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Tai Chi

Tai Chi

Definition

T'ai chi is a Chinese exercise system that uses slow, smooth body movements to achieve a state of relaxation of both body and mind.

Purpose

As a system of physical exercise used to improve and maintain health, t'ai chi can be helpful in achieving a state of physical and mental relaxation while also strengthening the cardiovascular and immune systems.

Precautions

As a very slow and gentle form of moving, tai chi has virtually no side effects. However, if a person has any doubts about the conditions of his or her joints, vertebrae, or heart, a physician should be consulted.

Description

Developed originally in China as a self-defense strategy, or martial art, tai chithe "supreme ultimate fist"is practiced in modern times primarily as a gentle exercise technique. Described as "meditation in motion," tai chi consists of a standing person performing a series of postures or bodily movements in a slow and graceful manner, with each movement flowing without pause to the next. According to Chinese legend, the technique was created by a Taoist monk who was inspired as he watched a crane and a snake do battle. Impressed by the 'snake's ability to subtly and swiftly avoid the bird's thrusts, he devised a series of self-defense techniques that do not involve meeting the opponent's force with force, but rather stress evading the blow; causing the opponent's own momentum to work against him.

Tai chi is an ancient form of exercise, about 2,000 years old, that at one point had over 100 separate movements or postures. In current practice, there are two popular versions, of 18 and 37 movements respectively. The fact that in China 10 million people practice some type of t'ai chi daily suggests that it is the one of the most popular forms of exercise in the world. In the United States, t'ai chi is learned in classes in which students (or "players," as they are called in China) wear loose, comfortable clothing and either go barefoot or wear only socks or soft shoes on the feet. In China, t'ai chi is almost always practiced outdoors at dawn, and ideally near trees. Unlike other martial arts, t'ai chi is not competitive. Classes usually begin with a few minutes of standing meditation to calm the mind and gather energy. Following warm-up exercises, students are taught the basics of a particular form or posture. Learning forms is not easy, and it takes some time to master what looks like a simple position. Properly done postures are done in a relaxed, artful, and linked way, with the circular and rhythmic movements of one position flowing seamlessly into the next.

While strict attention to body position is critical, proper breathing is considered to be equally important. Just as movements are slow and continuous and without strain, breathing should be effortless yet deep. Finally, both mental and physical balance is considered essential to t'ai chi. The experienced practitioner of t'ai chi maintains perfect body balance throughout the exercise series. Altogether, the five essential qualities of t'ai chi are:

  • Slowness. To develop awareness.
  • Lightness. To make movements flow.
  • Balance. To prevent body strain.
  • Calmness. To maintain continuity.
  • Clarity. To focus the mind.

T'ai chi has both physical and mental benefits. If done regularly, it improves muscle tone, flexibility, balance, and coordination. Many older people find that it boosts their energy, stamina, and agility, sharpens their reflexes, and gives an overall sense of well-being. The calming and meditative aspects of t'ai chi allow many to experience its ability to relieve stress. Some claim t'ai chi to be a healing therapy, and it is often used to support other treatments for chronic conditions; arthritis, fibromyalgia, and digestive disorders are just three examples. Like yoga, t'ai chi has several different styles to suit the individual. Also, it can eventually be done daily by oneself, and ultimately becomes a very personal endeavor. Most Westerners find it best to practice t'ai chi in the same place and at the same time of day; and those who enjoy it most are those who are not seeking major, dramatic breakthroughs, but rather who can take pleasure in small gains that accumulate over a long period of time.

Some research done in the United States focuses on the emotional and psychological benefits of t'ai chi. One recently discovered advantage of t'ai chi is its ability to hold people's interest longer than many other forms of exercise. One study in Oregon found that only 20% of people enrolled in a six-month t'ai chi program dropped out before the end, compared to an average of 55% for other forms of exercise. With regard to depression, a study of college students found that those who were taking t'ai chi classes had a lower rate of depression than students enrolled in other fitness programs.

Risks

T'ai chi is a safe exercise system for people of all ages and fitness levels. Done properly, without any over-stretching, t'ai chi should not leave a person feeling tired or sore.

Normal results

Besides its overall fitness benefits and stress reduction aspects, regular t'ai chi sessions are said to be especially helpful for seniors, as they lower their blood pressure. T'ai chi claims to benefit arthritis sufferers, those recovering from an injury or rehabilitating their hearts, and also improves balance, and therefore, reduces the risk of falling, especially important for the elderly. T'ai chi can result in a significant improvement in the quality of life for anyone. But, because of the low stress level of the exercises it is a particularly attractive form of exercise to seniors.

KEY TERMS

Arthritis Inflammation of the joints.

Cardiovascular Relating to the heart and blood vessels.

Continuity Uninterrupted and successive.

Fibromyalgia A chronic disease syndrome characterized by fatigue, widespread muscular soreness, and pain at specific points on the body.

Meditation An exercise of contemplation that induces a temporary feeling of relaxation.

Stamina Staying power, endurance.

Yoga A system of exercise aimed at promoting the control of the body and the mind.

In addition to studying the cardiovascular and range-of-motion benefits of t'ai chi, researchers are also investigating its positive effects on the immune system. A team of scientists in California reported in 2003 that t'ai chi boosts the resistance of older people to the shingles virusa virus that is both more common and more severe in the elderly.

Resources

BOOKS

Pelletier, Kenneth R., MD. The Best Alternative Medicine, Part I: Sound Mind, Sound Body. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002.

PERIODICALS

Christou, E. A., Y. Yang, and K. S. Rosengren. "Taiji Training Improves Knee Extensor Strength and Force Control in Older Adults." Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 58 (August 2003): 763-766.

