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Hair

HAIR

"Hair is the crowning glory"this old double-play of words emphasizes the significance of hair for men and women. From a physiological point of view, hair provides mechanical protection, insulation, and a wick effect for the dispersal of lubricating sebum and sweat over the adjacent skin. The personalization of hair as a means of defining individual (or group) identity is of equally importance in many societies. It has fundamental social and cultural significance for the individual.

The structure of hair and its growth

The structure of hair is analogous to a plant bulb. The whole unit, with its immediate surrounding, is termed a follicle (see Figure 1). The plant bulb is equivalent to the bulbous hair germ, while the sprouting plant is equivalent to the hair. A plant bulb, which is dormant near the soil surface during the winter, begins to sprout in the spring. It moves deeper into the earth and then grows into a full plant, which lasts over the summer. In the fall, the plant shrivels and is detached. The bulb then goes into a resting phase and resprouts the next spring.

The three phases of the hair life-cycle are equivalent (see Figure 1) and are termed anagen (growing phase), catagen (transitional phase), and telogen (resting phase). The lustrous scalps of young adulthood have about 100,000 hairs, blondes having more and redheads less. This number declines in healthy individuals to forty to fifty thousand hairs between the ages of thirty and fifty, at which time the apparent bulk of the hair is 50 percent thinner.

Normally, about 90 percent of hair is in the anagen phase and 10 percent in the telogen phase. Hair is shed daily, with a loss of fifty to one hundred hairsoften found on a brush or pillow as club (the small knob on the root end) hairs.

The number of hair follicles is the same in men and women. No new ones develop after fetal life. The juvenile soft hair of childhood becomes the firmer and more lustrous terminal hair of adolescence.

Changes with age

The number of active follicles declines by 30 to 50 percent between the ages of thirty and fifty. This is associated with a decline of male-type hormonal substances. The hair becomes sparser and the sebaceous (grease) gland enlarges. The gland output is reduced by as much as 30 percent in women, but this is more variable and sometimes increased in men.

The graying of hair

Melanin is the brown pigment produced by cells termed melanocytes. These cells lie in the bottom layer of the epidermis. The amount of dark pigment that is produced declines with age. At the same time, the central medullary space of the shaft enlarges. Light reflection from the cell surfaces of the cuticle and cortex is also increased. The combination of these changes is generally accepted as the cause of hair graying with age. It is more obvious in dark-haired individuals but appears more complete in lighter haired individuals. The whole process is under genetic control.

There are racial variations. While graying appears as early as twenty years of age in Caucasians and at thirty in Africans, the first appearance of gray hair generally occurs at around thirty-five in Caucasians. By age fifty, 50 percent of the population has some degree of significant graying. The process starts about five years later in Africans, and five years earlier in Japanese. Beard and moustache hair changes before the scalp and body hair. On the scalp, the temple hair grays first, followed by the crown and then back of the scalp. The whole process is a normal physiological change. In any given individual, the age at which graying becomes noticed, and the rate of graying, is not related to the overall rate of biological aging.

Baldness

The most common cause of balding, by far, is physiological. The firm terminal hair of mature adulthood is replaced by soft vellus haira relic of the first immature hair of infancy and early childhood. This process is under genetic control, with inherited influence on male-type hormones. The onset can be as young as seventeen in males and in the mid-twenties in females. In general, the areas that are the last to get terminal hair are the first to lose it (see Figure 2). The average of onset in males is in the late twenties and in females in the mid-thirties (see Figure 3).

Reversible hair loss. Physiological balding is not reversible, but there are other types of balding that are reversible. For example, the hair shaft can break because of fungal infection or from repeated peroxide bleaching.

Hair can fall prematurely from the follicle. This is termed telogen effluvium. It can follow an infective illness, or from some other mild toxic process that occurred six to eight weeks beforehand. The hair suddenly falls out in unusual amounts, leaving a thin scalp covering. Previously unnoticed physiological baldness may then be revealed, sometimes causing anxiety. Telogen effluvium is self-limiting, although in some cases the problem continues for a number of years before ceasing spontaneously. Rarer causes relate to hormone irregularity, particularly, thyroid hormones. Dietary factors, such as a general food deficiency, protein deficiency, low blood iron, or, more rarely, low zinc levels, are sometimes responsible. A sudden unexplained onset in older patients always raises concern of an underlying malignancy.

