.

To make sure an infection clears up completely, patients should take the full course of antibiotic medication. It is important to not stop taking the drug just because symptoms begin to improve.

Tetracyclines are most effective at constant levels in the blood. To keep blood levels constant, the medicine should be taken in doses spaced evenly throughout the day and night. It is important to not miss any doses.

These medicines work best when taken on an empty stomach with a full glass of water. The water will help prevent irritation of the stomach and esophagus (the tube-like structure that runs from the throat to the stomach). If the medicine still causes stomach upset, the patient may take it with food. Tetracyclines should never be taken with milk or milk products, however, as these may prevent the drugs from working properly. Patients should not drink or eat milk or dairy products within one to two hours of taking tetracyclines (except doxycycline and minocycline).


Precautions

The following warnings apply to tetracycline preparations taken by mouth to treat infections; they do not apply to topical ointments or tetracyclines mixed with bone cement. Also, these warnings apply primarily to tetracycline itself. Some members of the tetracycline family, particularly doxycycline and minocycline, have different adverse effects and precautions. Patients should consult their physician or pharmacist about these specific drugs.

Taking outdated tetracyclines can cause serious side effects. Patients should not take these medicines if:

  • the color, appearance, or taste have changed
  • the drug has been stored in a warm or damp area
  • the expiration date on the label has passed

Outdated tetracyclines should be thrown out. Patients should check with their physician or pharmacist if they have any doubts about the effectiveness of their drugs.

Patients should not take antacids, calcium supplements, such salicylates as Magan or Trilisate, magnesium-containing laxatives , or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) within one to two hours of taking tetracyclines. Patients should also not take any medicines that contain iron (including multivitamin and mineral supplements) within two to three hours of taking tetracyclines.

Some people feel dizzy when taking these drugs. Tetracyclines may also cause blurred vision. Because of these possible side effects, anyone who takes these drugs should not drive, use machines or do anything else that might be dangerous until they have found out how the drugs affect them.

Birth control pills may not work properly while tetracyclines are being taken. To prevent pregnancy, women should use alternative methods of birth control while taking tetracyclines.

Tetracyclines may increase the skin's sensitivity to sunlight. Even brief exposure to sun can cause a severe sunburn or a rash. During treatment with these drugs, patients should avoid exposure to direct sunlight, especially high sun between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m.; wear a hat and tightly woven clothing that covers the arms and legs; use a sunscreen with a skin protection factor (SPF) of at least 15; protect the lips with a lip balm containing sun block; and avoid the use of tanning beds, tanning booths, or sunlamps. Sensitivity to sunlight and sunlamps may continue for two weeks to several months after stopping the medicine, so patients must continue to be careful about sun exposure.

Tetracyclines may permanently discolor the teeth of people who took the medicine in childhood. The drugs may also slow down the growth of children's bones. Tetracyclines should not be given to infants or children under eight years of age unless directed by the child's physician.


Special conditions

People with certain medical conditions or who are taking other medicines may have problems if they take tetracyclines. Before taking these drugs, the patient must inform the doctor about any of these conditions:

FOOD OR MEDICATION ALLERGIES. Anyone who has had unusual reactions to tetracyclines in the past should inform his or her physician before taking the drugs again. The physician should also be told about any allergies to foods, dyes, preservatives, or other substances.

PREGNANCY AND LACTATION. Pregnant women should not take tetracyclines during the last four months of pregnancy. These drugs can prevent the baby's bones and teeth from developing properly and may cause the baby's adult teeth to be permanently discolored. Tetracyclines can also cause liver problems in pregnant women.

Women who are breastfeeding should also not take tetracyclines. The drugs pass into breast milk and can affect the nursing baby's teeth and bones. They may also make the baby more sensitive to sunlight and may increase its risk of contracting fungal infections.

OTHER CONDITIONS. Before using tetracyclines, people with any of these medical problems should make sure their physicians have been informed:

  • diabetes
  • liver disease
  • kidney disease

Side effects

The most common side effects of tetracyclines are stomach cramps or a burning sensation in the stomach, mild diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting. These problems usually go away as the body adjusts to the drug and do not require medical treatment. Less common side effects, such as a sore mouth or tongue and itching of the rectal or genital areas may occur. These reactions do not need medical attention, however, unless they do not go away or are bothersome.

Other rare side effects have been reported, including inflammation of the pancreas, impairment of the kidneys, skin peeling, headache, intracranial hypertension, and ulceration of the esophagus. Anyone who has unusual symptoms during or after treatment with tetracyclines should consult his or her physician.

