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Morphine

Morphine

Rock band

For the Record

This Is Different

Dark, Sexy Themes

Continued Success with yes

Selected discography

Sources

With sheer originality, slow-burning intensity, excellence of songcraft, and pure fun, ventured Billboards Chris Morris, Morphine is at the head of the pack among alternative rock bands. The moody, evocative sound of the Boston group has inspired rock critics to try to outdo one another in describing it: words like noir suggest its vibe, while smoky is usually the adjective of choice for bassist-singer Mark Sandmans voice. Inevitable references to the narcotic properties of the trios music usually follow.

Morphines striking aestheticso unlike the assaultive directness of most rockderives from its unique instrumentation. Sandmans bass has usually sported only two strings, and he often plays with a slide; saxophonist Dana Colley generally plays a baritone, and drummer Billy Conway leaves lots of space for the music to breathe. With no guitar, apart from subtle touches in the studio, Morphine creates a spacious and surprisingly heavy musical environment. Their 1995 album yes saw them turning the cult success of the groups previous effort, Cure for Pain, into a prolonged stay on the charts.

For the Record

Members include Dana Colley, baritone saxophone Billy Conway (joined group 1993), drums; Jerome Deupree (left group 1993), drums; and Mark Sandman, bass, vocals.

Formed in Boston, MA, c. 1992; released debut album, Good, Accurate/Distortion, 1992; signed with Rykodisc and released Cure for Pain, 1993; appeared on soundtrack of film Spanking the Monkey, 1993.

Selected Awards: Good named Independent Album of the Year at Boston Music Awards, 1992.

Addresses: Record company Rykodisc, 27 Congress St., Salem, MA 01970.

Sandman, a native of Newton, Massachusetts, grew up a normal kid listening to adolescent cock rock, as he told Option. Yet he also revealed that his adult experience was somewhat more offbeat, including tuna fishing in the Aleutian islands, construction work in the Rocky Mountains, driving a Boston taxi, and gadding around Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He and Conway formed part of the sultry blues-rock band Treat Her Right; Yale University alumnus Colley played with the group Three Colors.

This Is Different

Treat Her Right disbanded in 1990. Sandman then embarked on a period of musical experimentation, inviting various musicians to jam with him and looking for new sonic opportunities outside the overworked repertoire of guitar rock. Influenced by the ambitious soundscapes of jazz bassist and composer Charles Mingus, the single-string expressiveness of Middle Eastern music, the gritty intensity of Mississippi Delta blues, the bleak themes of classic country music, and the atmospheric pop of groups like the Police, he began to hone in on the Morphine concept. I listen to a lot of tapes I pick up at ethnic grocery stores, he informed Steve Morse of the Boston Globe. I like things that arent necessarily coming from Western sources, that have phrasings that dont begin and end where you expect them to.

But it wasnt until Sandman played a one-stringed bass with a slideinspired in part by seeing a bassist in a club do the sameagainst Colleys saxophone that the concept began to gel. It wasnt likeEureka! or anything like that, he insisted to Billboards Morris. It was, This is differentlets try a gig and see if it flies. And, he remarked to Morse, If the band didnt work, it would have been no great matter. We would have just tried something else another day.

Jazz-rock drummer Jerome Deupree originally rounded out the trio. Their maiden gig was well received, encouraging them to carry on. In 1992 Morphine recorded their debut album, Good, on the independent Accurate/Distortion label. It quickly became clear that the groups sound, which allows the confluence of saxophone and slide bass to work within the space normally filled by guitar, had found an audience. It just seems like the guitars are there, Sandman mused in Pulse! Theyre just sort of imaginary. Of the saxophoneusually relegated to brief solos in pop musicColley noted in an interview with Randee Dawn Cohen of Alternative Press that he always felt it had a lot more potential than that and could succeed in becoming part of the music, part of the rhythm and bass. Pulse! called Good a surprisingly accessible effort that transcends petty genre distinctions in favor of timeless emotional truths. It was named Independent Album of the Year at the 1992 Boston Music Awards.

Dark, Sexy Themes

Sandmans lyrics and vocals evoked for many listeners the dark, jaded narratives of noir or pulp fiction and filmstories of crime, obsession, and betrayal. Reading off a list of his thematic preoccupations to Options Bob Gulla, he cited perseverance, disadvantage, lust, despair, international love, self-delusion. At the same time, of course, these often seedy tales are dangerously sexy, lending credence to Sandmans description of Morphinesolicited by Patrick Bryant of Detroits Metro Times as frock.