Alopecia areata is a harmless form of patchy baldness that can occur at any time of life. The hair ceases to grow in its mid-anagen cycle and falls out. Usually there are solitary or multiple round patches of baldness, but it can be widespread over the scalp, mimicking other forms of diffuse hair loss. When there is apparent loss of the hair follicle, this condition is termed scarring alopecia. Sometimes the follicle opening cannot be seen in normal balding. Burns caused by heat or chemicals can destroy the hair root, as well as some chronic inflammatory conditions. The cause of hair loss can be complex, and assessment by a knowledgeable physician is often required.

Common scalp nuisances of older persons

There are two common irritations of the scalp that may be associated with temporary hair loss: psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis, which is commonly known as dandruff.

Two percent of the population have psoriasis at any given time. Its cause is not known, although constitutional factors play an important role, as do other trigger factors. Psoriasis can appear at any time in life. It frequently occurs in adults as sharp-edged scaly red patches on the elbows and knees. It can be more extensive over the trunk and limbs, and can also affect the body folds. Discrete patches can occur on the scalp and occasionally involve the whole scalp. Psoriasis can sometimes be itchy. Tar shampoos can give relief if used on a daily basis, and there are other remedies than are available by prescription, though no permanent cure exists.

Seborrheic dermatitis develops after adolescence. With this condition, the scalp is excessively scaly and greasy, and can be intolerably itchy. Those with greasy coarse-pored skin are more prone to seborrheic dermatitis, and older men are affected more than women. Greasy yellowish scales are found in patches, or are diffuse about the scalp. The skin may be red and inflamed. It may also be present on the hairy areas of the face, on the forehead, or down the broad folds at the side of the nose. Its cause is not fully known, but there is a sensitivity in some people to a naturally occurring, common yeast that overgrows in the scalp skin. Tar shampoo used on a regular basis, or a sulphur-releasing shampoo used intermittently, can be helpful.

General care of the older scalp

The scalps of older persons deserve as much attention as those of younger people. Appropriate grooming, including washing, combing, and brushing is required for a healthy scalp. Normal cosmetic attention, including waving and setting, should not impair scalp health, so long as there is not undue tension on the hair. Dyeing and other forms of hair coloring can also be used without adverse consequences.

J. Barrie Ross

See also Andropause; Menopause; Skin.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Arndt, K. A.; Robinson, J. K.; Leboit, P. E.; and Wintroub, B. U. Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, section 8, pages 12451294. Philadelphia, Pa.: W. B. Saunders, 1996.

Champion, R. H.; Burton, J. L.; Burns, D. A.; and Breathnach, S. M. Textbook of Dermatology, 6th ed. Edited by Rook/Wilkinson/Ebling. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 1998.

Sinclair, R. D.; Banfield, C. C.; and Dawber, R. P. R. Handbook of Diseases of the Hair and Scalp. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 1999.

Whiting, D. A. "Chronic Telogen Effluvium: Increased Scalp Hair Shedding in Middle-Aged Women." Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 35 (1996): 899906.

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hair

hair is present in differing degrees on all mammals, and its most important function in those other than human is to conserve body heat by insulating against cold. Humans are the most hairless of all mammals, and yet hair occupies a central place in human development and sense of self. Whether it is the gradual decrease of hair leading to male baldness, the loss of pigment leading to white or grey hairs and signalling the onset of middle age, or the adolescent desire for the pubic hair that signals approaching adulthood, hair often tells others something about our place in culture.

Hair types and styles have, at various times, in various countries and on various continents, come to be associated with definitions of race, the possibility of being or becoming the right kind of woman, with radicalism or revolution, and with the right to occupy a particular social space in a class hierarchy. While often discussed as a personal statement of style or fashion, humanity's relationship to hair is far more complicated.