Drug interactions

Tetracyclines may interact with other medicines. When an interaction occurs, the effects of one or both of the drugs may change or the risk of side effects may be greater. Anyone who takes tetracyclines should give the doctor a list of all other medications that they take on a regular basis, including over-the-counter drugs, herbal preparations, and traditional Chinese or other alternative medicines. Standard medications that may interact with tetracyclines include:

  • antacids
  • calcium supplements
  • medicines that contain iron (including multivitamin and mineral supplements)
  • laxatives containing magnesium
  • cholesterol-lowering drugs, including cholestyramine (Questran) and colestipol (Colestid)
  • salicylates
  • penicillin compounds
  • birth control pills

Herbal preparations containing St. John's wort have been reported to increase sensitivity to sunlight in patients taking tetracyclines. People who have been using St. John's wort to relieve mild depression should discontinue it while they are taking tetracyclines.


Resources

books

"Antibacterial Drugs: Tetracyclines." Section 13, Chapter 153 in The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, edited by Mark H. Beers, MD, and Robert Berkow, MD. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories, 1999.

Pelletier, Kenneth R., MD. The Best Alternative Medicine, Part I, Chapter 6, "Western Herbal Medicine." New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002.

Wilson, Billie Ann, RN, PhD, Carolyn L. Stang, PharmD, and Margaret T. Shannon, RN, PhD. Nurses Drug Guide 2000. Stamford, CT: Appleton and Lange, 1999.


periodicals

Al-Mofarreh, M. A., and I. A. Al Mofleh. "Esophageal Ulceration Complicating Doxycycline Therapy." World Journal of Gastroenterology 9 (March 2003): 609-611.

Gottehrer, N. R. "Managing Risk Factors in Successful Nonsurgical Treatment of Periodontal Disease." Dentistry Today 22 (January 2003): 64-69.

Grasset, L., C. Guy, and M. Ollagnier. "Cyclines and Acne: Pay Attention to Adverse Drug Reactions! A Recent Literature Review." [in French] Revue de médecine interne 24 (May 2003): 305-316.

Lochhead, J., and J. S. Elston. "Doxycycline Induced Intracranial Hypertension." British Medical Journal 326 (March 22, 2003): 641-642.

Moore, D. E. "Drug-Induced Cutaneous Photosensitivity: Incidence, Mechanism, Prevention and Management." Drug Safety 25 (2002): 345-372.

Wormser, G. P., R. Ramanathan, J. Nowakowski, et al. "Duration of Antibiotic Therapy for Early Lyme Disease. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial." Annals of Internal Medicine 138 (May 6, 2003): 697-704.


organizations

American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP). 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814. (301) 657-3000. <www.ashp.org>.

United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857-0001. (888) INFO-FDA. <www.fda.gov>.


Nancy Ross-Flanigan Sam Uretsky, PharmD

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"Tetracyclines." Gale Encyclopedia of Surgery: A Guide for Patients and Caregivers. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Tetracyclines." Gale Encyclopedia of Surgery: A Guide for Patients and Caregivers. . Retrieved October 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tetracyclines-0

Tetracyclines

Tetracyclines

Definition

Tetracyclines are medicines that kill certain infection-causing microorganisms.

Purpose

Tetracyclines are called "broad-spectrum" antibiotics, because they can be used to treat a wide variety of infections. Physicians may prescribe these drugs to treat eye infections, pneumonia, gonorrhea, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, urinary tract infections, certain bacteria that could be used in biological weapons, and other infections caused by bacteria. The medicine is also used to treat acne. The tetracyclines will not work for colds, flu, and other infections caused by viruses. Tetracyclines are generally a low-cost alternative among antibiotics.

Interestingly, a form of tetracycline has recently been used in prevention of cancer recurrence. Chemically modified tetracyclines such as COL-3 are derived from antibiotic tetracyclines, but because of their modifications, don't act as antibiotics. Instead, they inhibit certain enzymes and processes that normally encourage cancer growth. By making cancer cells less aggressive, these drugs may show potential for long-term management of some cancers.

Description

Tetracyclines are available only with a physician's prescription. They are sold in capsule, tablet, liquid, and injectable forms. Some commonly used medicines in this group are tetracycline (Achromycin V, Sumycin) and doxycycline (Doryx, Vibramycin).

Recommended dosage

The recommended dosage depends on the type of tetracycline, its strength, and the type and severity of infection for which it is being taken. The physician who prescribed the drug or the pharmacist who filled the prescription know the correct dosage.

To make sure the infection clears up completely, patients are told to take the medicine for as long as it has been prescribed. They should not stop taking the drug just because symptoms begin to improve.

