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Candide

Candide. Comic operetta in 2 acts by Leonard Bernstein, based on Voltaire's novel (1759) with lib. (book) originally by Lillian Hellman and lyrics by Richard Wilbur, with some later additions by John La Touche, Dorothy Parker, and Bernstein. F.p. Boston, Oct. 1956. Thereafter work underwent many revisions (none involving Bernstein) being reduced to 1-act version in 1973. Book for 1973 version by Hugh Wheeler had new lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and 13-piece orchestration by Hershy Kay. Restored to 2 acts 1982 with mus. edited by John Mauceri. Further rev., 1987, by Mauceri in assoc. with composer, and final rev. by Bernstein and Mauceri for London concert perfs. Dec. 1989, cond. (for first time) by Bernstein and for definitive recording.

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"Candide." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Candide." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 16, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/candide

"Candide." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Retrieved August 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/candide

Candide

Candide the naive hero of Voltaire's novel Candide (1759) who through the misfortunes he encounters rejects the unfounded optimism of his tutor Dr Pangloss in favour of the practical philosophy inherent in the phrase ‘we must cultivate our garden.’

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"Candide." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Candide." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 16, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/candide

"Candide." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved August 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/candide