During the monarchy in France, the prince's hair, for example, was never cut — it was curled and pampered. Rastafarian followers of the early twentieth-century Ethiopian religious leader Haile Selassie not only refused to cut theirs, but were forbidden to comb it either. Early records indicate that the ancient Egyptians, men and women alike, shaved their hair off and wore wigs. Prostitutes in Nazi Germany were forced to shave off their hair so they could be easily identified and shamed. In the post-war period, women who had collaborated with the Nazis were similarly forced to shave their heads. Delila cut off Samson's long hair so that she could strip him of his fabled strength and power. As a sign of respect for the law and British custom, judges and lawyers during America's colonial period wore powdered wigs over their natural hair. Rapunzel let her hair cascade out of a window and down a tower so that Prince Charming might climb up and rescue her from imprisonment. Among the Yoruba people, hair signifies aesthetic value; and for East African pastoral peoples, such as the Pokot and Samburu, its styling indicates age status. A 1970s American Broadway musical, Hair, received numerous awards and set records for attendance.

Individual human hairs vary in colour, diameter, and contour. The different colours result from variations in the amount, distribution, and type of melanin pigment in them, as well as from variations in surface structure that cause light to be reflected in different ways. Hairs may be coarse, or so thin and colourless as to be nearly invisible. Straight hairs are round in cross section, while wavy hairs are alternately oval and round; very curly and kinky hairs are shaped like twisted ribbons. During the nineteenth century, renowned social scientists posited relationships between some of these variations in hair type and intelligence, or the potential for civilized behaviour, and indeed, in some instances, saw them as a marker of humanness.

In his 1848 Natural History of the Human Species, Charles Hamilton Smith, for example, suggested that hair type is crucial for defining the three typical ‘stocks’, or races, of mankind: the bearded Caucasian, the beardless Mongolian, and the woolly-haired Negro. His work included a chart which positions the ‘woolly-haired’ at the base of a triangular hierarchy and the Caucasians at the apex. Smith's ‘woolly-haired race’ became a metaphor for African physical traits which served prima facie as evidence of racial difference, such as mental ‘lack’, and as a justification for slavery and racial discrimination. The lingering effects of such pseudo-scientific theories may help to explain why people of African descent continue to spend billions of dollars each year trying chemically to alter the texture of their hair in order to make it straight, as opposed to ‘woolly’.

Each hair grows from a hair follicle in the deep layer of the skin. There are different types of hair at different stages in life, and in different parts of the body. The first to develop is the lanugo, a layer of downy, slender hairs that begin growing in the third or fourth month of fetal life and are entirely shed either before or shortly after birth. During the first few months of infancy appears fine, short, unpigmented hairs called down hair, or vellus. Vellus covers every part of the body except the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, undersurfaces of the fingers and toes, and a few other places. At and following puberty, this hair is supplemented by longer, coarser, more heavily pigmented hair, called terminal hair, that develops in the armpits, genital regions, and, in males, on the face and sometimes on parts of the trunk and limbs. The growth and the distribution of hair are under the influence of the sex hormones. The hair of the scalp, eyebrows, and eyelashes are of separate type and develop fairly early in life. On the scalp, where hair is usually densest and longest, the average total number of hairs is between 100 000 and 150 000. Human hair grows at a rate of 10–13 mm/month. While hair texture and type was of importance for nineteenth-century social scientists in the shaping of racial hierarchies, for middle-class women in Christian countries, hair length has been important in the shaping of hierarchies of femininity. In part due to a passage in the King James version of the Bible (‘if a woman have long hair, it is Glory to Her’ 1 Cor: 11–15), such women the world over have often been urged by society at large, and by patriarchs in their individual households, to wear their hair in long, precisely styled hair-dos that they refrained from cutting. During the Victorian period the long, elaborately-styled hairdos favoured by the middle classes signalled wealth, leisure time, and modesty (it was almost impossible for a woman to fix her hair in one of the fashionable styles without the paid help of a hairdresser, and the styling could often take three hours or more). During the 1920s, women who ‘bobbed’ or cut their hair to ear length caused a furore in Europe and the US. The new hair style, which went hand in hand with shockingly at, or above, the knee skirt lengths was seen as immodest and outside of prevailing standards of decency. This was true in part because bobbed hair was immediately favoured by women in the ‘world's oldest profession’ due to its ease of care.