Nonetheless, Sandman has argued that the noir element in his songwriting has been exaggerated. I mean, I read a lot of those books, he admitted in SF Weekly, referring to such standards of the genre as the novels of Raymond Chandler, but I dont read them over and over. Indeed, as he remarked to Alternative Press contributor Cohen, his compositions are probably autobiographical, but its hard to tell. In fact, he lamented not having disguised these elements as well as hed intended.

The promise displayed by Good prompted the Rykodisc label, another independent, to sign Morphine and re-release the album. In the meanwhile, the trio set to work on a follow-up; during this period Deupree left the group and Conway took his place. Cure for Pain came out in 1993 and was a hit with both critics and underground music fans. Morphine evoke the zonked swing of lounge jazz and the grind of dirty blues while maintaining rock & roll convictions, asserted Rolling Stone reviewer Arion Berger, who felt that Sandman displayed no imagination as a singer but conceded, If his vocals can be faulted, his songwriting cant. Songs like Thursday, a tense story of lust and peril, the rocking Mary Wont You Call My Name, and the plaintive, grooving title trackon which Sandman deadpans, Someday therell be a cure for pain/Thats the day Ill throw my drugs away took the records sales far beyond expectations. Five tracks from the album appeared on the soundtrack for the acclaimed independent film Spanking the Monkey.

Morphine toured relentlessly in support of Cure for Pain; Colleys tour diaryexcerpts from which appeared in Raygun preserved some of the immediacy of their international travels. After experiencing the massive earthquake in Los Angeles in January of 1994, the group broke the citywide curfew and played a show there the next night. Colley also wrote of the surprise and terror of a packed gig in Brest, a town in the French countryside: By the timeMary wont you call my name begins, all hell breaks loose. People are flying back and forth in one group of twisted limbs and bobbing heads. The monitors are the first to go, followed by mike stands, speaker stacks and light rigs. The hapless soundman was pinned against a wall, unable to improve the mixwhich was being broadcast on the radio.

Continued Success with yes

Morphines next release was 1995s yes. Rykodisc confidently issued the leadoff track, Honey White, as a single, and the trio promptly hit the road again. The record earned more rave reviews Billboard deemed it one of the years best releases, while USA Today gave the album 31/2 stars out of four and called it the groups best album to date as did the bands now well-honed live act. Morphine has developed from a surprisingly strong unit into a unique force in modern rock music, marveled Phil Gallo of Daily Variety. Theres no compromise within Morphines daringly original songs that challenge notions of rhythm, melody and even the use of instrumentation as the band bounces off tuneful skeletons from the closets of rockabilly, improvisational jazz, punk and blues.

yes also demonstrated significant, if not truly mainstream, commercial viability, debuting at the top of the Billboard Heatseekers chart and, despite losing some ground, remaining on the chart for months. As a Los Angeles record retailer told Billboard, Its a rock thing, but its not a rock thingits a moody rock thing, and there always seems to be a market for that stuff. Sandman expressed an eagerness to do residencies in the bands favorite citiesseveral gigs at the same small venue, rather than one in a larger spaceas a way of offsetting the wear of nonstop touring. Its a way to not have to travel every single day, and a way to get to see some of the cities were interested in.

The members of Morphine have also had a hand in other projectsSandman has played with the Pale Brothers, Hypnosonics, Supergroup, and Candybar, for exampleand this freedom has allowed them, as Colley told Alternative Press, to keep our chops up and try different things. Resisting formula is a top priority for the band, as Sandman pointed out in SF Weekly: Were trying to keep the definition ofwhats a Morphine song pretty flexible. Pretty soon its going to be just about anything. Weve been holding back a lot of the stranger things. Were feeling braver now. Its a big cosmos out there.

Selected discography

Good, Accurate/Distortion, reissued by Rykodisc, 1992.

Cure for Pain (includes Thursday, Mary Wont You Call My Name, and Cure for Pain), Rykodisc, 1993.

yes (includes Honey White), Rykodisc, 1995.

Sources

Alternative Press, May 1995.

Billboard, February 12, 1994; February 11, 1995; March 25, 1995; April 15, 1995.

Boston Globe, May 20, 1994.

Boston Phoenix, March 17, 1995.

College Music Journal, April 1995.

Daily Variety, April 3, 1995.

Entertainment Weekly, March 17, 1995.

Metro Times (Detroit, Ml), March 2, 1994.

New Yorker, April 10, 1995.

Option, March 1995.