Tetracyclines work best when they are at constant levels in the blood. To help keep levels constant, the doses are spaced evenly through the day and night. No doses should be missed.

This medicine works best when taken on an empty stomach, with a full glass of water. The water will help prevent irritation of the stomach and esophagus (the tube-like structure that runs from the throat to the stomach). If the medicine still causes stomach upset, it may be necessary to take it with food. However, tetracyclines should never be taken with milk or milk products, as these may prevent the medicine from working properly. Milk or dairy products should be avoided within one to two hours of taking tetracyclines (except doxycycline and minocycline).

Precautions

Taking outdated tetracyclines can cause serious side effects. The medicine should not be taken if:

  • its color, appearance, or taste have changed
  • it has been stored in a warm or damp area
  • the expiration date on its label has passed. Any such medicine should be flushed down the toilet; if there is any question about whether the medicine is still good, the patient should check with a physician or pharmacist

Antacids, calcium supplements, such as the salicylates Magan or Trilisate, magnesium-containing laxatives, or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) should not be taken within one to two hours of taking tetracyclines.

Medicines that contain iron (including multivitamin and mineral supplements) should not be taken within 2-3 hours of taking tetracyclines.

Some people feel dizzy when taking these drugs. The medicine also may cause blurred vision. Because of these possible effects, anyone who takes these drugs should not drive, use machines or do anything else that might be dangerous until they have found out how the drugs affect them.

Birth control pills may not work properly while tetracyclines are being taken. To prevent pregnancy, alternative methods of birth control should be used while taking tetracyclines.

This medicine may increase sensitivity to sunlight. Even brief exposure to sun can cause a severe sunburn or rash. While being treated with this medicine, direct sunlight should be avoided, especially between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. A hat and tightly woven clothing that covers the arms and legs; a sunscreen with a skin protection factor (SPF) of at least 15; protecting the lips with a sun block lipstick; and avoiding use of tanning beds, tanning booths, or sunlamps are advised when on tetracyclines. The sensitivity to sunlight and sunlamps may continue for two weeks to several months after stopping the medicine.

Tetracyclines may permanently discolor the teeth of people who took the medicine in childhood. The drugs may also slow down the growth of children's bones. Tetracyclines are generally not given to infants or children under 8 years of age unless directed by the child's physician. The medical community continues to express concern about resistance to tetracyclines and other antibiotics. As patients continue to use, and often overuse, these medications, eventually, strains of bacteria develop resistance to the medicines. The use of tetracycline is much broader than it was 20 or 30 years ago and physicians will prescribe the medicine only when appropriate.

Special conditions

People with certain medical conditions or who are taking certain other medicines may have problems if they take tetracyclines. Before a patient takes these drugs, the physician should be advised of any of these conditions:

ALLERGIES. Anyone who has had unusual reactions to tetracyclines in the past should let his or her physician know before taking the drugs again. The physician also should be told about any allergies to foods, dyes, preservatives, or other substances.

PREGNANCY. Pregnant women should not take tetracyclines during the last half of pregnancy. These drugs can prevent the baby's bones and teeth from developing properly and can cause the baby's adult teeth to be permanently discolored. The medicine also can cause liver problems in pregnant women.

BREASTFEEDING. Women who are breastfeeding should not take tetracyclines. The drugs pass into breast milk and can affect the nursing baby's teeth and bones. They may also make the baby more sensitive to sunlight and may increase risk of fungal infections.

OTHER MEDICAL CONDITIONS. Before using tetracyclines, people with any of these medical problems should make sure their physicians are aware of their conditions:

  • diabetes
  • liver disease
  • kidney disease

USE OF CERTAIN MEDICINES. Taking tetracyclines with certain other drugs may affect the way the drugs work or may increase the chance of side effects.

Side effects

The most common side effects are stomach cramps or a burning sensation in the stomach, mild diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting. These problems usually go away as the body adjusts to the drug and do not require medical treatment. Less common side effects, such as sore mouth or tongue and itching of the rectal or genital areas also may occur and do not need medical attention unless they do not go away or they are bothersome.

Other rare side effects may occur. Anyone who has unusual symptoms during or after treatment with tetracyclines should get in touch with his or her physician.

KEY TERMS

Gonorrhea A sexually transmitted disease (STD) that causes infection in the genital organs and may cause disease in other parts of the body.

Microorganism An organism that is too small to be seen with the naked eye.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever An infectious disease that is caused by a microorganism and spread by ticks. High fever, muscle pain, and spots on the skin are among the symptoms.

Salicylates A group of drugs that includes aspirin and related compounds. Salicylates are used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever.