By the late 1960s, long hair came to be back in vogue amongst male and female youth in America. However, far from being a return to the earlier ideals of propriety often associated with long hair, lengthy hair now denoted a counter culture or radical stance in both white and black communities. One of the surest ways for white teenagers and young adults to identify themselves as in rebellion against prevailing middle-class ideals and culture, and governmental political strategies, was to wear their hair in the long, straight styles favoured by hippies, flower children, and political activists. During this same period afros came to be a popular style in African–American communities. The afro was understood to denote black pride, which became synonymous with black nationalism, activism, and a radical political consciousness. This sentiment moved sharply against the prevailing integrationist ideology and evidenced a belief that the gains of the Civil Rights Movement were not broad-based enough, and was a style favoured by radical groups like the Black Panthers.

In addition to the presence or absence of hair, hair texture and styling have played a long and important role in human history. It is not clear just why hair has come to mean so very much to so many people, but there is no mistaking the important role that hair has played in the process of identifying a relationship to a particular culture or subculture. Hair can lead to acceptance or rejection by certain groups and social classes, and its styling can enhance or detract from career advancement. What many envision as a personal statement is also implicated in an intricate web of religious and social politics.

Noliwe Rooks


See also baldness; sex hormones; skin.

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Hair

193. Hair

See also 33. BALDNESS ; 37. BEARDS

alopecia
1. a loss of hair, feathers, or wool.
2. baldness. alopecic, adj.
chaetophobia
an abnormal fear of hair.
crinosity
the state of being hairy. crinous, adj.
electrology
the use of electrolysis for removing moles, warts, or excess hair. electrologist, n.
hirsutism
1. a condition of shaggy hairiness.
2. Biology. the state of being covered with long, stiff hairs. hirsute, adj.
hispidity
the state or quality of being covered with small spines or bristles. hispid, adj.
hypertrichosis
a condition of excessive hairiness either all over the body or covering a particular part.
Leiotrichi
people with smooth hair; a division of mankind characterized by people with such hair. Cf. Ulotrichi. Leiotrichan, adj.
madarosis
the loss of hair, especially of the eyelashes, as a result of disease.
madisterium
a surgical instrument for pulling out hairs.
melanosity
darkness or blackness of eyes, hair, or complexion.
pilosism, pilosity
an excessive hairiness; furriness. pilose, adj.
psilosis
falling out of the hair.
schizotrichia
a condition of splitting of the hair.
tonsure
1. the act or process of cutting the hair, especially as a religious rite or custom.
2. the shaved part of the head, usually the crown, of a member of a religious order. tonsorial, adj.
trichiasis
a condition in which the hair grows inward, especially the eyelashes.
trichoanesthesia
Medicine. a loss of hair sensibility.
trichobezoar
a hairball.
trichoclasia
a condition of extreme brittleness of the hair, often following an illness.
trichology
Medicine. the scientific study of hair and its diseases. trichologist, n.
trichoma
a condition of the hair in which it is matted or crusted.
trichomania
an obsession with hair.
trichomycosis
any disease of the hair caused by a fungus.
trichopathy
Medicine. any disease of the hair. trichopathic, adj.
trichophagy
the practice of eating hair.
trichorrhexomania
a mania for pinching off ones hair.
trichosis
1. Medicine. any disease or abnormal growth of the hair.
2. a heavy growth of hair.
trichotillomania
Medicine. an abnormal desire to pull out ones own hair, especially by delirious patients. Also called trichologia.
Ulotrichi
people with woolly, tightly curled, or crisp hair; a division of mankind characterized by people with such hair. Cf. Leiotrichi. ulotrichous, adj.
villosity
the condition or quality of being covered with long, soft hairs, as certain plants, or hairlike appendages, as certain of the membranes of the body. villous, adj.
xanthochroid
a person with light-colored hair and fair complexion. xanthochroid, xanthochroous, adj.