Pulse!, November 1992; December 1993.

Raygun, April 1995.

Request, April 1995.

Rolling Stone, March 24, 1994; July 14, 1994; March 23, 1995.

SF Weekly (San Francisco, CA), March 29, 1995.

USA Today, April 3, 1995.

Additional information for this profile was obtained from Rykodisc publicity materials, 1995.

Simon Glickman

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Morphine

MORPHINE

Formed: 1990, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Disbanded 1999

Members: Mark Sandman, lead vocals, 2-string bass guitar, keyboards (born 24 September 1952; died 3 July 1999); Dana Colley, baritone and tenor saxophones (born 17 October 1961); Billy Conway, drums (born 18 December 1956). Former member: Jerome Dupree, drums (born 9 November 1956).

Genre: Rock

Best-selling album since 1990: Cure for Pain (1993)


In an era ruled by guitar-driven grunge rock, Morphine was a band without a guitarist. The trio's minimalist sound and guttural grooves evoked midnight passion, foreboding scenarios, and abstract dreams. Its sensual, bluesy music was often compared to the nightmarish qualities of the experimental films of David Lynch, or the crime fiction of Jim Thompson. College airplay and positive press made the group one of the 1990s' best-respected cult bands.

Morphine emerged out of Treat Her Right, a conventional blues group headed by bassist and vocalist Mark Sandman. Saxophonist Dana Colley lived near Sandman and the two began to experiment together, creating what would become their signature sound. Sandman's deadpan voice sat in the same low octaves as Colley's baritone saxophone, and together they worked to supplant a lead guitar line. Surprised to discover such a minimal approach led to wider possibilities, they enlisted area drummer Jerome Dupree to complete the trio. In 1991 Morphine released its debut album Good on the independent label Accurate/Distortion. Rykodisc Records re-released Good the next year and Morphine received its first batch of solid reviews and college airplay across the country. Good was named Independent Album of the Year at the 1992 Boston Music Awards. Soon after, Dupree was replaced by Treat Her Right drummer Billy Conway.

Morphine's second album, Cure for Pain (1993), pushed the band into the mainstream and a word-of-mouth campaign that led to international tours, national press, and shows booked on large outdoor festival stages and lengthy residencies in small clubs.

Much of the fascination with Morphine revolved around its distinctive sound without a guitar, the signature instrument in rock. Morphine looked more like a jazz combo. "[Guitars] don't really matter," Conway told the Chicago Daily Herald in 1997. "Jerry Lee Lewis played piano and he rocked and Little Richard rocked. There's no law I know of that rock and roll has to have a guitar. I think the [rock] attitude is hopefully reflected in [the playing style] and hopefully we deliver the song in the proper package."

In 1996 Morphine jumped to Dream Works, a major label, and the following year the group released its fourth album Like Swimming. By that point Sandman's lyrics had grown darker, with images appearing to have been transcribed from dreams. "I swam out as far as I could swim 'til I was too tired to swim anymore and then tried to get my strength back," Sandman sings on the song "Empty Box." Despite a push from Dream Works, the album failed to bring Morphine big commercial success. On July 3, 1999, while on tour in Rome to promote the album, Sandman died onstage of a heart attack.

Morphine left a deep vault. In 2000 the posthumous album The Night was released, followed by the live album Bootleg: Detroit. In early 2003 Rykodisc released a best-of collection that included unreleased material. Conway and Colley toured as Orchestra Morphine in 2000 to say goodbye to fans. In 2002 they debuted as Twinemen, a new trio featuring singer Laurie Sargent.

Morphine's unusual sound and Sandman's wry, sobering vocals distinguished the band from its peers. Its albums tried to redefine the essential elements of rock.

SELECTIVE DISCOGRAPHY:

Good (Rykodisc, 1992); Cure for Pain (Rykodisc, 1993); Yes (Rykodisc, 1995); B-Sides and Otherwise (Rykodisc, 1997); Like Swimming (Dream Works, 1997); The Night (Dream-Works, 2000); Bootleg: Detroit (Rykodisc, 2000); The Best of Morphine 19921995 (Rykodisc, 2003).

WEBSITE:

www.morphine3.com.

mark guarino

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morphine

morphine, principal derivative of opium, which is the juice in the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. It was first isolated from opium in 1803 by the German pharmacist F. W. A. Sertürner, who named it after Morpheus, the god of dreams. Given intravenously, it is still considered the most effective drug for the relief of pain.

See also drug addiction and drug abuse.