Cooper, Bob. "An Exercise in Vitality: Put Away Your PrejudicesT'ai Chi Ain't Just for Senior Citizens and Vegans." Men's Fitness 18 (September 2002): 86-91.

Filusch Betts, Elaine. "The Effect of t'ai Chi on Cardiorespiratory Function in Patients with Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery." Physical Therapy September 1999.

Irwin, M. R., J. L. Pike, J. C. Cole, and M. N. Oxman. "Effects of a Behavioral Intervention, T'ai Chi Chih, on Varicella-Zoster Virus Specific Immunity and Health Functioning in Older Adults." Psychosomatic Medicine 65 (September-October 2003): 824-830.

Li, F., K. J. Fisher, P. Harmer, and E. McAuley. "Delineating the Impact of T'ai Chi Training on Physical Function Among the Elderly." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 23 (August 2002): 92-97.

Song, R., E. O. Lee, P. Lam, and S. C. Bae. "Effects of T'ai Chi Exercise on Pain, Balance, Muscle Strength, and Perceived Difficulties in Physical Functioning in Older Women with Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Clinical Trial." Journal of Rheumatology 30 (September 2003): 2039-2044.

Taggart, H. M., C. L. Arslanian, S. Bae, and K. Singh. "Effects of T'ai Chi Exercise on Fibromyalgia Symptoms and Health-Related Quality of Life." Orthopaedic Nursing 22 (September-October 2003): 353-360.

ORGANIZATIONS

American Association of Oriental Medicine. 5530 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 1210, Chevy Chase, MD 20815. (301) 941-1064. www.aaom.org.

Canadian Taijiquan Federation. P.O. Box 421, Milton, Ontario L9T 4Z1. www.canadiantaijiquanfederation.ca.

Northeastern Tai Chi Chuan Association. 163 West 23rd St., 5th Floor., New York, NY 10011 (212) 741-1922.

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T'ai Chi Ch'uan

T'ai Chi Ch'uan

A system of ancient Chinese physical movements, designed to build up subtle energy in the body, resulting in spiritual development. For centuries it was a secret taught only to males in certain families, but by the middle of the nineteenth century it was openly taught in Peking.

The roots of T'ai Chi Ch'uan are said to go back to the breathing exercises of Taoist monks in the 2nd century B.C.E.

The purported founder of the actual Tai Chi Chuan system was a fifteenth century monk named Chang San-feng.

The yielding, supple philosophy behind T'ai Chi Ch'uan is summarized in the Tao Te Ching:

"A man is born gentle and weak, at his death hard and stiff. Green plants are tender and filled with sap, at their death they are withered and dry. Therefore the stiff and unbending is the disciple of death. The gentle and yielding is the disciple of life. Thus an army without flexibility never wins a battle. A tree that is unbending is easily broken. The hard and strong will fall. The soft and weak will overcome."

In addition to the philosophy there are 37 basic exercises and postures that are repeated with variations, culminating in some 65 or 108 exercises fusing energetic with relaxed movement. During practice, it is important to be concerned with centering the body with meditation and relaxation. T'ai Chi Ch'uan is often linked with the study of the I Ching to enhance the philosophical aspects of the system.

Although T'ai Chi Ch'uan has been facetiously referred to as "shadow boxing," it often resembles a slow-motion ballet, and has been described as "yoga in movement." Like the asanas of hatha yoga, T'ai Chi Ch'uan takes the names of its forms from animals or events occurring in nature: "White Crane Spreads Its Wings," "Meteor Runs After Moon," or "Brush Dust Against the Wind." Both hatha yoga and T'ai Chi exercises encompass focused concentration and special breathing patterns. But while the graceful, flowing movements of T'ai Chi seem to superficially contrast with the asanas, developing forms of yoga movement bring the two regimens closer together.

T'ai Chi has become popular in the United States, as Americans realize the great health benefits of the practice. Most often the elderly do these exercises to regain strength and balance, greatly decreasing their chances of injuries from falls. The slow movements of T'ai Chi make it easy for everyone to practice and still gain health benefits.

Sources:

Cheng, Man-ching. Tai-Chi. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic,1981.

Crompton, Paul. The T'ai Chi Workbook. Boston: Shambala Publishing, Inc., 1987.

Da Liu. T'ai Chi Ch'uan and I Ching. New York: Harper & Row, 1972.

. T'ai Chi Ch'uan and Meditation. New York: Schocken Books, 1986.

Feng, Gia-Fu and Jane English. Lao Tsu: Tao Te Ching. New York: Vintage Books, 1972.

Perfetti, Ron. T'ai Chi Chuan Overview. http://www.maui.net/~taichi4u/overview.html. April 14, 2000.

Smith, Robert W. Chinese Boxing. New York: Kodansha, 1981.

T'ai Chi Magazine. http://www.tai-chi.com/. April 17, 2000.

"Tao & Tai Chi." http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/Philosophy/Taichi/tao-chi.html. April 4, 2000.

"The Heaven and Earth Academy of T'ai Chi." http://www.taichinews.com/. April 6, 2000.

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Tai Chi

Tai Chi Neo-Confucian concept of the Supreme Ultimate, the intrinsic energy of the universe (chi). The philosophy of tai chi was developed by Chou Tun-i (1017–73) and Chu His (1130–1200). Tai chi also refers to the most popular form of exercise in China – a martial arts-based series of slow, flowing movements designed to enhance the effective flow of Chi around the body. See also Confucianism; Taoism

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"Tai Chi." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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t'ai chi ch'uan

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