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hair

hair, slender threadlike outgrowth from the skin of mammals. In some animals hair grows in dense profusion and is called fur or wool. Although all mammals show some indication of hair formation, dense hair is more common among species located in colder climates and has the obvious function of insulation against the cold. Other functions include camouflage and protection against dust and sand. The long, sensitive hairs, called tactile hairs, that are located around the mouth area of most mammals are extremely sensitive to touch. Each hair filament originates in a deep pouchlike depression of the epidermis, called a hair follicle, which penetrates into the dermis. The root of the hair extends down into the hair follicle and widens into an indented bulb at its base. Extending into the indentation is the papilla, the center of hair growth, which contains the capillaries and nerves that supply the hair. Newly dividing cells at the base of the hair multiply, forcing the cells above them upward. As the cells move upward, they gradually die and harden into the hair shaft. The hair shaft has two layers, the cuticle and the cortex. The cuticle (outer layer) consists of flat, colorless overlapping cells; below the cuticle is the cortex, containing pigment and a tough protein called keratin; it forms the bulk of the hair shaft. Coarse hair, such as that of the scalp, contains an additional inner core called the medulla. Hair is lubricated by sebaceous glands that are located in the hair follicle. Illness or stress may lessen the secretion of pigment, which normally gives color to hair, and cause the hair shaft to whiten. However, the normal process of whitening that comes with age is determined by heredity. In humans, scalp hairs are generally shed every two to four years, while body hairs are shed more frequently. Straight-textured hair, round in cross section, is common among Native Americans, Eskimos, and Mongolic peoples. Kinky or woolly hair, flat in cross section, prevails among the dark peoples of Africa, Australia, and elsewhere. Wavy or curly hair, common among Caucasians, is oval in cross section. The color of hair is determined by the amount of pigment and air spaces in the cortex and medulla. Hair color and texture are inherited characteristics.

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Hair

Hair. Hair is a visible and continuous sign of growth (or, in its cessation, of the approach of death), and as an indication of vigour, it lends itself to various statements of relationship to God or to other goals—e.g., the Nazirite vow in Judaism. Christianity adopted a sign of dedication in the opposite direction, by introducing the tonsure, the shaving of the top of the head of priests and monks. Tonsure has taken different forms, from the shaving of the whole head to only a part, often leaving a fringe to draw out the symbolism of the crown of thorns.

In E. religions, comparable contrasts can be found. Thus among Hindus, keśāntah, the first shaving of the beard, is one of the saṃskāras; but a Hindu ascetic will leave his hair long and matted (juṭā): Śiva, in particular, displays his contrasted modes of activity through the style of his hair. Among Sikhs, a Khālsā Sikh is prohibited from cutting hair from any part of his body, and keś is one of the Five Ks. Among Rastafarians, a similar message of identity is sent through hairstyle, but this may be by ‘dreadlocks’ or by careful cutting (for the long locks of Jews see PEOT). A further extension can be seen in care taken to cover the head—for example, in the custom for some Jewish women of wearing a wig (shaytl/sheitel) in public (see HEAD, COVERING OF).

To bring order into this diversity, E. Leach (‘Magical Hair’), Journ. of the R. Anth. Inst. 1958) argued that the treatment of hair denotes social responses related to ideal social categories. Thus long hair is related to unrestrained sexuality, short or tightly bound hair is related to restricted sexuality, closely shaved hair is related to celibacy. C. R. Hallpike (‘Social Hair’, Man, 1969) argued that hair rituals cannot be mapped on to sexual opportunity alone. In his view, the treatment indicates relation to the acceptance or rejection of social control.