Effects and Uses

Morphine, a narcotic, acts directly on the central nervous system. Besides relieving pain, it impairs mental and physical performance, relieves fear and anxiety, and produces euphoria. It also decreases hunger, inhibits the cough reflex, produces constipation, and usually reduces the sex drive; in women it may interfere with the menstrual cycle.

Morphine is highly addictive. Tolerance (the need for higher and higher doses to maintain the same effect) and physical and psychological dependence develop quickly. Withdrawal from morphine causes nausea, tearing, yawning, chills, and sweating lasting up to three days. Morphine crosses the placental barrier, and babies born to morphine-using mothers go through withdrawal.

Today morphine is used medicinally for severe pain, cough suppression, and sometimes before surgery. It is seldom used illicitly except by doctors and other medical personnel who have access to the drug. It is injected, taken orally or inhaled, or taken through rectal suppositories. Methadone treatment has been useful in curing morphine addiction.

History

Morphine was first used medicinally as a painkiller and, erroneously, as a cure for opium addiction. It quickly replaced opium as a cure-all recommended by doctors and as a recreational drug and was readily available from drugstores or through the mail. Substitution of morphine addiction for alcohol addiction was considered beneficial by some physicians because alcohol is more destructive to the body and is more likely to trigger antisocial behavior. Morphine was used during the American Civil War as a surgical anesthetic and was sent home with many wounded soldiers for relief of pain. At the end of the war, over 400,000 people had the "army disease," morphine addiction. The Franco-Prussian War in Europe had a similar effect.

In 1906 the Pure Food and Drug Act required accurate labeling of patent medicines and tonics. Various laws restricting the importation of opium were enacted, and the Harrison Narcotics Act (1914) prohibited possession of narcotics unless properly prescribed by a physician. Despite legislation, morphine maintained much of its popularity until heroin came into use, it in its turn believed to be a cure for morphine addiction.

Bibliography

See publications of the Drugs & Crime Data Center and Clearinghouse, the Bureau of Justice Statistics Clearinghouse, and the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information.

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Morphine

Morphine

Morphine is the most effective naturally-occurring compound used to relieve pain. It also induces sleep and produces euphoria (a feeling of well-being). Morphine is an opiate (derived from opium) and is named for Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams.

Morphine's Advantages and Disadvantages

Morphine is a narcotic (it dulls the senses). It acts on the central nervous system to allow a person to tolerate more pain than would otherwise be possible. Morphine produces a calming effect which protects the body in traumatic shock. Its greatest disadvantage is its addictiveness.

In 1898 the Bayer corporation synthesized methadone from morphine and marketed it as an antidote to morphine addiction. Methadone is a synthetic (artificial) drug that is less addictive than morphine. Today, methadone is often used in place of morphine as a pain killer. It is also used for the treatment of morphine and heroin addictions.

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morphine

morphine (mor-feen) n. a potent analgesic (see opiate) administered by mouth, injection, or in suppositories to relieve severe and persistent pain, particularly in terminally ill patients; it also induces feelings of euphoria. Trade names: Morcap, Morphgesic, Oramorph, Sevredol, Zomorph, etc.

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morphine

morphine White, crystalline alkaloid derived from opium. It depresses the central nervous system and is used as an analgesic for severe pain. An addictive drug, its use is associated with a number of side-effects, including nausea. Morphine was first isolated in 1806. See also heroin

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morphine

mor·phine / ˈmôrˌfēn/ • n. an analgesic and narcotic drug, C17H19NO3, obtained from opium and used medicinally to relieve pain.

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morphine

morphine An alkaloid present in opium (see opiate). It is an analgesic and narcotic, used medically for the relief of severe pain.

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Morphine

Morphine

Rock band

For The Record

Selected discography

Sources

How low can you go? Thats the musical question posed by Morphine, purveyors of low rock, a bottom-heavy, cacophonous rumble you can feel in your bones. Its produced by a decidedly unusual grouping of instruments: a baritone sax, drums, and a unique two-string bass thats played like a slide guitar. Unlike most rock bands, Morphine doesnt use a guitar or piano to carry the melody or fill sonic space. Instead, those notes are implied, like in certain jazz tunes, but the overall impact of Morphines music cant be denied. Like the bands name implies, low rocks effect is disorienting, feels somewhat illicit, and it totally addictive.