Interactions

Tetracyclines may interact with other medicines. When this happens, the effects of one or both of the drugs may change or the risk of side effects may be greater. Anyone who takes tetracyclines should let a physician know all other medicines he or she is taking. Among the drugs that may interact with tetracyclines are:

  • antacids
  • calcium supplements
  • medicines that contain iron (including multivitamin and mineral supplements)
  • laxatives that contain magnesium
  • cholesterol-lowering drugs such as cholestyramine (Questran) and colestipol (Colestid)
  • salicylates such as Magan and Trilisate
  • penicillins
  • birth control pills

Resources

PERIODICALS

"Modified Tetracycline May Help Prevent Cancer Recurrence." Cancer Weekly December 10, 2002: 2.

Roberts, Marilyn C. "Tetracycline Therapy: Update." Clinical Infectious Diseases February 15, 2003: 462-466.

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"Tetracyclines." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed.. . Retrieved October 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tetracyclines

Tetracyclines

Tetracyclines

Definition

Tetracyclines are a group of antibiotics that are useful in treatment of many bacterial infections.

Description

Tetracyclines are called broad-spectrum antibiotics because they can be used to treat a wide variety of infections. Physicians may prescribe these drugs to treat eye infections, pneumonia , gonorrhea, Rocky Mountain spotted fever , urinary tract infections, certain bacteria that could be used in biological weapons, and other infections caused by bacteria. The medicine is also used to treat acne . The tetracyclines will not work for colds, flu, and other infections caused by viruses. Tetracyclines are generally a low-cost alternative among antibiotics.

There are five drugs in the tetracycline class:

  • demeclocycline
  • doxycycline
  • minocycline
  • oxytetracycline
  • tetracycline

General use

All tetracyclines are used for treatment of infections in patients over the age of eight years. They may be used in several forms, including capsules, injections, ointments, eye and ear drops.

Tetracyclines are bacteriostatic. They do not kill bacteria; they prevent bacteria from growing, so that the body's natural defenses are better able to deal with an infection. For this reason, tetracyclines are not used in patients with impaired immune systems.

Although all tetracyclines are similar, and can do most of the same work, there are some differences. Doxycycline requires only one dose a day and can be used even when the patient has kidney problems. Demeclocycline and minocycline penetrate the skin better than other tetracyclines and may be preferred for treatment of acne. Demeclocycline is effective for the syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIDAH), although it is not officially approved for this purpose.

In addition to their role in treating infections, tetracyclines have a wide range of other uses. These include protection against some types of malaria and treatment of some of the infections that might be used in bioterrorism. Some tetracycline derivatives have been useful in cancer therapy. Tetracyclines have been useful in prevention of gum diseases of the mouth.

Precautions

Tetracyclines should normally not be used in children under the age of eight because some tetracyclines can be absorbed into the bones and teeth and give the teeth a mottled appearance. Some experts believe that tetracyclines should be avoided in children younger than ten.

Side effects

Not all tetracyclines have the same side effects, but the following list includes some of the most common problems:

  • dizziness and lightheadedness
  • diarrhea
  • stomach upset
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • photosensitivity
  • fungus infections
  • tooth discoloration
  • mouth irritation
  • skin discoloration

On rare occasions tetracyclines may cause more severe adverse effects, including kidney damage and drug-induced lupus.

Patients taking tetracyclines should avoid prolonged sun exposure. Standard sunscreens are not adequate to protect against severe sunburn in patients taking tetracyclines.

Interactions

Tetracyclines should not be used at the same time the patient is receiving a live vaccine. The antibiotics may prevent the vaccine from growing, and this may keep the vaccine from producing immunity.

Moreover, tetracyclines may reduce the effectiveness of oral contraceptives .

Many antibiotics share tetracyclines' interaction with neuromuscular blocking agents. Tetracyclines should not be used at the same time as neuromuscular blocking agents since the antibiotics can increase the strength of the neuromuscular blocker, which can make breathing difficult. While this interaction is severe, it is rare, since the neuromuscular blocking agents are usually used only in surgery.

Tetracyclines should not be taken at the same time as foods containing calcium or foods containing iron, magnesium, or aluminum. The metals bind to the tetracycline, and the combination has reduced effect on bacteria.

The common interaction between tetracyclines and minerals can be avoided by taking tetracycline on an empty stomach, one hour before or two hours after meals, with water.

Parental concerns

Although it is recommended that tetracyclines not be given to children under the age of eight, the drug is sometimes required in severe infections. Tetracyclines may be required for children who have developed infections either in hospitals or while traveling overseas.

Parents should carefully check the expiration date of tetracycline and not use the drug past the expiration date. Expired tetracycline has been known to cause a severe kidney problem called Fanconi syndrome. Expired tetracycline should be disposed of, not saved.