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Hair

314. Hair

  1. Absalom hair entangled in branches, he was left dangling. [O.T.: II Samuel 18:9]
  2. Aslaug used hair as cloak to meet king. [Norse Myth.: Walsh Classical, 35]
  3. Beatles famous English rock group whose initial appeal was derived partly from their moplike haircuts. [Br. Hist.: NCE, 253]
  4. Bes shaggy-haired, shortlegged god with tail. [Egyptian Myth.: Leach, 138]
  5. Buffalo Bill (William F. Cody, 18461917) American cowboy and showman whose image was fortified by his long blond hair. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 390]
  6. Cousin Itt Addamss relative; four feet tall and completely covered with blond hair. [TV: The Addams Family in Terrace, I, 29]
  7. Custer, General George (18391876) American army officer whose image included long, yellowish hair. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 701]
  8. Enkidu hirsute companion of Gilgamesh. [Babyl. Myth.: Gilgamesh ]
  9. Godiva, Lady (d. 1057) Leofrics wife who rode through Coventry clothed only in her long, golden hair. [Br. Hist.: Payton, 274]
  10. Gruagach the hairy one; fairy lady. [Scot. Folklore: Briggs, 206207]
  11. hippies 1960s dropouts of American culture usually identified with very long hair adorned with flowers. [Popular Culture: Misc.]
  12. Hair rock musical celebrating youthful exuberance as evidenced by growing long hair. [Am. Mus.: On Stage, 517]
  13. Mullach, Meg long-haired and hairy-handed brownie. [Scot. Folklore: Briggs, 284285]
  14. Rapunzel her golden tresses provide access to tower loft. [Ger. Fairy Tale: Rapunzel ]
  15. Samson the Hercules of the Israelites; rendered powerless when Delilah cut off his hair. [O.T.: Judges 1316]

Happiness (See JOY .)

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Hair

Hair

Hair has had an occult significance since ancient times. It seems to have a life of its own, since it may continue to grow after the death of the body. It has been regarded as a source of strength and sexuality and has played a part in religion and magical rituals. The Hebrews developed a number of customs relative to hair that served to separate them from their pagan neighbors, a fact which is played out in the story of Samson and Delilah (Judg. 16:4-22)

In various cultures, individuals dedicated to service of the priesthood have undergone ritual cutting of hair, and the tonsure of priests is said to have originated in Egypt (see the writings of Herodotus). In Hinduism, there are hair rituals for youths, and those who become celibates have their heads formally shaven. The association of hair with sexuality has given hair as a symbol remarkable force, and distinctions between male and female hair have emphasized sexual attraction.

Since the hair is believed to be intimately related to the life of an individual, it has magical significance in witchcraft rituals, and people in many civilizations have been at pains to prevent their hair from falling into the hands of an enemy, who might use it for black magic.

There is even a school of character reading from the hair, known as trichsomancy.

Extreme fright or ecstatic states have caused hair to literally "stand on end" in the goose-flesh condition of horripilation.

Sources:

Berg, Charles. The Unconscious Significance of Hair. London: Allen & Unwin, 1951.

Cooper, Wendy. Hair: Sex Society Symbolism. London: Aldus Book, 1971.

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hair

hair / he(ə)r/ • n. 1. any of the fine threadlike strands growing from the skin of humans, mammals, and some other animals. ∎  a similar strand growing from the epidermis of a plant, or forming part of a living cell. ∎  (a hair) a very small quantity or extent: his magic takes him a hair above the competition. 2. such strands collectively, esp. those growing on a person's head: a woman with shoulder-length fair hair | [as adj.] a hair salon. ∎  the styling or dressing of a person's hair: hair and makeup by Terry. PHRASES: hair of the dog inf. an alcoholic drink taken to cure a hangover. a hair's breadth a very small amount or margin: you escaped death by a hair's breadth. in (or out of) someone's hair inf. annoying (or ceasing to annoy) someone: I'm glad he's out of my hair. let one's hair down inf. behave in an uninhibited or relaxed manner: let your hair down and just have some fun. make someone's hair stand on end alarm or horrify someone. not a hair out of place (of a person) extremely neat and tidy in appearance. not turn a hair remain apparently unmoved or unaffected: the old woman didn't turn a hair; she just sat quietly rocking. put hair on one's chest inf. (of an alcoholic drink) be very strong. split hairs make small and overfine distinctions.DERIVATIVES: haired adj. [in comb.] a curly-haired boy. hair·less adj. hair·like adj.

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hair

hair a hair is traditionally used as the type of something of extremely small magnitude, value, or measure, the slightest thing, the least degree. The sword over Damocles's head is suspended by a single hair.