The concept of the low-rock sound was created by Mark Sandman, who died of a heart attack while performing in Italy on July 3, 1999. In some ways, he was the ultimate scenester among the Boston/Cambridge music community, maintaining numerous side projects before and during his tenure in Morphine. Creatively restless, he began experimenting with low sounds when he played in the Boston blues-rock quartet Treat Her Right. There, Sandman played a conventional six-string guitar, but did so through an octave-shifting effects pedal that made the instrument sound more like a bass.

He then switched to a conventional bass, but one with just a single string, reasoning (somewhat Zen-like) that all the notes hed need to play were on that one string. By the time Morphine took off, hed added a second string. Later, he would add a third, albeit one from a guitar, and call the invention the Tritar. Obviously, experimentation and innovation came naturally to Sandman, who was just 46 when he died.

Songwriting came naturally, too, and to hear a tune by Morphine is to hear something thats quite removed from mainstream pop and rock. Besides low rock, Morphines sound is sometimes called beat noir, in reference to its jazzy feelin a perfect world, the sound youd hear emanating from a smoky bar at unreasonable hours of the morningbut also its lyrical content, which is often dark, hard-boiled, and full of intrigue.

Sandman played with his Treat Her Right bandmates David Champagne, a guitarist and the leader of that group, harmonica player Jim Fitting, and drummer Billy Conway who would later join Morphine on the albums Treat Her Right, released in 1986, Tied to the Tracks, released in 1988, and Whats Good For You released in 1991. The first was released independently, but the second was recorded for RCA, who didnt know how to market the bands quirky sound and sensibility. For the third, they were back to indie status, working with Boston-based Rounder Records.

As Treat Her Right was in its final throes, Sandman was gigging all over the place, most frequently at

For The Record

Members include Dana Colley, baritone saxophone; Billy Conway (joined 1993), drums; Jerome Deupree (left band 1993), drums; Mark Sandman (died July 3, 1999), bass, vocals.

Group formed in Boston/Cambridge, Massachusetts area in 1992; released debut album Good on independent Accurate/Distortion label. It was later picked up by larger indie Rykodisc. Ryko also released albums Cure for Pain, 1993, and Yes, 1995, plus an album of rarities B-sides and Otherwise, 1997. The group was represented on numerous movie soundtracks, and built up a solid cult following through insurgent touring campaigns. Signed with DreamWorks label in 1996, resulting in Like Swimming, 1997, and their swan song, The Night,2000.

Addresses: Record company DreamWorks Records, 100 Universal Plaza, Bungalow 477, Universal City, CA 91608.

Cambridge nightspots the Plough & Stars and the Middle East. His various bands included Supergroup, a collaboration with Seattle-based Chris Ballew, who would eventually rise to fame with the Presidents of the United States of America. There was also Treat Her Orange (later the Pale Brothers), which found Sandman playing with mandolinist Jimmy Ryan of the Blood Oranges, and the Hyposonics, whose membership included future Morphine saxman Dana Colley and Either/Orchestra leader Russ Gershon.

Morphine, too, started out as just one among many of his projects, but Sandman was quick to recognize its potential. He formed the trio with Colley and drummer Jerome Deupree. As Boston Phoenix columnist Matt Ashare wrote of Morphine, [It] best captured the essence of Sandmans singular style: his deadpan delivery, his wry pulp-noir vignettes, his less is best aesthetic, and his love of loose R&B grooves rooted equally in the deep meaty blues of Howlin Wolf and Muddy Waters and the savvy pop funk of an artist like Prince, who was one of his all-time favorites.

The bands debut album was released through Russ Gershons Accurate/Distortion label in 1992. The next year, it was picked up by the independent but nationally distributed Rykodisc label, based in Salem, Massachusetts. There was nothing special about the songs themselvesWe write pretty standard three-minute rock songs with verses, choruses, and hooks, Sandman told the Boston Phoenix but the vibe of those songs was as indelible an individual stamp as a rock band can hope to muster these days.

Just as their music stood outside the mainstream, so did Morphines approach to the business of music. They didnt open shows for larger acts very often; instead, they did their own modest headlining tours, setting up short residencies in various towns and allowing their audience to develop organically. Sandman knew how to exploit what he had to work with, and let the press run with the bands odditieshe invented the term low rock for that very purposebut kept the particulars of his private life out of the papers.

While they were recording their second album, Cure for Pain, Deupree was replaced with Treat Her Right skinsman Billy Conway. The album, released in 1993, was less than a commercial sensation, but gained much wider exposure when some of the songs were used prominently in the film Spanking the Monkey. That, and almost universal critical praise, raised the group to a level of popularity that it was able to maintain until its untimely end.