Because tetracyclines can cause photosensitization, patients taking these drugs should use sunscreen and avoid direct sunlight.

Because of their interaction with metals, tetracyclines should always be taken on an empty stomach with only water. Patients should particularly avoid calcium-containing dairy products and antacids as well as multivitamin-mineral supplements.

Tetracyclines inhibit the growth of many bacteria and other microorganisms which can lead to overgrowth of other microorganisms. Possible symptoms are discoloration of the tongue and diarrhea. Parents should report these problems to the prescriber immediately.

Parents should alert all health-care professionals about all drugs their children are taking. Both tetracycline and oral contraceptives are used to treat acne in teenage girls, but these drugs should not be used together.

KEY TERMS

Antibiotics Drugs that are designed to kill or inhibit the growth of the bacteria that cause infections.

Bacteriostatic An agent that prevents the growth of bacteria.

Fanconi's syndrome A group of disorders involving kidney tubule malfunction and glucose, phosphate, and bicarbonate in the urine. Two forms of this syndrome have been identified: an inherited form and an acquired form caused by vitamin D deficiency or exposure to heavy metals.

Photosensitization Development of oversensitivity to sunlight.

See also Penicillins.

Resources

BOOKS

Beers, Mark H., and Robert Berkow, eds. The Merck Manual, 2nd home ed. West Point, PA: Merck & Co., 2004.

Mcevoy, Gerald K., et al. AHFS Drug Information 2004. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Healthsystems Pharmacists, 2004.

Siberry, George K., and Robert Iannone, eds. The Harriet Lane Handbook, 15th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby, 2000.

PERIODICALS

Black, Douglas J., and Allan Ellsworth. "Practical overview of antibiotics for family physicians." Clinics in Family Practice 6, no. 1 (March 2004): 26589.

Cronquist, Steven D. "Tularemia: The disease and the weapon." Dermatologic Clinics 22, no. 3 (July 2004): 313320.

Izzedine, Hassane, et al. "Drug-induced Fanconi's syndrome." American Journal of Kidney Disease 41, no. 2 (February 1, 2003): 292309.

Sanfilippo, Angela M., et al. "Common pediatric and adolescent skin conditions." Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology 16, no. 5 (October 1, 2003): 26983.

Thompson, Matthew J., and Christopher Sanford. "Travel-related infections in primary care." Clinics in Family Practice 6, no. 1 (March 2004): 23564.

ORGANIZATIONS

American Academy of Pediatrics. 141 Northwest Point Boulevard, Elk Grove Village, IL 600071098. Web site: <www.aap.org>.

WEB SITES

The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. Available online at <www.medscape.com/viewpublication/769_index> (accessed September 30, 2004).

Samuel Uretsky, PharmD

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tetracycline

tetracycline (tĕ´trəsī´klēn), any of a group of antibiotics produced by bacteria of the genus Streptomyces. They are effective against a wide range of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, interfering with protein synthesis in these microorganisms (see Gram's stain). Tetracycline is used to treat rickettsial bacterial infections such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, some eye, respiratory, intestinal, and urinary infections, some kinds of acne, and some diseases where the infecting microorganism is resistant to penicillin (see drug resistance). Tetracycline may cause permanent discoloration of developing teeth, and it is not given to pregnant and lactating women and growing children. Because of the development of strains of microorganisms resistant to the tetracyclines, these antibiotics have lost some of their usefulness. Aureomycin is a trade name for the derivative chlortetracycline, and Terramycin is a trade name for oxytetracycline.

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tetracyclines

tetracyclines (tet-ră-sy-kleenz) pl. n. a group of antibiotic compounds derived from cultures of Streptomyces bacteria. These drugs, including doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline, are effective against a wide range of bacterial infections, including Chlamydia, respiratory tract infections, and acne. They are usually given by mouth.

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tetracycline

tet·ra·cy·cline / ˌtetrəˈsīˌklēn; -klin/ • n. Med. any of a large group of antibiotics (often obtained from bacteria of the genus Streptomyces) with a molecular structure containing four rings.

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tetracyclines

tetracyclines A group of closely related antibiotics including tetracycline, oxytetracycline (terramycin), and aureomycin. The last two are used in some countries for preserving food and as growth improvers, added to animal feed at the rate of a few mg per tonne.

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"tetracyclines." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Retrieved October 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/tetracyclines

tetracyclines

tetracyclines One of a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics that are effective against a wide range of bacterial infections.

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"tetracyclines." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"tetracyclines." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tetracyclines

"tetracyclines." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved October 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tetracyclines