In classical and biblical stories a person's hair may have sacred significance; Berenice's hair was dedicated as an offering for her husband's safe return from war, and Nisus, king of Megara (see Nisus1) was vulnerable to betrayal when his daughter Scylla cut off his lock of purple hair. In the Bible, Samson's strength lay in his hair, and Absalom, admired for his long hair, was able to be killed when it caught in the branches of a tree.
hair of the dog that bit you an alcoholic drink taken to cure a hangover, from the former belief that such a hair was an efficacious remedy against the bite of a mad dog.
hair shirt a shirt of haircloth, formerly worn by penitents and ascetics.
split hairs make small and overfine distinctions.

See also bad hair day, beauty draws with a single hair, straws in one's hair.

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"hair." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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hair

hair Threadlike structure covering the skin of mammals. It has insulating, protective and sensory functions. Hair grows in a follicle, extending down through the epidermis to the dermis. New cells are added to the base of the hair; older hair cells become impregnated with keratin and die. Hair colour depends on the presence of melanin in the hair cells. A small muscle attached to the base of the hair allows it to be erected in response to nerve signals sent to the follicle. Erecting the hairs traps a thicker layer of air close to the skin, which acts as insulation. See also fur

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"hair." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"hair." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hair-0

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hair

hair (hair) n. a threadlike keratinized outgrowth of the epidermis of the skin. The root of the hair, beneath the surface of the skin, is expanded at its base to form the bulb, which contains a matrix of dividing cells. As new cells are formed the older ones are pushed upwards and become keratinized to form the root and shaft. h. follicle a sheath of epidermal cells and connective tissue that surrounds the root of a hair. h. papilla a projection of the dermis that is surrounded by the base of the hair bulb. It contains the capillaries that supply blood to the growing hair.

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"hair." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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hair

hair
1. A multicellular threadlike structure, consisting of many dead keratinized cells, that is produced by the epidermis in mammalian skin. The section of a hair below the skin surface (the root) is contained within a hair follicle, the base of which produces the hair cells. Hair assists in maintaining body temperature by reducing heat loss from the skin. Bristles and whiskers are specialized types of hair.

2. Any of various threadlike structures on plants, such as a trichome.

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"hair." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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hair

hair OE. hǣr, hēr = OS., OHG. hār (Du., G. haar), ON. hár :- Gmc. *χǣram, of unkn. orig. The present sp. and pronunc. are abnormal (for *here or *hear) and are supposed to be due to assim. to †haire hair shirt — (O)F., of Gmc. orig.
Hence hair(s)breadth XVI (earlier hairbrede XV). hairy XIII.

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"hair." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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hair

hairaffair, affaire, air, Altair, Althusser, Anvers, Apollinaire, Astaire, aware, Ayer, Ayr, bare, bear, bêche-de-mer, beware, billionaire, Blair, blare, Bonaire, cafetière, care, chair, chargé d'affaires, chemin de fer, Cher, Clair, Claire, Clare, commissionaire, compare, concessionaire, cordon sanitaire, couvert, Daguerre, dare, debonair, declare, derrière, despair, doctrinaire, éclair, e'er, elsewhere, ensnare, ere, extraordinaire, Eyre, fair, fare, fayre, Finisterre, flair, flare, Folies-Bergère, forbear, forswear, foursquare, glair, glare, hair, hare, heir, Herr, impair, jardinière, Khmer, Kildare, La Bruyère, lair, laissez-faire, legionnaire, luminaire, mal de mer, mare, mayor, meunière, mid-air, millionaire, misère, Mon-Khmer, multimillionaire, ne'er, Niger, nom de guerre, outstare, outwear, pair, pare, parterre, pear, père, pied-à-terre, Pierre, plein-air, prayer, questionnaire, rare, ready-to-wear, rivière, Rosslare, Santander, savoir faire, scare, secretaire, share, snare, solitaire, Soufrière, spare, square, stair, stare, surface-to-air, swear, Tailleferre, tare, tear, their, there, they're, vin ordinaire, Voltaire, ware, wear, Weston-super-Mare, where, yeah

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"hair." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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