Listening to early Morphine creates a sensation similar to slowly burning yourself with a cigarette, wrote Addicted to Noise contributor Seth Mnookin around the time of the release Morphines third album, Yes in 1995. Its a little scary, very intense, and impossible to stop because youre so determined to feel whats going to happen next. That sort of response was typical of a Morphine fan, and the group sated its publics desire for material with numerous singles sprinkled with bonus tracks and songs on various soundtracks. A collection of such odds and ends, B-Sides and Otherwise, surfaced in 1997.

Just before that, Morphine became the second act signed to DreamWorks records, the music arm of the entertainment conglomerate owned by Steven Spielberg, David Geffen, and Jeffrey Katzenberg. The album Like Swimming found the band varying the low-rock sound to a degree, incorporating instruments such as guitar, tritar, mellotron, and female background vocals into the mix. Ultimately, though, low rock was Morphines hook, not an end in itself, and there were no hard and fast rules about what could and couldnt be done within the context of the band.

That became even more the case on The Night, the album Morphine had finished just before Sandman collapsed on a stage outside Rome and was pronounced dead-on-arrival at a local hospital. The Night seems a fitting epitaph, however, because its music finds Morphines sound taken to its logical conclusion as a unique brand of chamber-rockadding more, and somehow ending up with less. Only Morphine could do that. Keyboards, violin, cello, and double bass, acoustic and electric guitars, oud, and various hand drums are played on the album. Drummer Deupree is back, too, playing in tandem with Conway on nearly every track. In some ways, the album is the lowest of the low, which is meant as both a compliment and a tribute to Sandman, who brought something unique to music something not very many musicians can claim.

The Night may have been Sandmans final work, but it was not the last word on his legacy. In late 1999, Morphines surviving membersConway, Colley, and Deupree as wellformed Orchestra Morphine, a big band that toured the country, playing Sandmans music in a new, and wholly fleshed out fashion. Sidemembers included Either/Orchestra leader and Accurate Records executive Russ Gershon, trumpeter Tom Halter, keyboardist Evan Harriman, bassist Mike Rivard, and singers Laurie Sargent and Christian McNeill.

Whether Orchestra Morphine can go on to create new music without Sandman seems unlikely, though not entirely impossible. He was a visionary, DreamWorks chief Lenny Waronker said of the fallen musician. He invented a sound that was unique. He was one of a kind; he was uncompromising. It might be a cliché to call someone the real thing, because too many say that these days, but in his case its the truth. He was truly the real deal.

Selected discography

Albums

Good, Accurate/Distortion, 1992; Rykodisc, 1993.

Cure for Pain, Rykodisc, 1993.

Yes, Rykodisc, 1995.

Like Swimming, Rykodisc, 1997.

B-Sides and Otherwise, Rykodisc, 1997.

The Night, DreamWorks, 2000.

Soundtrack appearances

You Look Like Rain, The Best of Mountain Stage, Vol 7, Blue Plate, 1994.

Yes, National Lampoons Senior Trip Original Soundtrack, Capricorn, 1995.

I Had My Chance, Bos Veranda, Get Shorty, Antilles, 1995.

Radar, Safe and Sound, Mercury, 1996.

Gone for Good, 2 Days in the Valley Original Soundtrack, 1996.

Kerouac, Kerouac: Kicks Joy Darkness, Rykodisc, 1997.

This Is Not a Dream (with Apollo 440), Spawn: The Album, Epic, 1997.

11 OClock, Phoenix Original Soundtrack, Will Records, 1998.

Honey White, MTV 120 Minutes Live, Atlantic, 1998.

Hanging on a Curtain, La Femme Nikita Original TV Soundtrack, TVT, 1998.

I Had My Chance, Murder for the Money, Wild Things Original Soundtrack, Varese Sarabande, 1998.

Youre an Artist, The Mod Squad Original Soundtrack, Elektra, 1999.

Sheila, IFCln Your Ear Volume 1: Original Soundtracks, Hybrid, 1999.

Radar, Condo Painting: Life From a Different Angle Original Soundtrack, Gallery Six, 2000.

Sources

Periodicals

Billboard, July 17, 1999.

Boston Phoenix, July 9-15, 1999.

Seattle Post Intelligencer, May 12, 2000.

Online

Addicted to Noise, http://www.addict.eom/issues/1.05/Features/Morphine/(June 23, 2000)

Boston Rock Storybook, http://www.rockinboston.com/morphine.htm (June 26, 2000)

Daniel Durchholz

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